1. SLIDE 1 (Cover slide)The title of this presentation is true. So with the sub-title. Therewere numerous errors in the write-ups of almost all Cebuanonews programs on radio and television, as well as in print inCebu. Some of the errors are persistent until today. I hadprepared this presentation for the class three years ago and i amexpecting that the mistakes here have already been corrected bythe concerned editors.In the original presentation, i have included actual audiorecording of the broadcasts where the errors were spotted.Unfortunately, the audio files can not be played in thepresentation above due to technical limitation.SLIDE 2 (Paghubad/No literal translation)The prime rule when translating articles into Cebuano is to refrainfrom translating the original words literally. My experience is toget the idea or the message of the sentence and spin from there.Make your own sentence out of the idea in the original phrase.In the slides example, i extracted a portion of the lead paragraphof a sports article in SunStar SuperBalita published years ago. Ihighlighted the word-- "Mopatid".SLIDE 3I knew exactly that the word refers to "kicks off" in original storyalso published in SunStar Daily. The Cebuano writer inSuperBalita literally translated "kicks off" into "Mopatid". Itswrong. "Kick", in Cebuano is "patid". But "kicks off" means "tostart" as in to begin the race or event.SLIDE 4
2. The correct translation should had been "Magsugod or Mosugodkarong Dominggo ang..."SLIDE 5 (Paghubad/Relax the Cebuano rule for Numbers)Numbers are already complicated in itself, at least in thebroadcast news. There are exact Cebuano words for the numbersin English. However, Cebuanos are also used to speak numbers inSpanish. For numbers One to Ten, the Cebuano words arecommonly spoken, alternately with the Spanish equivalentwhichever is pleasant to the ears.Example: "Sais puntos ang nahimo ni..." is preferred thansaying "Unom ka puntos ang nahimo ni...".SLIDE 6However, Cebuano words for numbers above 10 are not favoredbecause of its complexity (composed of three words) andCebuanos preferred to say the numbers in English or Spanish.Example: "Napulog usa can be easily said as "eleven" or "onse".SLIDE 7The same condition can be applied for bigger numbers beginningfrom 20.SLIDE 8A 3-digit number can be written in Cebuano for 7 words. Thatswordy. In broadcast news, the more is not the merrier. Thestandard number of words in broadcast is only 17 words perparagraph, enough to be understood by a Grade 6 pupil. Whilethere are exact Cebuano words for numbers but most often, usingit in the news complicates the audience listening ability. Sound ispassing. The audience has a very limited span of time to grasp the
3. message in the broadcast. Why complicate things when it can bedelivered instantly?SLIDE 9Most often, Cebuanos speak the Spanish equivalent for bignumbers.SLIDE 10Numbers are more complicated when it is about the year and inCebuano. It will take time for the audience to know what year it iswhen read in Cebuano. Again, relax the rule.SLIDE 11You can read it anyway in Spanish or in English. The rule in newscasting for numbers is when the numbers are written in digitform, it must be read in English.SLIDE 12 (Position/Designation first before name)The same rule in English news writing applies when it comes tonames and ranks or positions of the news sources. Thedesignation and rank must come first before the name of theperson.SLIDE 13"...hepe sa kapolisan sa Dakbayan sa Sugbo--" refers to "CebuCity Police Director". The name is then preceded with the rank--"Sr. Supt."SLIDE 14 (Abusing "ar". "er" as suffixes)I listed down in this slide some English words that are oftensuffixed with "ar" or "er" thinking it will make the words asCebuano words. There are few broadcasters who are still into this
4. abuse. Members of the Akademiyang Bisaya would definitelydisagree to this practice. Most of these English words have aCebuano equivalent. Check the next slide.SLIDE 15The Cebuano language is very abundant of words. Almost everyword in the English dictionary can be translated.SLIDE 16 (Retain the English words)I am making these words in the slide as exception to the rule. Notall English words in the Cebuano News should be translated justto make it appear its a Cebuano. My personal stand is to retainthe English words in its original spelling and pronunciation IF theso-called Cebuano translation awkwardly sounds (with hardaccent) like the original English word. (read the examplesALOUD)Reading "pirslab" and "obertaym" on-the-air makes onebroadcaster sounds awful if not amateurish. Why not read it as"first love" and "overtime" anyway. Some Visayan writers dontagree with me on this instance but i would strongly recommendmy adaptation for us to sound awesome.SLIDE 17 (Collective Nouns dont need "mga")I listed here some collective nouns that are already plural inmeaning but singular in form. Collective noun is one of theoddities in the English language. It is also true in Cebuano. Onehint to identify a collective noun in Cebuano is to know what orwhich group it refers to. Collective noun doesnt need thequantifier "mga" preceding it.Example: mga kapolisan (wrong), mga polis (right)--Simply, ang kapolisan...
5. mga katawhan (wrong), mga tawo (right) --Simply, angkatawhan...SLIDE 18Like i said that this presentation is about errors in the use ofCebuano in the news, the lines in this slide is a quote from abroadcast in one of the TV programs in Cebu. Omit "mga" and itsgood.SLIDE 19The 5Ws and 1H elements in the news lead have also its Cebuanoequivalent but unfortunately the latter are often times used in awrong way by some broadcasters.SLIDE 20 (Inappropriate Use of Words)The first example that is using "diin" is correct while the secondexample shows "diin" is preceded by "kung". Let me clear, thereis no "kung" in Cebuano but its "kon" or "kun". But again, "kungdiin" is not appropriate because you can simply say: ... diingisugdan kini sa pag-bendisyon... without the "kung".The "kung diin" phrase among the young reporters on TV in Cebuis an influence of the Tagalogs "kung saan", translated literally(in English) as "if where".SLIDE 21In one of the seminars i attended, a veteran ABC broadcaster fromthe U.S. specifically stated that words and phraseslike Meanwhile, While, In another news used as transitionalwords in the beginning of a paragraph are meaningless andshould not be in the script.
6. He explained that "In another news" used to indicate that thenext news article is different from what it succeeded serves nopurpose since the audience knows exactly that the next article isno longer related to the previous item.The "Meanwhile" in the beginning of the paragraph, he said,means nothing. It is being abused as a transition word. Thespeaker suggested to change the level of the voice duringtransition rather than uttering useless and meaningless words inthe news.SLIDE 22"While" has its purpose if used correctly. #1-it indicates an actionis taking place while another has occurred at the same time. #2-itis used to compare between two subjects. It should not be used inthe beginning of the paragraph if it wont mean for the twopurposes mentioned above.Example: Samtang... Gipatay sa anak ang iyang amahan didtosa Quinto Limbo kagabii.SLIDE 23 (Always use the V-S-O form)We are told to write the news in active voice (subject-verb-objectformat). The examples in this slide are news stories of the sameevent presented on-air by two rival news programs in Cebu.Which do you think is correct as far as the Cebuano sentencestructure is concerned?SLIDE 24When we write in English, the S-V-O format is a must.SLIDE 25
7. When translated into Cebuano in the same S-V-O format, thetranslated sentence becomes awkward. Why? Simply because theCebuano language doesnt work like the English language.SLIDE 26We always start our sentence with a verb not the subject. So theformat for the Cebuano sentence is Verb-Subject-Object (V-S-O).Also, dont agree on the present practice by some news programswhere the verb of the sentence is at the end, like:Killer sa usa sa ka polis nadakpan. (wrong)Nadakpan ang killer sa usa ka polis. (right)SLIDE 27This a good example of a V-S-O formatted news item delivered inone of the TV news programs in Cebu. READ ALOUD and feel theintensity of the action words placed at the beginning of eachsentence.SLIDE 28This is an example of a passive sentence where the object becomesthe subject but is the one receiving the action.SLIDE 29 (Age Doesnt Matter)During the news gathering process, it is a must to obtain all thepersonal details of the subjects involved in the story. But not alldetails are necessary in the news. The age of the victim may not benecessary in the story.SLIDE 30Editing out the age still makes the story the same in thought. Agemay be necessary in rape cases where you have to emphasize theage gap between the suspect and the victim. A license plate of the
8. vehicles involved in collision may not be necessary in the storyunless the vehicle has eluded from the authorities and there is aneed to publicize its license plate.SLIDE 31 (Nailhan na ang Suspetsado)This has been the mistake of several broadcasters and evenwriters in the print media.SLIDE 32A "suspetsado", means suspect in English which is defined byMerriam-Webster Dictionary as "one who is suspected (as of acrime)". It means someone is already identified and is believedto have committed the crime. So, it is wrong to say-- Ang wamailhing suspetsado... since a "suspetsado" is already anidentified person.SLIDE 33This paragraph of a news article is correct since it uses "lalake"instead of "suspetsado" in the phrase "wa mailhing mgalalake"...SLIDE 34Here the suspects have names,except for the minor. You can useany of these when the perpetrators of the crime is unknown: wamailhing kawatan, wa mailhing tulisan, wa mailhingsnatchers.... etc.SLIDE 35 (Dont translate everything!)Like in numbers, you can relax the rule by not translatingeverything. "Malversation of Public Funds" is a title of a case. Itcan be retained in its original form.SLIDE 36
9. However, you can opt to translate it.SLIDE 37 (Ceblish)There are times, our story is more pleasant and morecomprehensible if some English words are to be retained.SLIDE 38Especially, in Entertainment News when English words soundcute.SLIDE 39Or you may still opt to translate it but retain the movie title.SLIDE 40Another common mistake among the present generation is theinappropriate use of the word "KAY" in the middle of thesentence. "Kay" is always joined with "tungod" to mean "becauseof". The "Kay" after "pinulongan" can be omitted without affectingthe meaning of the sentence:"... apan kulang ug mabaw pa diay kaayo kini tungod kay angatong naandan nga pinulongan nasagolan naman diay og mgabanyaga."SLIDE 41"Matod pa" makes your news vague and unreliable, if notdoubtful. Omit the "pa" to suggest credibility in the news.