Structure of English: Constituents and functions

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Structure of English: Constituents and functions

  1. 1. SENTENCE STRUCTURE:CONSTITUENTS ANDFUNCTIONSJunnie SaludDecember 10, 2011University of Santo Tomas Graduate School
  2. 2.  a. it is divisible into parts (called CONSTITUENTS); b. there are different kinds of parts (called CATEGORIES); c. the constituents are ARRANGED in a specifiable way; d. that each constituent has a certain specifiable FUNCTION in the structure of the thing as a whole.
  3. 3. IMAGINE ALL THE POSSIBLE OBJECTSYOU COULD CONSTRUCT BY FIXINGTHESE COMPONENTS TOGETHER…
  4. 4. ILL-FORMED (UNGRAMMATICAL)1.) The nevertheless procrastinate foxtrot.2.) And and if.3.) Disappears none girls of the students.4.) Put Mary.5.) Max will bought a frying pans.A full syntactic description of the English Language consists in explaining why some strings of words of the language are well-formed expressions and why others are not.
  5. 5. wheel … wheel handlebars frame chain
  6. 6. a constituent (part) of a bicycle.
  7. 7. Bicycle Wheel Bicycle Spoke
  8. 8. [3a] Tree-Diagram Bicycle …wheel [3b] spoke spoke Bicycle wheel … spoke spoke
  9. 9. [4]
  10. 10. [5]old Sam sunbathed beside a stream [6] *Stream old Sam sunbathed beside a [7] *Sunbathed old beside stream a Sam
  11. 11. ESTABLISHING CONSTITUENTS[4][5] OLD SAM SUNBATHED BESIDE A STREAM.[10] Old Sam sunbathed beside a[11] Old Sam sunbathed beside[12] Old Sam sunbathed[13] Old Sam[14] Old[15] Martha smiled.[16] Martha smiled invitingly.
  12. 12. PHRASES Sequences of words that can function as constituents (parts) in the structure of sentences. Since our tree diagrams are intended to represent structure by marking which sequences of words in a sentence are its constituent phrases, such diagrams are called PHRASE- MARKERS. BESIDE A STREAM = a constituent of sentence [4]. = a phrase.
  13. 13.  [17] The very muscular gentleman next to me lit a cigar. [18] The (…) gentleman next to me lit a cigar. [19] The very muscular gentleman (…) lit a cigar. [20] The (…) gentleman (…) lit a cigar. Very muscular [18] [19] Next to me [19] [20] ***PHRASES which are OPTIONAL constituents (parts) in the structure of sentence [17].*If a sequence of words can be omitted from a sentence leaving another good sentence, this is a good indication that the sequence is a phrase functioning as a constituent in the structure of the sentence. However, not all phrases are omissible.
  14. 14. EXAMPLE (SENTENCE [16] ) Martha smiled invitingly. INVITINGLY was a constituent in [16]. *If you can replace a sequence of words in a sentence with a single word without changing the overall structure of the sentence, then that sequence functions as a constituent of the sentence and is therefore a phrase. “Beside a stream” is functioning as a constituent in [4] OLD SAM SUNBATHED BESIDE A STREAM.
  15. 15. [25a] [25b] [25c] PHRASE PHRASE PHRASE PHRASE PHRASEbeside stream beside a stream beside a stream a
  16. 16.  [33] SAM SUNBATHED BESIDE A STREAM THAT HAD DRIED UP. [34] PHRASE-a [35] PHRASE-a beside PHRASE-b PHRASE-b PHRASE-c a stream that had beside a stream that had dried up dried up
  17. 17. LET US TRY!!! A B C D E F g h a b c d e fIn tree-diagram above, what are the immediate constituents of: 1.) A? 2.) B? 3.) C?
  18. 18. Draw a phrase-marker for thephrase: their rather dubious jokes.Showing that it contains furtherphrase: rather dubious jokes,which in turn contains ratherdubious as a phrase.
  19. 19. Draw a phrase-marker for the phrase: Men from the MinistryShowing that it contains further phrase: from the ministry, which in turn contains the phrase: the ministry.
  20. 20.  SUBJECT AND PREDICATE [1] Ducks paddle. SENTENCE ducks paddle The ducks are paddling away. [The ducks] [are paddling away.]
  21. 21.  [5] [Those gigantic ducks] [were paddling away furiously]. [6] [The mouth-watering duck on the table] [won‟t be paddling away again]. The sentences were divided into two divisions 1.) Subject and 2.) Predicate. Turn the sentence into a question that can be answered by „yes‟ or „no‟. [7] Are [the ducks] paddling away? [8] Were [those gigantic ducks] paddling away furiously? [9] Won‟t [the mouth-watering duck on the table] be paddling away again?
  22. 22.  The question movement test is important because it is actually part of the definition of what a „subject‟ is that it changes its position in such questions. [10] It is snowing again. [11] Is [it] snowing again? Identify the subjects of the following sentences: [12] Some nasty accident could have occurred. [13] The clown in the make-up room doesn‟t want to perform. [14] Elizabeth and Leicester are rowing on the river. [15] None of her attempts to give up chocolate were really serious. [16] As a matter of fact, the man you paid to do it has been arrested.
  23. 23. NOUN PHRASE AND VERB PHRASE All the subjects we have looked at have one thing in common: they all contain, and are centered on, the same CATEGORY of word, which is a NOUN. They are all NOUN PHRASE. Any phrase that can function as a subject is a Noun Phrase. The phrases functioning as PREDICATES, on the other hand, all contain, and are centered on, a VERB. They are all VERB PHRASE.
  24. 24.  *Chiropodist- is a foot doctor @_@ [25] The chiropodist fell in love with most of his patients. [32] The pianist has rejected the chiropodist.
  25. 25. S NP VP The ducks are paddling away.Try with sentence [32]: THE PIANIST HAS REJECTED THE CHIROPODIST.
  26. 26. DEPENDENCY AND FUNCTION When two constituent nodes are immediately dominated by the same single node, as is the case with B and C in [35], they are said to be sisters. [35] A B C B and C are also daughters of A. A, the node that immediately dominates them.
  27. 27. MODIFIER AND HEAD PHRASE-a their PHRASE-b PHRASE-c jokes rather dubious There are three sister relationships: 1.) their and PHRASE-b, 2.) PHRASE-c and jokes, 3.) rather and dubious.Rather depends on dubious but not vice versa. This function is called MODIFICATION.
  28. 28. HEAD AND COMPLEMENT PHRASE-a beside PHRASE-b a streamHOW MANY SISTER RELATIONSHIPS ARE THERE IN THE PHRASE?
  29. 29.  BESIDE is the head of the phrase BESIDE demands a following phrase like “a stream.” When a head demands a further expression in this way, that other obligatory expression is said to be COPLEMENT. Complements typically follow their heads in English
  30. 30. IDENTIFY THE SUBJECTS ANDPREDICATES OF THE FOLLOWINGSENTENCES: a. Her memory for names and dates was a constant source of amazement to him. b. The prune fritters left something to be desired. c. There are too many uninvited guests here. d. Only six of the thirty domino-toppling contestants came properly equipped. e. It was Lydia who finally trapped the pig. f. The fact that you received no birthday greetings from Mars doesn‟t mean that it is uninhabited. g. In the machine, the gremlin could be heard juggling with ball-bearings.

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