Microphone

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Microphone is one of the essential tools in broadcasting. Hence, getting familiar with it is a must for all broadcasters.

Microphone is one of the essential tools in broadcasting. Hence, getting familiar with it is a must for all broadcasters.

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  • 1. MICROPHONE Characteristics, Classifications, and Types.
  • 2. What is a Microphone?
  • 3. What is a Microphone? A small, portable assembly for the pick-up and conversion of sound into electrical energy. Sound Waves Electrical energy Sound Waves
  • 4. Sound Generating Elements of a Microphone Diaphragm, voice-coil, air pressure
  • 5. Characteristics of Microphones 1- Sound-generating Systems DYNAMIC Microphone • Most rugged • Can withstand high-sound levels (input overload) • Can withstand fairly extreme temperatures • No battery needed • Good for vocals and music instruments
  • 6. Characteristics of Microphones 1- Sound-generating Systems CONDENSER Microphone • Sensitive to phyisical shock • Sensitive to input overload • Sensitive to temperature change • Needs small battery • Higher quality sound at greater distances
  • 7. Characteristics of Microphones 1- Sound-generating Systems RIBBON Microphone • Sensitive to phyisical shock • Sensitive to input overload • Sensitive to temperature change • No battery needed • Higher quality sound at greater distances
  • 8. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) CARBON Microphone• oldest and simplest microphone that uses carbon dust. • the technology used in the first  telephones and is still used in some telephones today. • The carbon dust has a thin metal or plastic diaphragm on one side. As sound waves hit the diaphragm, they compress the carbon dust, which changes its resistance. By running a current through the carbon, the changing resistance changes the amount of current that flows.
  • 9. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) FIBER OPTIC Microphone • fiber optic microphones can be extremely small, and they can be used in electrically sensitive environments. • They can also be produced with no metal, which makes them very useful in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications and other situations where radio frequency interference is an issue.
  • 10. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) LIQUID Microphone • invented by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson • a precursor to what would later become the condenser microphone • used a metal cup filled with water and sulfuric acid. A diaphragm was placed over the cup with a needle on the receiving side of the diaphragm. Sound waves would cause the needle to move in the water. A small electrical current ran to the needle, which was modulated by sound vibrations. • The liquid microphone was never a particularly functional device, but it makes a great science experiment
  • 11. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) ELECTRET Microphone • most widely used microphones on Earth • cheap and relatively simple, electret mics are used in cell phones, computers and hands-free headsets • a type of condenser microphone in which the external charge is replaced with an electret material, which by definition is in a permanent state of electric polarization  
  • 12. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) LASER Microphone • works by capturing vibrations off of a plane, like a windowpane, for example, and transmitting the signal back to a photo detector, which converts the reflected laser beam into an audio signal.
  • 13. Characteristics of Microphones Other Types (according to Sound- generating Systems) CRYSTAL Microphone • By attaching a diaphragm to a crystal, the crystal will create a signal when sound waves hit the diaphragm.
  • 14. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns • the territory within which a microphone can hear well. • Omnidirectional, Bidirectional, Unidirectional, and Cardioid
  • 15. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns OMNIDIRECTIONAL Microphone • the microphone hears sounds from all directions EQUALLY well.
  • 16. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns BIDIRECTIONAL Microphone • the microphone hears better in TWO OPPOSITE directions.
  • 17. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns UNIDIRECTIONAL Microphone • the microphone hears better in ONE direction (the front of the microphone than its side or back.
  • 18. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns CARDIOID Microphone • the microphone hears in a HEART-SHAPED pattern but hearing is more concentrated on the front rather than on the side.
  • 19. Characteristics of Microphones 2- Pick-up Patterns CARDIOID Microphone • the microphone hears in a HEART-SHAPED pattern but hearing is more concentrated on the front rather than on the side.
  • 20. Characteristics of Microphones o STATIONARY o Desk o Stand o Hanging o Hidden o Long distance 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) o MOBILE o Hand o Lavaliere o Boom o Wireless o Headset
  • 21. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) HAND Microphone
  • 22. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) LAVALIERE Microphone
  • 23. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) BOOM Microphone
  • 24. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) WIRELESS Microphone
  • 25. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) HEADSET Microphone
  • 26. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) DESK Microphone
  • 27. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) STAND Microphone
  • 28. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) HANGING Microphone
  • 29. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) HIDDEN Microphone
  • 30. Characteristics of Microphones 3- Physical Forms (Mobile & Stationary) LONG DISTANCE Microphone
  • 31. Special Features of Microphones POP FILTERS Eliminates breath pops that could occur when someone is speaking into the mic at close distance. It also reduces distortion when the mic is held close to a very loud sound source.
  • 32. Special Features of Microphones WINDSCREEN It’s made of acoustic foam rubber, is put on the microphone to eliminate, or at least to reduce, the low rumble of wind noise. When used outside, shotgun mic are entirely covered by windscreen.
  • 33. USING THE MICROPHONE How to use a hand microphone: • CHEST POSITION (ex.: news reporting, hosting) • MOUTH (ex.: outdoor reporting/hosting) • SINGING • INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
  • 34. USING THE MICROPHONE CHEST POSITION
  • 35. USING THE MICROPHONE MOUTH POSITION
  • 36. USING THE MICROPHONE SINGING
  • 37. USING THE MICROPHONE INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
  • 38. USING THE MICROPHONE INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
  • 39. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: • ON-MIC • OFF-MIC • FADING ON • FADING OFF • BEHIND OBSTRUCTION
  • 40. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: ON-MIC • The speaker is closer to the mic • It appears the speaker is at the main scene
  • 41. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: • OFF-MIC • The speaker is away from the mic • It appears the speaker is away/far from the main scene
  • 42. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: • FADING ON • The speaker is moving closer to the mic • It appears the speaker is moving towards the main scene
  • 43. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: • FADING OFF • The speaker is moving farther from the mic • It appears the speaker is moving away from the main scene
  • 44. USING THE MICROPHONE Microphone Techniques: • BEHIND OBSTRUCTION • The speaker is talking behind a wall/room.