The Purpose of Leadership
Jurgen Appelo
jurgen@noop.nl
version 3
(and Governance)
Jurgen Appelo
writer, speaker,
entrepreneur...
www.jurgenappelo.com
Get my new book for FREE! m30.me/ss
Goal
What are the responsibilities of a team leader
with self-organizing teams?
First...
some background
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Physical Activity Or exercise
Curiosity The need to think
Power The ne...
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Physical Activity Or exercise
Curiosity The need to think
Power The ne...
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Honor...
“Self-DeterminationTheory”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of wi...
“Self-DeterminationTheory”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of wi...
10 Intrinsic Desires
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Hon...
“Drive”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Honor Being loya...
10 Intrinsic Desires
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Hon...
10 Intrinsic Desires
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Hon...
Agenda
Life
Protection
Purpose
Goals
Conclusion
The Game of Life
(JohnConway)
http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/
The Game of Life
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
simple rule...
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
management = simple rules, g...
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
management = simple rules, g...
The actual rules => complicated code
The Game of Life
The constraints => a grid, 1 player
The Game of Life
Another
example
Settlers of Catan
It took minutes to define the constraints
It took years to create and tune the rules
(KlausTeuber)
http:...
complex
non-adaptive
system
we adapt the rules
complex
adaptive
system
the system adapts itselfwe adapt the rules
complex
non-adaptive
system
A manager / team leader
is not a game designer
Don’t create rules
Define constraints (playing field, players)
Let the system create its own rules
“Self-organization requires that the system is
surrounded by a containing boundary.This condition
defines the "self" that ...
1. Tell: make decision as the manager
2. Sell: convince people about decision
3. Consult: get input from team before decis...
Example: my former business unit
Select product features sell
Select team members consult
Evaluate performance join
Set la...
Example: my party
Date, time, and theme tell
No smoking tell
Food and drinks join
Music selection confirm
1st responsibility of a team leader
Develop the self-organizing system
with constraints, not rules
Agenda
Life
Protection
Purpose
Goals
Conclusion
Protect people
against bad team formation
Protect people
Protect good teams
against non-team players
Protect people
Protect shared resources
Energy
?
Protect shared resources
BudgetsEnergy
Protect shared resources
BudgetsEnergy
Environment
?
Protect shared resources
Budgets
Office space
Energy
Environment
Protect shared resources
Budgets
Office space
Energy
Environment
Food
?
Protect shared resources
Budgets
Office space
System admins
Energy
Environment
Food
The 4 I’s
Institutions create trust to accept common rules
Coping with theTragedy of the Commons
http://www.newscientist.c...
The 4 I’s
Institutions create trust to accept common rules
Coping with theTragedy of the Commons
Information increase unde...
The 4 I’s
Institutions create trust to accept common rules
Coping with theTragedy of the Commons
Information increase unde...
The 4 I’s
Institutions create trust to accept common rules
Coping with theTragedy of the Commons
Information increase unde...
2nd responsibility of a team leader
Protect the self-organizing system
by caring for people
and shared resources
Agenda
Life
Protection
Purpose
Goals
Conclusion
“We humans are obsessed with purpose. […]The
question of purpose, which doesn’t necessarily have
to have an answer, is one...
What is the purpose of my car?
Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy driver
(also called teleology)
This purpose is assigne...
What is the purpose of a blob fish?
Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
(also called teleonomy)
This purpose is act...
What is the purpose of my kids?
Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
What is the purpose of my kids?
Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father
What is the purpose of my kids?
Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father
Eme...
What is the purpose of a team?
?
What is the purpose of a team?
Deliver business value?
What is the purpose of a team?
Have a great job?
What is the purpose of a team?
Earn a good living?
What is the purpose of a team?
Do as little as possible?
What is the purpose of a team?
Work for shareholder value?
What is the purpose of a team?
Deliver on time, within budget?
What is the purpose of a team?
Sustain the economy and environment?
3 kinds of purpose for a team
Intrinsic purpose of a team
Produce software
a “trend” among teams
Extrinsic purpose of a team
Make money (example)
assigned by caretaker
Emergent purpose of a team
Be a winning team (example)
chosen by the team
3rd responsibility of a team leader
Direct the self-organizing system
by caring for the whole
Agenda
Life
Protection
Purpose
Goals
Conclusion
We all care about our purpose
Therefore we set goals
Let’s ignore the (subtle) differences for now…
goal
vision
mission
objective
intent
target
aim
Keep it simple
Commander’s intent
A goal in just a few
lines of text
Goal checklist
specific and understandable
simple and concise
manageable and measurable
memorable and reproducible
attaina...
Bad example 1
We are committed to providing
outstanding customer
experience, to being a great
place to work, a thoughtful
...
Bad example 2
As a company, and as individuals, we
value integrity, honesty, openness,
personal excellence, constructive s...
Good example 1
Our mission is to organize the world’s
information and make it universally
accessible and useful.
Good example 2
We help people save money so they
can live better.
Do not allow individual stakeholder goals to
replace extrinsic and emergent goals
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Con...
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Con...
“Management by Objectives”
Everything starts with the purpose of a business.
Peter F. Drucker
“ELIMINATE Management by Objectives”
Eliminate numerical goals, quotas and bonuses.
W. Edwards Deming
“ELIMINATE Management by Objectives”
Eliminate numerical goals, quotas
and bonuses.
W. Edwards Deming
?
“Management by Obj...
Purpose is important
but should not be pushed with incentives
Thus...
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594488843?ie=UTF8&...
Remember to communicate your goals
Agile Goals
1. Serve a higher purpose, not the leader’s own
agenda
2. Context-dependent criteria, not only SMART
3. Not co...
Compromise on extrinsic and emergent goals
Agenda
Life
Protection
Purpose
Goals
Conclusion
develop the team
set constraints,
not rules
protect people,
and shared resources
direct the team
with extrinsic goals
3 responsibilities for a team leader
Emergent purpose of a team
the end
Q & A
@jurgenappelo
slideshare.net/jurgenappelo
noop.nl
linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo
jurgen@noop.nl
www.management30.com
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and
I cannot po...
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
The Purpose of Leadership
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The Purpose of Leadership

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An explanation of three responsibilities for development managers and team leaders.

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http://www.jurgenappelo.com

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  1. 1. The Purpose of Leadership Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl version 3 (and Governance)
  2. 2. Jurgen Appelo writer, speaker, entrepreneur... www.jurgenappelo.com
  3. 3. Get my new book for FREE! m30.me/ss
  4. 4. Goal What are the responsibilities of a team leader with self-organizing teams?
  5. 5. First... some background
  6. 6. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  7. 7. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  8. 8. “16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  9. 9. “Self-DeterminationTheory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. . Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004 Competence The need to feel capable Autonomy The need to choose one’s own actions Relatedness The need to be socially involved
  10. 10. “Self-DeterminationTheory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004
  11. 11. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable
  12. 12. “Drive” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Riverhead, 2009
  13. 13. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable
  14. 14. 10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence / Mastery The need to feel capable
  15. 15. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  16. 16. The Game of Life (JohnConway) http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/
  17. 17. The Game of Life 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death simple rules, great results
  18. 18. 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results? But does that mean...
  19. 19. 1. 3 neighbors = new life 2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results? No.
  20. 20. The actual rules => complicated code The Game of Life
  21. 21. The constraints => a grid, 1 player The Game of Life
  22. 22. Another example
  23. 23. Settlers of Catan It took minutes to define the constraints It took years to create and tune the rules (KlausTeuber) http://www.wired.com/gaming/gamingreviews/magazine/17-04/mf_settlers
  24. 24. complex non-adaptive system we adapt the rules
  25. 25. complex adaptive system the system adapts itselfwe adapt the rules complex non-adaptive system
  26. 26. A manager / team leader is not a game designer Don’t create rules
  27. 27. Define constraints (playing field, players) Let the system create its own rules
  28. 28. “Self-organization requires that the system is surrounded by a containing boundary.This condition defines the "self" that will be developed during the self-organizing process.” http://amauta-international.com/iaf99/Thread1/conway.html
  29. 29. 1. Tell: make decision as the manager 2. Sell: convince people about decision 3. Consult: get input from team before decision 4. Agree: make decision together with team 5. Advise: influence decision made by the team 6. Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team 7. Delegate: no influence, let team work it out The Seven Levels of Authority
  30. 30. Example: my former business unit Select product features sell Select team members consult Evaluate performance join Set layout of team work area delegate
  31. 31. Example: my party Date, time, and theme tell No smoking tell Food and drinks join Music selection confirm
  32. 32. 1st responsibility of a team leader Develop the self-organizing system with constraints, not rules
  33. 33. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  34. 34. Protect people against bad team formation Protect people
  35. 35. Protect good teams against non-team players Protect people
  36. 36. Protect shared resources Energy ?
  37. 37. Protect shared resources BudgetsEnergy
  38. 38. Protect shared resources BudgetsEnergy Environment ?
  39. 39. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space Energy Environment
  40. 40. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space Energy Environment Food ?
  41. 41. Protect shared resources Budgets Office space System admins Energy Environment Food
  42. 42. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  43. 43. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  44. 44. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation Identity increase social belonging across teams http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  45. 45. The 4 I’s Institutions create trust to accept common rules Coping with theTragedy of the Commons Information increase understanding of situation Identity increase social belonging across teams Incentives address the need to improve oneself http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  46. 46. 2nd responsibility of a team leader Protect the self-organizing system by caring for people and shared resources
  47. 47. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  48. 48. “We humans are obsessed with purpose. […]The question of purpose, which doesn’t necessarily have to have an answer, is one that leaps to the front of the human mind, whether it is appropriate or not.” - Richard Dawkins http://richarddawkins.net/articles/3956
  49. 49. What is the purpose of my car? Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy driver (also called teleology) This purpose is assigned by the “caretaker”
  50. 50. What is the purpose of a blob fish? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce (also called teleonomy) This purpose is actually just a “trend”
  51. 51. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce
  52. 52. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father
  53. 53. What is the purpose of my kids? Intrinsic purpose => survive and reproduce Extrinsic purpose => make me a happy father Emergent purpose => wear pink clothes say “no” to everything
  54. 54. What is the purpose of a team? ?
  55. 55. What is the purpose of a team? Deliver business value?
  56. 56. What is the purpose of a team? Have a great job?
  57. 57. What is the purpose of a team? Earn a good living?
  58. 58. What is the purpose of a team? Do as little as possible?
  59. 59. What is the purpose of a team? Work for shareholder value?
  60. 60. What is the purpose of a team? Deliver on time, within budget?
  61. 61. What is the purpose of a team? Sustain the economy and environment?
  62. 62. 3 kinds of purpose for a team
  63. 63. Intrinsic purpose of a team Produce software a “trend” among teams
  64. 64. Extrinsic purpose of a team Make money (example) assigned by caretaker
  65. 65. Emergent purpose of a team Be a winning team (example) chosen by the team
  66. 66. 3rd responsibility of a team leader Direct the self-organizing system by caring for the whole
  67. 67. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  68. 68. We all care about our purpose Therefore we set goals
  69. 69. Let’s ignore the (subtle) differences for now… goal vision mission objective intent target aim
  70. 70. Keep it simple Commander’s intent A goal in just a few lines of text
  71. 71. Goal checklist specific and understandable simple and concise manageable and measurable memorable and reproducible attainable and realistic ambitious and stimulating actionable and assignable agreed-upon and committable relevant and useful time-bound and time-specific tangible and real excitable and igniting inspiring and visionary value-based and fundamental revisitable and assessable OK, maybe that’s a bit too much guidance…
  72. 72. Bad example 1 We are committed to providing outstanding customer experience, to being a great place to work, a thoughtful steward of the environment and a caring citizen in the communities where we live and work.We are passionate about sustainably connecting people and places and improving the quality of life around the world.
  73. 73. Bad example 2 As a company, and as individuals, we value integrity, honesty, openness, personal excellence, constructive self- criticism, continual self-improvement, and mutual respect.We are committed to our customers and partners and have a passion for technology.We take on big challenges, and pride ourselves on seeing them through.We hold ourselves accountable to our customers, shareholders, partners, and employees by honoring our commitments, providing results, and striving for the highest quality.
  74. 74. Good example 1 Our mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.
  75. 75. Good example 2 We help people save money so they can live better.
  76. 76. Do not allow individual stakeholder goals to replace extrinsic and emergent goals
  77. 77. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
  78. 78. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
  79. 79. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses
  80. 80. Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses Overload people with too many objectives
  81. 81. “Management by Objectives” Everything starts with the purpose of a business. Peter F. Drucker
  82. 82. “ELIMINATE Management by Objectives” Eliminate numerical goals, quotas and bonuses. W. Edwards Deming
  83. 83. “ELIMINATE Management by Objectives” Eliminate numerical goals, quotas and bonuses. W. Edwards Deming ? “Management by Objectives” Everything starts with the purpose of a business. Peter F. Drucker
  84. 84. Purpose is important but should not be pushed with incentives Thus... http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594488843?ie=UTF8&tag=noopnl- 20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1594488843
  85. 85. Remember to communicate your goals
  86. 86. Agile Goals 1. Serve a higher purpose, not the leader’s own agenda 2. Context-dependent criteria, not only SMART 3. Not connected to incentives, no extrinsic motivation 4. Communicated and updated frequently
  87. 87. Compromise on extrinsic and emergent goals
  88. 88. Agenda Life Protection Purpose Goals Conclusion
  89. 89. develop the team set constraints, not rules
  90. 90. protect people, and shared resources
  91. 91. direct the team with extrinsic goals
  92. 92. 3 responsibilities for a team leader
  93. 93. Emergent purpose of a team
  94. 94. the end
  95. 95. Q & A
  96. 96. @jurgenappelo slideshare.net/jurgenappelo noop.nl linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo jurgen@noop.nl
  97. 97. www.management30.com
  98. 98. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/ This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.
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