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Agile Application Lifecycle Management (ALM)


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Explains how to do Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) in an Agile way. …

Explains how to do Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) in an Agile way.

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  • 1. Agile ALM Application Lifecycle Management Dealing with Complexity Jurgen Appelo Version 3
  • 2. Jurgen Appelo writer, speaker, trainer, entrepreneur...
  • 3. Get my new book for FREE!
  • 4. Can Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) work in an environment that grows ever more complex? And how does this relate to the first Agile principle, which promotes “people over processes and tools?” ALM: Dealing with Complexity
  • 5. Typical software development
  • 6. One small change
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Or to say STOP! We won’t change this.
  • 11. The result is a big entangled mess
  • 12.
  • 13. Quasimodo software heart of gold, broken body Image via Google Search
  • 14. And it doesn’t get easier…
  • 15. Increasing number of technologies
  • 16. Increasing levels of globalization
  • 17. Increasing amount of customization
  • 18. Lehman’s Laws of Software Evolution
  • 19. Continuing Change Lehman’s 1st Law “A system must be continually adapted or else it becomes progressively less capable of satisfying its users.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 20. Increasing Complexity Lehman’s 2nd Law “As a system evolves its complexity increases unless work is done to reduce it.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 21. Self-Regulation Lehman’s 3rd Law “The system evolution process is self-regulating with product and process measures closely following a normal distribution.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 22. Organizational Stability Lehman’s 4th Law “The average activity rate (maintenance) in an evolving system is invariant over its lifetime.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 23. Conservation of Familiarity Lehman’s 5th Law “As a system evolves all people involved with it must maintain mastery of its content and behavior to achieve satisfactory evolution.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 24. Continuing Growth Lehman’s 6th Law “The functional content of a system must be continually increased to maintain user satisfaction over its lifetime.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 25. Declining Quality Lehman’s 7th Law “The quality of a system will decline unless it is rigorously maintained and adapted to operational environment changes.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 26. Feedback System Lehman’s 8th Law “Evolution processes constitute complex feedback systems and must be treated as such to achieve significant improvement over any reasonable base.”'s_laws_of_software_evolution
  • 27. How can we ever deal with all this change?
  • 28. Application Lifecycle Management (ALM)
  • 29. “Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) is a continuous process of managing the life of an application through governance, development and maintenance.” Definition(s) Wikipedia
  • 30. “ALM is a set of disciplines that together govern the process of turning business ideas into software.” Definition(s) “ALM changing to meet development organizations' needs”
  • 31. “Any tools, technologies, or techniques that attempt to connect and maintain connections between activities over the life of a piece of software – from the first glint in the glimmer of an executive's eye, through system retirement.” Definition(s) “Just-enough application lifecycle management (ALM)”,294698,sid92_gci1396258,00.html
  • 32. ALM visualized in models, from bad…
  • 33.,289142,sid92_gci1259517_mem1,00.html …to absolutely terrible.
  • 34. “Organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.” Conway’s Law's_Law
  • 35. ALM 1.0 Separated disciplines Silos of information Fragile integration
  • 36. ALM 2.0 Single repository Roles and connections “One truth”
  • 37.
  • 38. Complex Systems “A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties (behavior) not obvious from the properties of the individual parts.” Sometimes called the sciences of complexity (plural)
  • 39. General Systems Theory Autopoiesis (how a system constructs itself) Identity (how a system is identifiable) Homeostatis (how a system remains stable) Permeability (how a system interacts with its environment) Ludwig von Bertalanffy (biologist) 1901-1972 Study of relationships between elements
  • 40. Cybernetics Goals (the intention of achieving a desired state) Acting (having an effect on the environment) Sensing (checking the response of the environment) Evaluating (comparing current state with system’s goal) Norbert Wiener (mathematician) 1894-1964 Study of regulatory systems
  • 41. Dynamical Systems Theory Stability (stable states versus unstable states) Attractors (systems getting sucked into stable states) Study of system behavior
  • 42. Game Theory Competition versus cooperation Zero sum games versus non-zero sum games Strategies (including evolutionary stable strategies) John von Neumann (mathematician) 1903-1957 Study of co-adapting systems
  • 43. Evolutionary Theory Population (more than one instance) Replication (mechanism of making new instances) Variation (differences between instances) Heredity (differences copied from existing instances) Selection (environment imposes selective pressure) Charles Darwin (naturalist) 1809-1882 Study of evolving systems
  • 44. Chaos Theory Strange attractors (chaotic behavior) Sensitivity to initial conditions (butterfly effect) Fractals (scale-invariance) Edward Lorenz (meteorologist) 1917-2008 Study of unpredictable systems
  • 45. And more... Dissipative systems (spontaneous pattern-forming) Cellular automata (complex behavior from simple rules) Genetic algorithms (adaptive learning) Social network analysis (propagation of information) Study of all kinds of systems
  • 46. The Body of Knowledge of Systems Complex systems theory is the study of complex systems using multiple system theories
  • 47. Simplicity: A New Model Simple = structure is easily understandable Complicated = structure is very hard to understand Ordered = behavior is fully predictable Complex = behavior is somewhat predictable Chaotic = behavior is very unpredictable Simplification = making something better understandable Linearization = making something more predictable
  • 48. Structure-Behavior Model Complex and complicated seen as different dimensions
  • 49. 9 lessons from complexity thinking
  • 50. Focus on people motivation competence
  • 51. communication collaboration
  • 52. Expect change resilience robustness
  • 53. Support self-organization growth alignment
  • 54. Embrace emergence no constructionism no predictions
  • 55. Embrace diversity adaptability innovation
  • 56. Support decentralization delegation empowerment
  • 57. unpredictability, unknowns
  • 58. Heed “incompressibility” All models are wrong, some are useful
  • 59. People Relationships Change Self-organization Emergence Diversity Decentralization Non-linearity Incompressibility One approach to bind them all…
  • 60. Agile Software Development
  • 61. “An iterative and incremental (evolutionary) approach to software development which is performed in a highly collaborative manner by self-organizing teams within an effective governance framework with "just enough" ceremony that produces high quality solutions in a cost effective and timely manner which meets the changing needs of its stakeholders.” Definition Agile Modeling
  • 62. Let’s start with the good old Iron Triangle
  • 63. Then add some modifications... Split Cost (Resources) in People and Tools Split Scope in Functionality and Quality (suggestion: Scott Ambler) Add a dimension for Process (suggestion: Alistair Cockburn) Add a dimension for (Business) Value (suggestion: Jim Highsmith)
  • 64. 1. People 2. Functionality 3. Quality 4. Tools 5. Time 6. Value 7. Process And we get... the 7 dimensions of software projects
  • 65. People interaction collaborationsmall teams cross-functional colocation self-organization trust accountability respect
  • 66. Functionality customer involvement backlogs user stories acceptance criteria minimal marketable features user demos “inch-deep, mile-wide”
  • 67. Quality technical excellence test-driven development pair programming definition of done refactoring emergent design simplicity
  • 68. Tools daily builds continuous integration automated testing open offices task boards burn charts version control
  • 69. Time timeboxes iterations sprints potentially shippable products rolling wave planning sustainable pace release planning
  • 70. Value embracing change feedback frequent delivery value streams value mappingprioritization increments
  • 71. Process stand-up meetings planning poker velocity spikes collective code ownership retrospectives sprint planning
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75. Agile + ALM similarities information sharing better collaboration increased quality higher productivity
  • 76. Agile vs. ALM: differences people vs. tools practices vs. techniques
  • 77. Agile ALM the best of both, using complexity thinking
  • 78. “The typical project is a collection of ideas held in the minds of the people on the project. […] A project is not the sum of all of its documents or even its code. A great deal of the context of a project lies in its participants.” - Matt Heusser “Just-enough application lifecycle management (ALM)”,294698,sid92_gci1396258,00.html
  • 79. 7 tips for Agile ALM
  • 80. ALM tools should support high-bandwidth communication, and should not needlessly replace person-person communication with person-tool communication. Example: facilitation and storage of photos, audio, video. 1. High-Bandwidth Communication
  • 81. ALM tools must natively support all common Agile practices. Example: user stories, acceptance testing, iterative planning, continuous flow, unit testing, refactoring, automated builds, continuous integration, etc… 2. Agile Best Practices
  • 82. The ALM infrastructure must be selected, built and maintained by the team(s) themselves. Nothing should be mandated by those who don’t have to work with it. Example: a team can select its own favorite automatic build system or Agile planning tools. 3. Bottom-Up Infrastructure
  • 83. A healthy ALM strategy will allow for multiple vendors of tools. The benefits of specialization (of tools) often outweighs the cost of integration. There is no “single truth”. Example: use Visual Studio Team System except source control. 4. Multi-Vendor Approach
  • 84. ALM tools should aim for accessibility. The goal is collaboration, not centralization. Information should be radiated, not concentrated. Example: status updates on whiteboard and in task tracking tool. 5. Distributed Information
  • 85. Modeling of processes is a form of prediction, and thus unreliable. Allow for emergent design of the ALM infrastructure. Grow it in an Agile way. Example: use a continuous improvement backlog for the ALM infrastructure. 6. Agile Improvement
  • 86. ALM tools must be extensible, customizable and adaptable, so that they can grow together with the project. Example: open API’s, web services, plug-ins, widgets, macros, etc. 7. Adaptable Tools
  • 87. Agile ALM 1. High-Bandwidth Communication 2. Agile Best Practices 3. Bottom-up Infrastructure 4. Multi-Vendor Approach 5. Distributed Information 6. Agile Improvement 7. Adaptable Tools
  • 88. Application lifecycle management (Wikipedia) Mea culpa, ALM toolmakers say (SD Times) ALM changing to meet development organizations' needs (SearchSoftwareQuality),289142,sid92_gci1259517_mem1, ml Application Lifecycle Management Gets Agile (ITBusinessEdge) agile/?cs=39865 What is Agile ALM? (Ezine Articles) Agile ALM – Opposites Attract (CM Crossroads) What is the definition of Application Lifecycle Management (ALM)? (IT Knowledge Exchange) lifecycle-management-alm/ Sources
  • 89. Just-enough application lifecycle management (ALM) (SearchSoftwareQuality),294698,sid92_gci1396258,00.html ALM and Agile (RedMonk) Top 7 Key Requirements of an Agile ALM Platform (Top7Business) Does Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) add Value or Hinder the Adoption of Agile-Lean Product Development? (AgileJournal) management-alm-add-value-or-hinder-the-adoption-of-agile-lean-product-development What exactly is an ALM tool (SearchSoftwareQuality),289625,sid92_gci1523 524,00.html Getting Started with Agile ALM (Manning) Sources
  • 90. @jurgenappelo
  • 91. This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at