Uniqueness and permanence of friction ridge

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Uniqueness and permanence of friction ridge

  1. 1. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  2. 2.  inheritance and population differences (eugenics, the selection of best breeding stock to develop superior strains of humans) by Francis Galton (1892)  clinical medicine by Harold Cummins (1936).  value of friction ridge prints in the field of criminal identification by Henry Faulds (1880) http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  3. 3.  “ifthe expert does not have a basis for understanding the permanence and uniqueness of a feature . . . then the expert cannot give any consideration to that feature in making an identification.”- Pat Wertheim, 2000. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  4. 4.  “Noexpert should ever give weight to any feature he or she does not understand or is not able to defend in court.”- Pat Wertheim, 2000. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  5. 5.  “By the late 1930s, fingerprint examiners were already routinely identifying latent prints without knowing anything about the morphology of their formation” – Simon Cole,1999. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  6. 6. • The largest organ of the human body.  It is approximately 15 to 20% of our body weight and occupying almost 2 sq. m. (18 sq. ft.) of surface area.  The skin that covers most our body is relatively smooth, except palmar side of the hands, and in the plantar side of the feet.  Such skin is called as volar skin or friction ridge skin.  It is only 0.8 sq.m. and it’s the thickest http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  7. 7. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  8. 8. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  9. 9. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  10. 10. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  11. 11. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  12. 12. The Basic Premises • Principle of Permanence - subsurface structure of friction skin • Principle of Uniqueness - prenatal development of friction ridges http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  13. 13. The Principle of Permanence • the adherence of the epidermal cells to each other • the basal cell layer of the epidermis, and its attachment to the basement membrane, and • the attachment of the basement membrane to the dermis. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  14. 14.  Epidermis  Dermis http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  15. 15. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  16. 16. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  17. 17. Pores Dermal Papillae Epidermis Primary Ridge Dermis Secondary Ridge http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  18. 18. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  19. 19. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  20. 20. The outermost layer. Flat, arranged in rows as dead cells. DesmosomesCorneum , or Horny Layer Stratum undergo degradation. Consists of flat and translucent dead cells that contain protein called eleidin. Lucidum, on palms and soles. Stratum Appears only or Hyalin Layer Initiates the process of keratinization associated with the dying Stratum Granulosum, or Granular Layer process of cells. The last of the living cells. Called the “pickle cells” because of the many-sided cells that have “spines” Spinosum, theirSpinous Layer Stratum protruding from or surface. Produces cells to replaced those being shed in the exposed superficial layer. The deepest Generating Layer Stratum Basale, or layer; parallel to the basement membrane. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  21. 21.  These cells move on toward the surface,  Filled with keratin, become flatter and dryer.  The cells in the mid-layers are called cuboidal cells.  And when they get to the surface, they start to be cornified, that means that they release keratin, become dry and are flat. Then they die and shed off from the surface.  The entire progression of keratinocytes in the basal layer until it reached to the horny layer, the cells (keratinocytes) are always bound by desmosomes. After keratinizations occur, cells will slough off like scales in the atmosphere.  This process is called desquamation. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  22. 22. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  23. 23. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  24. 24. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  25. 25. The Basement Membrane • Basement membrane separates the epidermis and dermis • It serves as a filter of all the nutrients, oxygen, waste and chemical signals to and fro the epidermis. • The basal layer cells is strongly attached to the BMZ through a hemidosmosome and small fibers. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  26. 26. Basement Membrane
  27. 27. The Dermis •Closely attached to the BMZ through extensive network of fibers. •Divide into papillary and reticular layers. •Papillary layer surface area is increased by the dermal papillae. •Dermal papillae strengthen the epidemis- dermis junction. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  28. 28. The Principle of Uniqueness • Before primary ridges emerge - “units” of multiplying cells randomly growing - units fuse together and form as linear ridges, creating visible ridge structure at the bottom of epidermis http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  29. 29. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  30. 30. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  31. 31. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  32. 32. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  33. 33. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  34. 34. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  35. 35. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  36. 36. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  37. 37. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  38. 38. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  39. 39. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  40. 40. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  41. 41. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  42. 42. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  43. 43. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  44. 44. The onset of the first visible ridge structure at the epidermal-dermal junction http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  45. 45. The Principle of Uniqueness • Development of a ridge - 10.5 weeks EGA, ledge-like formations form on the bottom of epidermis - 14 weeks, primary ridges increase its dimension and penetrate dermis - 15 weeks, sweat glands begin to appear - 16 weeks, secondary ridge emerge between primary ridges. Sweat glands penetrate downward, primary ridges push cells upward - 17 to 24 weeks, minutiae permanently set. Secondary ridges are almost the size and depth of primary ridges. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  46. 46. BEFORE the “critical stage of friction skin formation’ http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  47. 47. DURING: 10-11 weeks EGA; Primary ridge protruding into the dermis http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  48. 48. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  49. 49. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  50. 50. New primary ridges are thought to form http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  51. 51. AFTER: Secondary ridges continue to mature, surface ridges continue to form http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  52. 52. AFTER: Secondary ridges continue to mature, surface ridges continue to form http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  53. 53. AFTER: 17 to 24 weeks, minutiae permanently set. Secondary ridges are almost the size and depth of primary ridges. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  54. 54. The Principle of Uniqueness • Three (3) levels of Uniqueness of mature friction skin - Level 1 is the overall pattern configuration, the general ridge flow tendencies and the general morphology (size and presence of incipient ridges) exhibited by the friction ridge impression. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  55. 55. Uniqueness of Level One Details • Growth and regression of the volar pads affect the alignment of ridges • Genetics is not alone in controlling the shape of the volar pads, also tensions from the environment of the fetus, bone morphology, and others, ex. Identical twins, clones. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  56. 56. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  57. 57. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  58. 58. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  59. 59. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  60. 60. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  61. 61. Volar pads http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  62. 62. Stages of volar pad formation http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  63. 63. Stages of volar pad formation http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  64. 64. Stages of volar pad formation http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  65. 65. Stages of volar pad formation http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  66. 66. Volar pad is high and symmetrical http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  67. 67. Stages of volar pad formation http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  68. 68. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  69. 69. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  70. 70. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  71. 71. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  72. 72. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  73. 73. Complete regression http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  74. 74. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  75. 75. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  76. 76. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  77. 77. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  78. 78. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  79. 79. Three (3) areas that primary ridges begin to form: apex of the volar pad, tip of the finger, and interphalangeal flexion crease area http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  80. 80. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  81. 81. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  82. 82. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  83. 83. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  84. 84. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  85. 85. The meeting of three (3) ridge fields http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  86. 86. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  87. 87. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  88. 88. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  89. 89. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  90. 90. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  91. 91. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  92. 92. Large count pattern formation: ridges form in the center first and proceed outward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  93. 93. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  94. 94. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  95. 95. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  96. 96. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  97. 97. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  98. 98. Small count pattern formation: ridges form on the outer perimeter of the pattern area and proceed inward http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  99. 99. LARGE RIDGE COUNT WHORL PATTERN: Ridge proliferation was early; volar pad is high http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  100. 100. LESSER RIDGE COUNT WHORL PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  101. 101. LESSER RIDGE COUNT WHORL PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  102. 102. LESSER RIDGE COUNT WHORL PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  103. 103. ARCH PATTERN: Volar pad totally regressed during the onset of primary ridge http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  104. 104. LARGE RIDGE COUNT LOOP PATTERN: Ridge proliferation was early; volar pad is high http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  105. 105. LESSER RIDGE COUNT LOOP PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  106. 106. LESSER RIDGE COUNT LOOP PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  107. 107. LESSER RIDGE COUNT LOOP PATTERN: Volar pad regressing http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  108. 108. ARCH PATTERN: Volar pad totally regressed during the onset of primary ridge http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  109. 109. The Principle of Uniqueness • Three (3) levels of Uniqueness of mature friction skin - Level 2 refers to the type and position of minutiae, points, or ridge characteristics, including their morphology (size and shape) which are a unique formation. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  110. 110. Uniqueness of Level Two Details • As the volar surface is growing, existing ridges are separated new ridges emerge • During the critical stage, volar surface is continually ridged • Bifurcation results of new ridges pulling away from existing ridges to fill the unridged surface • Short ridge results of developing ridge sandwiched between established ridges • Governed by interdependent stresses, tensions, interactions with surrounding ridges http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  111. 111. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  112. 112. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  113. 113. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  114. 114. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  115. 115. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  116. 116. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  117. 117. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  118. 118. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  119. 119. Mechanical Fusion Theory: As existing ridges separate, a demand for new ridges is created because the surface has a tendency to be continually ridged http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  120. 120. 16 weeks EGA, secondary ridges form, minutia becomes set http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  121. 121. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  122. 122. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  123. 123. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  124. 124. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  125. 125. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  126. 126. Ridges increase in size and become mature http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  127. 127. The Principle of Uniqueness • Three (3) levels of Uniqueness of mature friction skin - Level 3 includes all dimensional attributes of a ridge, such as ridge path deviation, width, shape, pores, edge contour, incipient ridges, breaks, creases, scars and other permanent details. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  128. 128. Uniqueness of Level 3 Details • Ridge units have been subject to genetic and physical pressures while growing • Ridge units are growing at random and independently (differential growth) • As it mature, it fuses with each other to form a complete friction ridge • Unique ridge unit + Unique ridge unit Unique friction ridge http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  129. 129. Uniqueness of Level 3 Details • Along the surface of the ridge are minute openings called as Pores • Pores function as to • Regulate body heat • Remove waste from the body • Increase friction by depositing moisture onto the surface of the ridges • Pores contribute to individuality http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  130. 130. • Double Loop • Accidental Whorl • Caused by • irregular volar pad growth or regression • Growth of bone in distal phalanx • Pressure on digit while growing • Dysplasia of Down’s syndrome patient
  131. 131. Dissociated ridges/ Dysplasia
  132. 132. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  133. 133. http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  134. 134.  Cellular attachments ensure permanence  Variable stresses and cellular distributions account for individuality on all “three levels” of detail The End http://frictionridge.weebly.com
  135. 135.  Kasey Wertheim and Alice Maceo, ”The Critical Stage of Friction Ridge and Pattern Formation,” Journal of Forensic Identification, 52 (1), 2002
  136. 136. No less than the Holy Quran is reminding us of Allah’s (the Creator of mankind) power to provide us unique identifier of our self. Surah 75:4 says, “Yes, We are Able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.” http://frictionridge.weebly.com

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