The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)

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This is an alternative version of "On the Road to Competence", with some stuff added about organizational structure.

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The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)

  1. 1. The Big-AssView on Competence Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl version 3 (and Communication)
  2. 2. Jurgen Appelo writer, speaker, entrepreneur... www.jurgenappelo.com
  3. 3. Goal 1: How can we grow a competent organization?
  4. 4. Goal 2: Can we manipulate communication to grow competence?
  5. 5. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  6. 6. Safest traffic in the world Marshall Islands1. San Marino2. Malta3. Iceland4. Netherlands5. Sweden6. United Kingdom7. Switzerland8. Japan9. Singapore10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobjagendorf/4122137519/
  7. 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/
  8. 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/
  9. 9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/
  10. 10. We can learn how to manage software teams by studying management of similar systems (like traffic management)
  11. 11. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  12. 12. A collection of competing stimulus-response rules that respond to input, and generate output http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_classifier_system Learning classifier system
  13. 13. It has a performance system with credit assignment where rules with good results are triggered more often Learning classifier system
  14. 14. It achieves adaptability through rule discovery: generation and recombination of building blocks Learning classifier system
  15. 15. Learning classifier system And thus we learn that… Diversity of practices in a software team enhances adaptability
  16. 16. Subsidiarity principle “The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidiarity
  17. 17. Subsidiarity principle And thus… Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem (team members decide unless there is some lack of competence)
  18. 18. Precautionary principle Assuming that things are risky, in the absence of evidence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle http://kwebble.com/blog/tag/haarlem
  19. 19. Precautionary principle And thus… Decide who has the burden of proof for competency (assume team members are competent, unless proven they’re not)
  20. 20. http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/
  21. 21. Shared space Increased risk perception People are less mindful when they see no risks Reduced false security / risk compensation People show riskier behavior when they think they are safe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space
  22. 22. Shared space And thus… Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security
  23. 23. Memetics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memeplex A memeplex is a collection of ideas grouped together because copying them is more successful when they are “teamed up”
  24. 24. Memetics And thus… Adopting a named collection of practices (Scrum, XP, Kanban) can be more successful than copying individual practices
  25. 25. Broken windows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixing_Broken_Windows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewin's_Equation When broken windows are not repaired people have the tendency to break more windows Lewin’s Equation B = f (P,E) Behavior is a function of personality and environment
  26. 26. Broken windows And thus… Address the small problems, not just the big ones
  27. 27. Agile Manifesto On the 2nd page… “Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility” Excellence… how? http://www.agilemanifesto.org/principles.html
  28. 28. But how do we develop competence?
  29. 29. Wake up call!
  30. 30. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  31. 31. Maturity models (like the CMMI)? Level 1: Initial Process is unpredictable Level 2: Managed Process is often reactive Level 3: Defined Process is proactive Level 4: Qualitatively Managed Process is measured/controlled Level 5: Optimizing Focus on process improvement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration
  32. 32. “Many of these ‘Process Maturity’ models do not explicitly take into account that organizations are complex social systems. If it is performance that really counts, then we need to go beyond maturity to look at how an organization develops business process competence.” Andrew Spanyi, “Beyond Process Maturity to Process Competence.” http://processownercoach.com/To%20Process%20Competence.pdf Maturity models (like the CMMI)?
  33. 33. Three maturity levels (for skill) Shu traditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice) Ha detachment, breaking with tradition (journeyman) Ri transcendence, everything is natural (master) (last column: three similar levels in medieval European guild system) Note: the Dreyfus Model lists five levels of skill acquisition: Beginner, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuhari http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_craftsman http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreyfus_model_of_skill_acquisition
  34. 34. Six maturity levels (for discipline) Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.” Variable “We do whatever we feel like at the moment.” Routine “We follow our routines (except when we panic).” Steering “We choose among our routines by the results they produce.” Anticipating “We establish routines based on our past experiences.” Congruent “Everyone is involved in improving everything all the time.” Gerard Weinberg, Quality Software Management: SystemsThinking (Alternative: six similar levels in “Agile Made Us Better…” by Ross Petit) http://www.amazon.com/Quality-Software-Management-Systems-Thinking/dp/0932633226/ http://www.thoughtworks.com/agile-made-us-better
  35. 35. Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
  36. 36. 1. Self-development People must learn... urgence vs. importance time management boosting memory finding motivation
  37. 37. 2. Coaching Hire external coaches Develop competency leaders Note: manager != coach
  38. 38. 3. Certification By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but... it can catalyze all other competency measures
  39. 39. 4. Social pressure Let people identify with a small group Give them shared responsibility for shared goals
  40. 40. 5. Adaptable tools Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports
  41. 41. 6. Supervision Have someone sample/check the products of teams
  42. 42. 7. Management One-on-ones to assess problem situations 360 degree meetings to assess collaboration
  43. 43. 1. Self-Development 2. Coaching 3. Certification 4. Social Pressure 5. Adaptable Tools 6. Supervision 7. Management 7 Approaches to competency development
  44. 44. Wake up call!
  45. 45. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  46. 46. The workplace is a network
  47. 47. Individual competence “We learned that individual expertise did not distinguish people as high performers.What distinguished high performers were larger and more diversified personal networks.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
  48. 48. Individual competence “Engineers are roughly five times more likely to turn to a person for information as to an impersonal source such as a database.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
  49. 49. “Archetypes” of communicators Hubs draw information and broadcast it Gatekeepers carefully managing information flows Pulsetakers great observers of people Karen Stephenson QuantumTheory ofTrust. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd, 2005
  50. 50. “Types” of communicators Connectors exchange information with many people Mavens invest more time in people Salesmen masters of interpersonal communication Malcolm Gladwell The Tipping Point. Boston: Back Bay Books, 2002
  51. 51. Scale-invariant networks (fractals) Best communication across all scales http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion
  52. 52. “The idea of “chunking”: a group of items is perceived as a single “chunk”.The chunk’s boundary is a little like a cell membrane or a national border. It establishes a separate identity for the cluster within. According to context, one may wish to ignore the chunk’s internal structure or take it into account.” Hofstadter, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach. New York: Basic Books, 1979 Forming teams
  53. 53. <- preferred Segmentation of teams
  54. 54. Design Principle 1 (DP1) (through a manager) Design Principle 2 (DP2) (not through a manager) Communication across teams (Fred Emery) <- preferred
  55. 55. Style Structure DP 1 Functional 1 (through manager) 2 Functional 2 (through team) 3 Cross-functional 1 (through manager) 4 Cross-functional 2 (through team)
  56. 56. Value units System administrators GUI designers Project Mgt Office Community of Practice Center of Excellence Human Resources ... Delivering value to teams
  57. 57. Wake up call!
  58. 58. Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies
  59. 59. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  60. 60. Learn from systems
  61. 61. 1. Time 2. People 3. Tools 4. Functionality 5. Quality 6. Process 7. Value Develop competence in 7 dimensions
  62. 62. Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
  63. 63. 1. Self-Development 2. Coaching 3. Certification 4. Social Pressure 5. Adaptable Tools 6. Supervision 7. Management Use 7 approaches to grow competency
  64. 64. Distinguish 4 styles for teams
  65. 65. Grow a value network (panarchy) A D C E B
  66. 66. “Insofar as the business environment is becoming more complex, firms will need to [...] shift away from bureaucracies and toward [...] internal competition (markets), the need for the large firm to behave as a small one (fiefs), and the importance of interpersonal networking (clans).” Max Boisot, “Complexity and the I-Space”, The Interaction of Complexity and Management.
  67. 67. the end
  68. 68. m30.me/happiness
  69. 69. @jurgenappelo slideshare.net/jurgenappelo noop.nl linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo jurgen@noop.nl
  70. 70. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/ This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.

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