Ex2

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  • L- condensation of interphase chromatin; presence of chromomeres Z- shortening, thickening; presence of latral eleents at end of Z P- continued shortening; synapsis D-physcal manifestation of chiasma Diakinesis- terminalization of chiasma Nucleolus and nuclear envelope break down 2 centromeres of each tetrad attach to spindle fibers
  • Diploid- each chromosome exists in pairs Centriole absent in plants; located in the mitotic center/ centrosome Spindle fibers- movt of chroms ; microtubules composed of tubulin kinetochore- allow attachment of chroms to spindle fibers Mei 1 reductional division- # of centromere per cell is reduced to half Mei 2 equational- #of cenromeres remains equal
  • *Meaning it takes one cell and makes it into multiple cells. The number of resulting cells depends on which process is being carried out. Ano ang organism replication?!
  • Ex2

    1. 1. Mitosis and Meiosis in Plant Cell
    2. 2. CELL CYCLE
    3. 3. INTERPHASE <ul><li>Gap 1 (G1) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis (S) </li></ul><ul><li>Gap 2 (G2) </li></ul>
    4. 4. MITOSIS <ul><li>Shortest part of cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>All somatic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter cells have the same number and kind of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the number of cells (growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Repair of damaged cells and cells that die from accidents (normal wear and tear) </li></ul>
    5. 5. MITOSIS Prophase <ul><li>Chromatin to chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes: 2 chromatids joined by centromere </li></ul><ul><li>Disintegration of nuclear envelope and nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of spindle fibers (visible) </li></ul>
    6. 6. MITOSIS Metaphase Chromosomes aligned at equatorial plate (Metaphase plate)
    7. 7. MITOSIS Anaphase <ul><li>Paired centromere of each chromosome separate </li></ul><ul><li>Movement to opposite poles </li></ul>
    8. 8. MITOSIS Telophase <ul><li>Spindle fibers disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Cell plate is visible </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of nuclear envelope and nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal of chromosome mass </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis </li></ul>MITOSIS Telophase
    9. 9. MITOSIS Telophase Cytokinesis – vesicles from golgi apparatus move along microtubules to the cell where they coalesce forming cell plate.
    10. 10. MEIOSIS
    11. 11. MEIOSIS I
    12. 12. Extra pictures Interphase metaphase 1
    13. 13. <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>condensation of chromatin; </li></ul><ul><li>members of each homologous pair synapse; </li></ul><ul><li>crossing over between synapsed pairs occurs; </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus and nuclear envelope break down ; </li></ul><ul><li>two centromeres of each tetrad attach to spindle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous chromosomes- chromosomes that exist in pairs; pair shares the same same genetic loci and centromere placement; pair also has identical gene sites (locus) along their lengths </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes have maximally shortened </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous pairs align at metaphase plate </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>single centromere holds each pair of sister chromatids together; </li></ul><ul><li>each dyad is pulled toward each pole; </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul><ul><li>sister chromatids arrive at the opposite poles; </li></ul><ul><li>each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes; </li></ul>
    17. 17. MEIOSIS II
    18. 18. <ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeds interkinesis </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes condense once more (dyad) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus and nuclear envelope disintegrates </li></ul>
    19. 19. Metaphase II Chromosomes align at metaphase plate
    20. 20. <ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>separated sister chromatids move toward the poles; </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul><ul><li>separated sister chromatids (chromosomes) arrive at the poles; </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes uncoil; </li></ul><ul><li>nuclei form around chromosomes; </li></ul><ul><li>after cytokinesis, four haploid gamets are formed </li></ul>
    22. 22. Summary
    23. 23. Similarities <ul><li>Both Mitosis and Meiosis are forms of cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mitosis and Meiosis allow for replication. Mitosis leads to cellular replication. Meiosis leads to organism replication. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mitosis and Meiosis occur within the nucleus of the cell and go through the same steps known as Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. </li></ul>
    24. 24. DIFFERENCES Criteria Mitosis Meiosis Type of cells Occurs in somatic cells Occurs in reproductive cells Number of division Consists of only one nuclear division Consists of two nuclear division M-I and M-II Product/ Chromosome number 2 diploid daughter cells 4 haploid daughter cells Cytokinesis Occurs only once – Telophase Occurs twice -Telophase I and II Pairing of homologues Yes No Crossing over Does not occur Mixing of chromosomes during prophase I Function Helps in growth and body repairs Helps in the sexual reproduction and regulation of chromosome number in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organism.
    25. 25.   Prophase   Involves relatively few changes.   Involves a series of changes in chromosomes distinguished into 5 substages.   Metaphase   Chromosomes arrange along the equator.   Chromosomes arrange equally on either side of the equator in metaphase-I.   Centromeres in Anaphase   Each centromere splits into two.   Centromeres do not split in metaphase-l.   Centrome- res in Metaphase   Orient towards the equator while chromatids orient towards poles.   Orient towards poles while chromatids orient towards the equator in metaphase-I.   Telophase   Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei having the same no. of chromosomes as that of parent cell.   Telophase-II results in the formation of two daughter nuclei, each having half the no. of chromosomes as that of parent cell.   Cytokine- sis   Follows immediately after karyokinesis.   May or may not occur at the end of first karyokinesis.

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