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Articulation, Audio Lingual Method ,and World Englishes: Implications to ELT
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Articulation, Audio Lingual Method ,and World Englishes: Implications to ELT


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  • 1. Articulation, Audio-lingual Method and World Englishes: Implications to ELT Junnie Armel T. Salud UST Graduate School Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  • 2. “The most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of the process of learning; a continuing openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change.” --Carl Rogers Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  • 3. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  • 4. Celce-Murcia (2001): Fluctuations and Shifts *Why? -Lack sense of history of their profession -Unaware of the historical bases of the methodological optionsPrior to the 20th century:*(1) Getting learners to use a language (i.e. to speak and understand it) (2) Getting learners to analyze a language (i.e. to learn its grammar rules) Articulation and Audiolingual Method (US) / Oral-Situational Approach (UK) *In the history of teaching the prosodic features of the language, there are very few approaches, methods, and theories in relation to teaching and correcting mispronunciation. They are intuitive-imitative approach and analytical-linguistic approach (Celce-Murcia,1997). Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  • 5. “An intuitive-imitative approach depends on the learners ability tolisten and to imitate the rhythm and sounds of the target languagewithout the intervention of any explicit information”-Celce-Murcia,1997 This approach presupposes good models to be imitated; nativespeakers and phonograph records (e.g. audiocassettes and cds)“An analytic-linguistic approach, on the other hand, utilizes information and tools such as a phonetic alphabet, articulatory descriptions, parts of the vocal apparatus, contrastive information, and other aids to supplement listening, imitation, and production”  It focuses on the sounds through contrastive minimal pair drills and focuses on the problem-causing sounds of the target language to the learners and is a complementary to the intuitive-imitative approach. “ Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  • 6. AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (Actual Lesson) Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  • 7. AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD-Lessons begin with dialogues-Mimicry and memorization are used-Grammatical structures are sequenced and rules are taught inductively-Skills are sequenced. Listening, speaking –reading, writing postponed-Pronunciation is stressed from the beginning-Vocabulary is severely limited in initial stages-A great effort is made to prevent learner errors-Language is often manipulated without regard to meaning or context-The teacher must be proficient only in the structures, vocabulary, etc. that he/she teaching since learning activities and materials are carefully controlled. BEHAVIORIST Imitation Theory / Reinforcement theory Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7
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  • 9. Now is an era marked by the significantspread of English worldwide, with speakersof English as a second, foreign, or otherlanguage outnumbering native speakers(Jenkins, 2006; McKay,2003). Do You Speak Global?: The Spread of English and the Implications for English Language Teaching (Vol.1. Issue.1. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education) -Tonje M. Caine University of Calgary Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  • 10. World Englishes The Spread of English as an international language has changed our conception of both the language and how it should be taught. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  • 11. Discussion“Is the control of English shifting away from American and British native speakers?” Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  • 12. David Crystal answers… Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  • 13. Recent estimates cite the number of nonnative speakers of English as double (Kachru,1996), triple (Pakir, 1999), or, generously, quadruple(Kachru, 1996) the number of native speakers worldwide. With this spread projected to continue (Graddol, 1997), English languageteachers must consider the implications for teaching and learning(Jenkins, 2006; Yano, 2001). The Spread of English: The Concentric Circles of English (Kachru, 1996) Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13
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  • 15. Bhatt (2001) also attributed the success of the spread of English to“the economic conditions that created the commercial supremacy of the United Kingdom and the United States” and went further, citing this “econocultural model” as guaranteeing the continued spread of the language. In fact, Brutt-Griffler (1998) pinpointed the world econocultural model as “the center of gravity around which the varieties of world Englishes revolve” with the evolution of English as a global language paralleling the development of this world econocultural system. English, then, has successfully established itself as the preferred means of communication in complex global relations with the attendant power accompanying this position. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  • 16. At present, English goes by many names. It has been dubbed an international language, a lingua franca, a global language, and a world language (Erling, 2005; Jenkins, 2006; McArthur, 2004).In addition, led by scholars such as Kachru, English has developed a plural sense, with its different varieties designated world Englishes and the ensuing acronym, WE; these uses denote the essential plurality and inclusivity that informs the conception of English (Bhatt, 2001; Bolton, 2005; Jenkins, 2006; Kachru, 1996). Although at times confusing, Erling (2005) emphasized the important notion underlying these monikers: “These proposals place emphasis on functional uses of the language instead of geographical varieties and recognize that English can be used as a language of communication without necessarily being a language of identification” Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  • 17. Erling (2005) underlined the need for changesto ELT practice: “More important than finding an appropriate name for English is ensuring that ELT professionals around the world move theirpractice away from an ideology that privilegesL1 (‘inner circle’) varieties. The language must be taught as a means of intercultural communication and critical analysis. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  • 18. Implications of the spread to ELTWhat are the implications of the global spread of English ELTprofessionals might needto be aware of and attend to? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  • 19. Kachru (1996): -The acquisitional cow -The theoretical cow -The pedagogical cow -The sociolinguistic cow -The ideological cow Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  • 20. Which English? Whose standards?What David Crystal says… Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  • 21. -employ culturally sensitive second language teaching methodologies appropriate to the teachingcontext as in the approach known as ethnography of communication (Bhatt, 2001) -“models of teaching and learning need therefore to reflect the sociocultural ethos of the context of teaching/learning.” (Bhatt, 2001) -“[English] as an international language, belongs to its users, and as such it is the users’ cultural content and their sense of the appropriate use of English that should inform language pedagogy.” (McKay, 2003) Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  • 22. “Despite the strength of counter arguments, the belief in native speaker ownership persists among both native and nonnative speakers – teachers, teacher educators andlinguists alike, although it is often expressed with more subtlety than it was in the past” With this viewpoint so firmly entrenched, it is no wonder present day English teachers, teacher educators, researchers, and students maintain the fallacious notion that the ultimate goal of English language learning is native-like proficiency.” (Jenkins,2006)“Continuing to uphold native speaker standards as the end goal of English language learning will only serve to reinforce the language learner’s status as a language outsider destined for perpetual failure.” (Graddol, 2006). Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  • 23. “Transforming conceptions of language learning to accommodate changes in the many conceptions of Englishrequires raising the awareness ofteachers and students alike to the variety of WEs currently in use and developing.” (Cook, 1999; Jenkins, 2006). Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  • 24. Conclusion:English is recognized as an international language, with nonnativespeakers of English outnumbering native speakers. This global spreadrequires not only a shift in our conception of English, but also a shift inELT practice.Therefore, some changes in the ff factors are proposed:1.Teaching Materials : in consideration of WE2.Increased Exposure to WEs3.Public Edification4.Teacher Education5.Instruction and Assessment6.Eradicate the native speaker model and honor the pluricentricityof English Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24
  • 25. English is foreverybody. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25
  • 26. ReferencesCaine, T. (2008). Do you Speak Global?: The Spread of English and itsImplications in ELT. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education. Vol1. Issue 1. Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. USA: Heinle and HeinleDemirezen, M. (2010). The Principles and Applications of the Audio- lingual Pronunciation Rehabilitation Model in Foreign LanguageTeacher Education. Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol.6 No.2Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching. UK: Cambridge Wang, H. & Hill, C. (2011). A Paradigm Shift for ELT in Asia: From Imposition to Accommodation. The Journal of Asia TEFL. Vol.8. No.4,. p. 205-232 Free Powerpoint Templates Page 26