Plagiarism

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This is my lesson in my Media Laws and Ethics class at the University of San Jose Recoletos in Cebu City.

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  • Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offense:
  • In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterwards.
  • But can words and ideas really be stolen? According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file).
  • But can words and ideas really be stolen? According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file). INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY-- A product of the intellect, such as an expressed idea or concept, that has commercial value. COPYRIGHT LAWS -- A law protecting the intellectual property of individuals, giving them exclusive rights over the distribution and reproduction of that material.
  • Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. See our section on  citation  for more information on how to cite sources properly.
  • What is citation? A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source.
  • At one time, a work was only protected by copyright if it included a copyright trademark (the © symbol). According to laws established in 1989, however, works are now copyright protected with or without the inclusion of this symbol.
  • Actually, no. The Copyright Act only protects works that express original ideas or information. For example, you could borrow liberally from the following without fear of plagiarism:
  • Actually, no. The Copyright Act only protects works that express original ideas or information. For example, you could borrow liberally from the following without fear of plagiarism. Public Domain The absence of copyright protection; belonging to the public so that anyone may copy or borrow from it. For more information, see our section on  What is public domain?
  • Why should I cite sources? Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:
  • The United States government has established rough guidelines for determining the nature and amount of work that may be "borrowed" without explicit written consent. These are called "fair use" laws, because they try to establish whether certain uses of original material are reasonable. The laws themselves are vague and complicated. Below we have condensed them into some rubrics you can apply to help determine the fairness of any given usage.
  • Plagiarism

    1. 1. PLAGIARISMBoth a crime and an ethicalviolation
    2. 2. What is PLAGIARISM?Source: www.plagiarism.org …is the use of anothers original words or ideas as though they were your own.
    3. 3. What is PLAGIARISM?Source: www.plagiarism.org …is the use of anothers original words or ideas as though they were your own.Source: Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary• to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as ones own• to use (anothers production) without crediting the source• to commit literary theft• to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
    4. 4. But can words and ideas really bestolen?
    5. 5. But can words and ideas really bestolen?• The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions.• Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file).
    6. 6. What are considered plagiarism?
    7. 7. What are considered plagiarism?• Turning in someone elses work as your own• Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit.• Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks• Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation.• Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit.• Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.
    8. 8. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited 2-Sources CITED (but still plagiarized)•The Ghost Writer•The Photocopy •The Forgotten Footnote•The Potluck Paper •The Misinformer•The Poor Disguise •The Too-Perfect•The Labor of Laziness Paraphrase•The Self-Stealer •The Resourceful Citer •The Perfect Crime
    9. 9. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited•The Ghost Writer•The Photocopy The writer turns in•The Potluck Paper anothers work, word-•The Poor Disguise for-word, as his or her own.•The Labor ofLaziness•The Self-Stealer
    10. 10. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited•The Ghost Writer•The Photocopy The writer copies•The Potluck Paper significant portions of•The Poor Disguise text straight from a single source, without•The Labor of alteration.Laziness•The Self-Stealer
    11. 11. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited The writer tries to•The Ghost Writer disguise plagiarism by•The Photocopy copying from several different sources,•The Potluck Paper tweaking the•The Poor Disguise sentences to make•The Labor of them fit together whileLaziness retaining most of the•The Self-Stealer original phrasing.
    12. 12. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited Although the writer•The Ghost Writer has retained the•The Photocopy essential content of the source, he or she•The Potluck Paper has altered the•The Poor Disguise papers appearance•The Labor of slightly by changingLaziness key words and•The Self-Stealer phrases.
    13. 13. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited The writer takes the•The Ghost Writer time to paraphrase•The Photocopy most of the paper from other sources•The Potluck Paper and make it all fit•The Poor Disguise together, instead of•The Labor of spending the sameLaziness effort on original work.•The Self-Stealer
    14. 14. Types of PLAGIARISM1-Sources NOT Cited The writer•The Ghost Writer "borrows"•The Photocopy generously from his or her previous work,•The Potluck Paper violating policies•The Poor Disguise concerning the•The Labor of expectation ofLaziness originality adopted by•The Self-Stealer most academic institutions.
    15. 15. Types of PLAGIARISMThe writer mentions an 2-Sources CITED (butauthors name for a still plagiarized)source, but neglects toinclude specific •The Forgotteninformation on the Footnotelocation of the materialreferenced. This often •The Misinformermasks other forms of •The Too-Perfectplagiarism by obscuring Paraphrasesource locations. •The Resourceful Citer •The Perfect Crime
    16. 16. Types of PLAGIARISM 2-Sources CITED (but still plagiarized)The writer provides •The Forgotteninaccurate information Footnoteregarding the sources, •The Misinformermaking it impossible to •The Too-Perfectfind them. Paraphrase •The Resourceful Citer •The Perfect Crime
    17. 17. Types of PLAGIARISMThe writer properly cites 2-Sources CITED (buta source, but neglects to still plagiarized)put in quotation markstext that has been copiedword-for-word, or close to •The Forgottenit. Although attributing the Footnotebasic ideas to the source, •The Misinformerthe writer is falsely •The Too-Perfectclaiming original Paraphrasepresentation and •The Resourcefulinterpretation of the Citerinformation. •The Perfect Crime
    18. 18. Types of PLAGIARISM The writer properly cites all sources, 2-Sources CITED (but paraphrasing and still plagiarized) using quotations appropriately. The •The Forgotten catch? The paper Footnote contains almost no •The Misinformer original work! It is sometimes difficult to •The Too-Perfect spot this form of Paraphrase plagiarism because it •The Resourceful looks like any other Citer well-researched •The Perfect Crime document.
    19. 19. Types of PLAGIARISMIn this case, the writer 2-Sources CITED (butproperly quotes and cites still plagiarized)sources in some places,but goes on toparaphrase other •The Forgottenarguments from those Footnotesources without citation. •The MisinformerThis way, the writer tries •The Too-Perfectto pass off the Paraphraseparaphrased material as •The Resourcefulhis or her own analysis of Citerthe cited material. •The Perfect Crime
    20. 20. Plagiarism in the U.S.• If a plagiarist receives more than $2,500 for copyrighted material, he or she may face up to $250,000 in fines and up to ten years in jail!• 80% of "high-achieving" high school students admit to cheating.• 51% of high school students did not believe cheating was wrong .• 95% of cheating high school students said that they had not been detected.• 75% of college students admitted cheating, and 90% of college students didnt believe cheaters would be caught.• Almost 85% of college students said cheating was necessary to get ahead .
    21. 21. Plagiarism hurts everyone…• Plagiarists do not acquire the skills legitimate work would teach them, and risk failure and expulsion.• Classmates who have worked hard for their grades have to compete with plagiarists for jobs and admissions.• Teachers have to take time out of the education process to deal with plagiarism.• Administrators find the principles upon which their institutions are founded undermined by plagiarism, and must devote resources to combating it.
    22. 22. Copyright Law A law protecting the intellectual property of individuals, giving them exclusive rights over the distribution and reproduction of that material.
    23. 23. Copyright Law A law protecting the intellectual property of individuals, giving them exclusive rights over the distribution and reproduction of that material. » Music » Images » Written words » Video, and » A variety of other media
    24. 24. Copyright Law
    25. 25. Are all published works copyrighted?
    26. 26. Are all published works copyrighted?• Compilations of readily available information, such as the phone book• Works published by the U.S. government• Facts that are not the result of original research (such as the fact that there are fifty U.S. states, or that carrots contain Vitamin A)• Works in the public domain (provided you cite properly)
    27. 27. CITATION—prevents plagiarism A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including: • information about the author • the title of the work • the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source • the date your copy was published • the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
    28. 28. Importance of Citation• Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from.• Not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone elses bad ideas.• Citing sources shows the amount of research youve done.• Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.
    29. 29. When do I need to cite?• whenever you use quotes• whenever you paraphrase• whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed• whenever you make specific reference to the work of another• whenever someone elses work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
    30. 30. Quoting Material• In his essay, “United Shareholders of America,” Jacob Weisberg insists that “The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly... by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.”• As John Archer explains, “The Mountain Coyote has been described as a wily and single-minded predator by zoologist Lma Warner.”
    31. 31. Trivial Facts on Plagiarism• Even a small part of a work is found to have been plagiarized, it is still considered a copyright violation.• While it is possible that you might write on the same topic as someone else, odds are that you will not have exactly the same ideas or express them in exactly the same way.• Most colleges and universities have zero tolerance for plagiarists. In fact, academic standards of intellectual honesty are often more demanding than governmental copyright laws.
    32. 32. Trivial Facts on Plagiarism• Most cases of plagiarism are considered misdemeanors, punishable by fines of anywhere between $100 and $50,000 -- and up to one year in jail.• Ignorance of the law is never an excuse. So even if you did not realize you were plagiarizing, you may still be found guilty. However, there are different punishments for willful infringement, or deliberate plagiarism, and innocent infringement, or accidental plagiarism.• “Fair Use” is allowed on some works that may be "borrowed" without explicit written consent. These are called "fair use" laws, because they try to establish whether certain uses of original material are reasonable.
    33. 33. IMPORTANT NOTE:• Familiarize the terms about Plagiarism. Also download/read “Important Terms” along with this presentation.• Long Quiz/Monday(Feb.20).• Coverage: • Anti-Wire Tapping Law • Hidden Camera in the News • Plagiarism

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