Junnie Armel T. Salud
3rd yr, BSEd-English Far Eastern University-Manila
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING 2 WED/SAT 10:30-12:00
TOPIC: MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE which is composed of 3 lessons.
The first lesson is about the multiple intelligences. Before we go on with our discussion, let us
try to analyze this question: “Is intelligence a single thing or various intellectual faculties?”
You must find out the answer after this lesson.
Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of cognition and education at the Harvard Graduate School of
Education, developed his theory of multiple intelligences 20 years ago. Dr. Gardner says that
people employ several different types of intelligence, rather than one general type. As a teacher,
our primary customers are the learners. The starting point of teaching is, therefore, knowing the
nature of the learner and the nature of the learner naturally includes his/her intelligence.
**What does intelligence mean to you?
-Intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live.
**Is intelligence an important characteristic of a person?
-Yes. Because intelligence may be the best way to classify Humans—we have our
differences; different levels and kinds of intelligences, and with that, with the help of proper
measuring materials, we can determine where a person lacks competitiveness on a particular
type of knowledge. And also through this intelligence, we are distinctively different from all other
creatures in the world.
**Does intelligence define one’s personality?
-For example, person (A) loves to play musical instruments since he was a kid, and
person (B) loves to write poems, read novels and watch plays. With given manifestations, what
can you say is the type of intelligence persons (A) and (B) has? So, if all of you become a
teacher someday and you see some of your students for example, they are very interested in
writing essays, novels, etc. Or some are interested in music and arts, as a teacher, it is your
duty to discover everybody’s talent and help it blossom.
Now that we already know the meaning and essence of intelligence, let us compare the old view
of intelligence versus the new one.
Intelligence was fixed, They look at intelligence before as bounded by certain limitations and
Intelligence is fixed at a certain level and is focused primarily on a particular knowledge. In the
new view, the intelligence can be developed; there is a quotation that goes like this, “DESPITE
ITS INAUSPICIOUS APPEARANCE, THE BRAIN CAN STORE MORE INFORMATIONS THAN
ALL OF THE LIBRARIES IN THE WORLD.” Meaning you could still acquire more knowledge
and the learning doesn’t stop at one phase.
Intelligence before was measured by number, in previous times before you can be
considered intelligent, you got to pass some kind of an exam, the score you will get would
determine your level of intelligence—and these are called IQ Tests. “Numbers mean
something”, according to Mr.Culala on our class in Measurement and Evaluation, but in
measuring intelligence you cannot really determine one’s level and kind intelligence by using a
test and basing on the test score alone because most of the Intelligences are not numerically
quantifiable—like Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal and Intra-personal because it
requires performances in which you cannot do in a paper-pencil IQ test.
Intelligence was unitary, In the traditional view they look at intelligence as one general type
that can be measured thru an IQ Test, but now a person’s intelligence can be exhibited in
multiple ways—and these are the Multiple Intelligences.
Intelligence was measured in isolation, before they believe that the only way we can
measure our intelligence by the use of IQ Tests, but now that they look at Intelligence as not
unitary, we cannot just say that a person is intelligent based on the result of an IQ Test alone
but also through some performances, that most of the intelligences require. And now they
believe that a person is intelligent if he can use his knowledge to survive in real-life situations.
Intelligence was used to sort students and predict their success, before thru an IQ test,
they classify and rank people based on the result of the IQ Test and foresee the future of the
person based on the measured intelligence. But now the kinds and levels of intelligence are
used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of a person’s intelligence, and can be used to
evaluate and further develop one’s capacities.
Have you ever wondered why Tiger Wood (for example) is so good in golf and others
are not? You might say because Tiger Wood has “TALENT”. With Dr. Gardner’s Theory of
Multiple Intelligences, he tells us that this it is in fact what we call “INTELLIGENCE”. His work
not only has challenged the traditional view of intelligence as a unitary capability that measured
by IQ Tests but also has given rise to a new definition of intelligence and a new approach to
learning and teaching. His view of intelligence is dynamic-expanding far beyond the linguistic
and logical capacities that are traditionally tested and valued in schools. According to Gardner,
the intelligence is consists of 8 intellectual capacities.
1.) Linguistic- skill in the use of words for expressive and practical purposes.
A person with verbal-linguistic intelligence:
Has the ability to: speak effectively or write effectively.
the inclination for: speaking, writing, listening, reading.
a sensitivity to: the sounds, meanings, structures and styles of language.
2.) Logical-mathematical- skill in organization, problem solving and reasoning, curiosity and
3.) Spatial- visual activities.
4.) Bodily-Kinesthetic- use of physical strength/body.
5.) Interpersonal- responding to other’s feelings.
6.) Intra-personal- assessing oneself.
7.) Naturalist- classifying living or natural things.
8.) Musical- actively enjoys listening to music/playing musical instruments.
The implication of the theory is that learning/teaching should focus on
the particular intelligences of each person. For example, if an individual has strong
spatial or musical intelligences, they should be encouraged to develop these abilities. A
further implication of the theory is that assessment of abilities should measure all forms
of intelligence, not just linguistic and logical-mathematical. And someday if you become
a teacher don’t judge your students by academic result alone, I told you that as being a
teacher you should encourage your students to develop their talents and help them out
blossom; your students may possess other intelligences waiting for you to discover. So
can you now answer this question, “IS INTELLIGENCE A SINGLE THING OR
VARIOUS INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES?” (The types of Intelligence varies within each
person, the intelligence is not unitary because intelligence can be exhibited in many or
Now that we’re done with Multiple Intelligences, let’s go now to the next lesson, every
one of us has our own unique styles—in cheating? Nope, but basically in learning. For
this lesson, we are going to study the 4 learning styles given by Harvey Silver. Let’s read
these situations ***(acetate) and let’s find out what particular learning style does each of
them has. The following four passages were written by four different 5th and 6th grade
students about their experiences at school and each student represents one of the 4
learning styles. Read the passages and decide which one sounds the most like you.
(LET SOME STUDENTS READ THE PASSAGES ONE AT A TIME)
...Samuel, -wants to know exactly what is expected of him and how well the task must
be done and why.
-he likes when the teacher shows him exactly what to do.
-he also likes seeing tangible results.
Samuel T. shows signs of person with a MASTERY STYLE of learning.
A Person with: Learns best from: Likes to: Doesn’t like /to:
-MASTERY STYLE Drill, demo, practice -do things that have -do tasks that are
and Hands-on immediate, practical not in practical use.
experience. use. -activites that
-being require imagination.
acknowledged. -activities with
-being praised for multifaceted
prompt and directions.
...Nina, -loves expressing herself much.
-she loves to explore new ideas.
-she like thinking of things to do.
Nina F. has signs of person with a SELF-EXPRESSIVE STYLE of learning.
-learn through -detailed and
-SELF-EXPRESSIVE Creative Activities discovery. demanding routines.
STYLE -personal insights or
...Nancy, -loves studying about ideas and how things are related.
-loves to compare choices and make decisions.
Nancy has signs of person with an UNDERSTANDING STYLE of learning.
-UNDERSTANDING Lectures, reading, -likes to plan and -memorization
STYLE logical discussions. organize her work. -routine or role
...Shamir, -likes helping someone.
-loves getting emotionally involved.
Shamir shows signs of person with an INTERPERSONAL STYLE of learning.
-INTERPERSONAL Group Experiences, -receiving -long periods of
STYLE role playing, encouragement working alone
personal expression -sharing personal silently
Rank the 4 characters according to their similarity to you:
1.Not at all like me 2.A little like me 3.Somewhat like me 4.A lot like me
SAMUEL NINA NANCY SHAMIR