The Purpose of Leadership

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An explanation of three responsibilities for development managers and team leaders.

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http://www.jurgenappelo.com

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The Purpose of Leadership

  1. The Purpose of Leadership Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl version 3 (and Governance)
  2. Jurgen Appelo writer, speaker, entrepreneur... www.jurgenappelo.com
  3. Goal What are the responsibilities of a team leader with self-organizing teams?
  4. First... some background
  5. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  6. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  7. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  8. “Self-DeterminationTheory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. . Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004 Competence The need to feel capable Autonomy The need to choose one’s own actions Relatedness The need to be socially involved
  9. “Self-DeterminationTheory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004
  10. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable
  11. “Drive” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Riverhead, 2009
  12. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable
  13. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable
  14. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  15. The Game of Life (John Conway) http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/
  16. The Game of Life 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death simple rules, great results
  17. 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results? But does that mean...
  18. 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results? No.
  19. The actual rules => complicated code The Game of Life
  20. The constraints => a grid, 1 player The Game of Life
  21. Another example
  22. Settlers of Catan It took minutes to define the constraints It took years to create and tune the rules (KlausTeuber) http://www.wired.com/gaming/gamingreviews/magazine/17-04/mf_settlers
  23. complex non-adaptive system we adapt the rules
  24. complex adaptive system the system adapts itselfwe adapt the rules complex non-adaptive system
  25. A manager / team leader is not a game designer Don’t create rules
  26. Define constraints (playing field, players) Let the system create its own rules
  27. “Self-organization requires that the system is surrounded by a containing boundary.This condition defines the "self" that will be developed during the self-organizing process.” http://amauta-international.com/iaf99/Thread1/conway.html
  28. Tell1. : make decision as the manager Sell2. : convince people about decision Consult3. : get input from team before decision Agree4. : make decision together with team Advise5. : influence decision made by the team Inquire6. : ask feedback after decision by team Delegate7. : no influence, let team work it out The Seven Levels of Authority
  29. Example: my former business unit Select product features sell Select team members consult Evaluate performance join Set layout of team work area delegate
  30. Example: my party Date, time, and theme tell No smoking tell Food and drinks join Music selection confirm
  31. 1st responsibility of a team leader Develop the self-organizing system with constraints, not rules
  32. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  33. Protect people against bad team formation Protect people
  34. Protect good teams against non-team players Protect people
  35. Protect shared resources Energy ?
  36. Protect shared resources BudgetsEnergy
  37. Protect shared resources BudgetsEnergy Environment ?
  38. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space Energy Environment
  39. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space Energy Environment Food ?
  40. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space System admins Energy Environment Food
  41. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  42. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  43. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with the Tragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation Identity increase social belonging across teams http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  44. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation Identity increase social belonging across teams Incentives address the need to improve oneself http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  45. 2nd responsibility of a team leader Protect the self-organizing system by caring for people and shared resources
  46. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  47. “We humans are obsessed with purpose. […]The question of purpose, which doesn’t necessarily have to have an answer, is one that leaps to the front of the human mind, whether it is appropriate or not.” - Richard Dawkins http://richarddawkins.net/articles/3956
  48. What is the purpose of my car? Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy driver (also called teleology) This purpose is assigned by the “caretaker”
  49. What is the purpose of a blob fish? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce (also called teleonomy) This purpose is actually just a “trend”
  50. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
  51. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father
  52. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father Emergent purpose => wear pink clothes say “no” to everything
  53. What is the purpose of a team? ?
  54. What is the purpose of a team? Deliver business value?
  55. What is the purpose of a team? Have a great job?
  56. What is the purpose of a team? Earn a good living?
  57. What is the purpose of a team? Do as little as possible?
  58. What is the purpose of a team? Work for shareholder value?
  59. What is the purpose of a team? Deliver on time, within budget?
  60. What is the purpose of a team? Sustain the economy and environment?
  61. 3 kinds of purpose for a team
  62. Intrinsic purpose of a team Produce software a “trend” among teams
  63. Extrinsic purpose of a team Make money (example) assigned by caretaker
  64. Emergent purpose of a team Be a winning team (example) chosen by the team
  65. 3rd responsibility of a team leader Direct the self-organizing system by caring for the whole
  66. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  67. We all care about our purpose Therefore we set goals
  68. Let’s ignore the (subtle) differences for now… goal vision mission objective intent target aim
  69. Keep it simple Commander’s intent A goal in just a few lines of text
  70. Goal checklist specific and understandable simple and concise manageable and measurable memorable and reproducible attainable and realistic ambitious and stimulating actionable and assignable agreed-upon and committable relevant and useful time-bound and time-specific tangible and real excitable and igniting inspiring and visionary value-based and fundamental revisitable and assessable OK, maybe that’s a bit too much guidance…
  71. Bad example 1 We are committed to providing outstanding customer experience, to being a great place to work, a thoughtful steward of the environment and a caring citizen in the communities where we live and work.We are passionate about sustainably connecting people and places and improving the quality of life around the world.
  72. Bad example 2 As a company, and as individuals, we value integrity, honesty, openness, personal excellence, constructive self- criticism, continual self-improvement, and mutual respect. We are committed to our customers and partners and have a passion for technology. We take on big and pride ourselves on seeing them through. We hold ourselves accountable to our customers, shareholders, partners, and employees by honoring our commitments, providing results, and striving for the highest quality.
  73. Good example 1 Our mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.
  74. Good example 2 We help people save money so they can live better.
  75. Do not allow individual stakeholder goals to replace extrinsic and emergent goals
  76. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
  77. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
  78. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses
  79. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses Overload people with too many objectives
  80. “Management by Objectives” Everything starts with the purpose of a business. Peter F. Drucker
  81. “ELIMINATE Management by Objectives” Eliminate numerical goals, quotas and bonuses. W. Edwards Deming
  82. “ELIMINATE Management by Objectives” Eliminate numerical goals, quotas and bonuses. W. Edwards Deming ? “Management by Objectives” Everything starts with the purpose of a business. Peter F. Drucker
  83. Purpose is important but should not be pushed with incentives Thus... http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594488843?ie=UTF8&tag=noopnl- 20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1594488843
  84. Remember to communicate your goals
  85. Agile Goals 1. Serve a higher purpose, not the leader’s own agenda 2. Context-dependent criteria, not only SMART 3. Not connected to incentives, no extrinsic motivation 4. Communicated and updated frequently
  86. Compromise on extrinsic and emergent goals
  87. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  88. develop the team set constraints, not rules
  89. protect people, and shared resources
  90. direct the team with extrinsic goals
  91. 3 responsibilities for a team leader
  92. Emergent purpose of a team
  93. the end
  94. Q & A
  95. m30.me/happiness
  96. @jurgenappelo slideshare.net/jurgenappelo noop.nl linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo jurgen@noop.nl
  97. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/ This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.

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