Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Directed Study Presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Directed Study Presentation

93
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
93
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Multi-Layered Interfaces for Mobile Applications for Older Adults: Qualitative Analysis By Justine Yang CPSC 448B April 28, 2009
  • 2. Introduction
    • Mobile devices have gone through a major
    • transformation in the past decades
    First phone in the 1970’s Phones we have today
  • 3. Introduction
    • And emerged in popularity in recent years
    Wait, there’s something missing! Where are the seniors in the picture?
  • 4. Introduction
    • It is observed that seniors often perceive new
    • technologies as too complicated
    • “ I don’t know how to use these new gadgets, my son taught me before, but I always forget after a while…”
  • 5. Motivation
    • Attempting to make the interfaces on mobile
    • devices easier to use
    Multi-Layered Interface!!!
  • 6. Motivation
    • Previous research shows
    • “ Multi-layered interfaces have been seen as a suitable approach to helping novice users to learn to use software interfaces.” - Shneiderman, B.
    • “ Novices can learn with multi-layered interfaces by starting with an initial layer consisting of a limited function set, and progressing to successive layers when needed or when they are comfortable using the initial set.”
  • 7. Study Design
  • 8. Study Design
    • Participants:
    • 16 young participants (age 20-39)
    • 16 senior participants (age 65+)
  • 9. Study Design
    • Independent Variables (Interface):
    • Multi-Layered Interface
      • Perform tasks on different interfaces
    • Non-Layered Interface (control)
      • Perform all tasks on one interface
      • Elaborate more in a bit…
  • 10. Study Design
    • Tasks:
    • 1 st set: Basic
    • (Add user, edit user, and delete user)
    • 2 nd set: Advanced
    • (Add voice dialing, send text message and
    • add custom ringtone)
  • 11. Study Design
    • Participants using Multi-Layered Interface
    Interface 1 Perform 1 st set of task (Add, edit, delete user) Interface 2 Perform 2 nd set of task (voice dial, text message, ringtone)
  • 12. Study Design
    • Participants using Non-Layered Interface
    Perform both sets of tasks Interface 2
  • 13. Study Design
    • Data:
    • 1. Performance
      • Track the number of extra steps performed in a task
    • 2. Questionnaires
      • Given after each set of tasks and rate on Likert scale
    • Post-study Interview
      • Open ended questions, understand preferences and reasoning
    • Data:
    • 1. Performance
      • Track the number of extra steps performed in a task
    • 2. Questionnaires
      • Given after each set of tasks and rate on Likert scale
    • Post-study Interview
      • Open ended questions, understand preferences and reasoning
  • 14. Study Design
    • What are the perceived benefits of the ML
    • interfaces for learning?
    • 2. What are the perceived benefits of the ML interfaces for long term usage?
    • 3. Do seniors prefer multi-layered interfaces or traditional non-layered interfaces and Why?
    • 4. Do age-related differences exist in the aforementioned questions?
  • 15. Results and Analysis
  • 16. Results and Analysis
    • Performance Data on Initial Learning
    ML NL ML NL
  • 17. Results and Analysis
    • Seniors prefer the ML interface for learning
    Total: 10/15 of the seniors prefer the ML interface NL ML 2/7 5/7 Seniors using NL 3/8 5/8 Seniors using ML Preference Learning
  • 18. Results and Analysis
    • Reasons why seniors prefer the ML interface:
    • Gradual Learning Curve
    • “ [D]oing the simpler thing first is easier. Going from simpler to complex is more of a natural progress of learning.”
    • (ML, age 65+, P53)
    • “ I would learn this first and go on to the other option if one is comfortable with [interface 1]. (ML, age 65+, P63)
  • 19. Results and Analysis
    • Drawbacks of the ML interface for Learning:
    • “ Because you sort of get in your mind that it’s a different thing and you had to learn this all over again.” (ML, age 65+, P69)
  • 20. Results and Analysis
    • Drawbacks of the ML interface for Learning:
    • 2. “If you do the first one, then you become over competent. Like you’d think you can do it with your eyes closed. Then, you get this false sense of competence. So I think I would want to go with the 2nd system first.” (ML, age 65+, P57)
  • 21. Results and Analysis
    • Performance Data on Long Term Usage
    ML,NL ML,NL
  • 22. Results and Analysis
    • Same number of seniors prefer the ML and NL
    • interface for long term usage
    ** B = Only Basic Interface B NL ML 0/7 4/7 3/7 Seniors using NL 1/8 3/8 4/8 Seniors using ML Preference Long Term Usage
  • 23. Results and Analysis
    • Reasons why seniors prefer the ML interface:
    • “ I think I would prefer them both even if I never use interface 2. If it’s there, there’s a possibility for me to use it.” (ML, age 65+, P67)
    • “ I would prefer the one where you have all the personal commonly used [features]…I would use this most of the time… It might be the occasional time that I want to use [interface 2] or probably not you know? “(ML, age 65+, P69)
  • 24. Results and Analysis
    • Reasons why seniors prefer the NL interface
    • “ I think I would choose the one with all the functions because it’s all there.”. (ML, age 65+, P52)
    • “ I would want all of the functions” (ML, age 65+, P53)
    • “ It’s not difficult to use…Keep it simple.” (NL, age 65+, P70)
  • 25. Results and Analysis
    • No drawback was seen from
    • participants’ response in using the
    • ML interface for long term usage
  • 26. Results and Analysis
    • Age-related differences:
    • Preference for Learning:
    • Senior: ML interface v.s. Young: Mixed preferences
    • Preference for Long Term Usage:
    • Senior: Equal v.s . Young: ML interface
  • 27. Results and Analysis Age-related differences in Learning : Senior: ML interface v.s. Young: Mixed preferences Seniors take more steps, difference between NL and ML is larger Seniors take more time, difference between NL and ML is larger
  • 28. Results and Analysis
    • Age-related differences in Long Term Usage :
    • Senior: Equal v.s. Young: ML interface
    Takes same number of steps, no difference between NL and ML Seniors take more time, no difference between NL and ML
  • 29. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #1: Priority
    • Senior: Simplicity
    • “ Probably, it’s simpler to do a bit and get more familiar with fingers and
    • where the buttons are and so on. Just the way you did.” (ML, age 65+, P59)
    • [Interface 1] Always. It’s simple . [For interface 2], well if you feel more
    • ambitious and want to do more fancy things. (ML, age 65+, P65)
    • Young: Efficiency and Convenience
    • “ I’ll definitely be faster if I use the one with fewer options…Use it when I
    • first got it. I would switch to the other one when I feel like I know how to do
    • the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P13)
  • 30. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #1: Priority
    • Senior : Simplicity
    • For learning: ML interface
    • “ It was easier and then increase the complexity. That worked well for me.” (ML, age 65+, P67)
    • For long term usage: either
    • ML interface: Use this one most of the time. These are the essential functions. The other functions are extras, fancy things to impress your friends.” (ML, age 65+, P65)
    • NL interface: “It’s not difficult to use, just more functions to use. I would just go with one [interface]. Keep it simple.” (NL, age+, P70)
  • 31. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #1: Priority
    • Young : Efficiency and Convenience
    • For learning: Mixed
    • ML participants prefer the ML interface:
    • “ [Interface 1] add quickly . Also for learning. [Interface 2] when bored, and want to try and use the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P3)
    • NL participants prefer the NL interface:
    • “ less moving around and all in one place. There are fewer steps.” (ML, age 20-39, P6)
    • For long term usage: ML interface
    • “ I would choose interface 1 because I have fewer options to scroll through. Interface 2: Use interface two when I have more time.” (ML, age 20-39, P10)
  • 32. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #2: Past Experience
    • Senior: Little Experience
    • Young: Abundant Experience
    Mobile Devices Computer 16/16 16/16 Young 5/15 15/15 Senior Experience
  • 33. Results and Analysis Possible Cause #2: Past Experience Senior : Less Experience complex, need guidance Takes more steps and longer time
  • 34. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #2: Past Experience
    • Senior : Less Experience complex, need guidance
    • For learning: ML interface
    • “ It was easier and then increase the complexity. That worked well for me.” (ML, age 65+, P67)
    • For long term usage: either
    • ML interface: Use this one most of the time. These are the essential functions. The other functions are extras, fancy things to impress your friends.” (ML, age 65+, P65)
    • NL interface: “ I can see what features that are in there, and I think it would be very useful for me and for my work. ” (NL, age+, P62)
  • 35. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #2: Past Experience
    • Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency
    • “ Plus, it’s not that complicated. It’s pretty standard I guess. It’s probably
    • harder for people in my parents age.” (NL, age 20-39, P4)
    20 10 identical Possible Cause #2: Past Experience Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency “ Plus, it’s not that complicated. It’s pretty standard I guess. It’s probably harder for people in my parents age.” (NL, age 20-39, P4)
  • 36. Results and Analysis
    • Possible Cause #2: Past Experience
    • Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency
    • For learning: Mixed
    • ML participants prefer the ML interface:
    • “ [Interface 1] add quickly . Also for learning. [Interface 2] when bored, and want to try and use the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P3)
    • NL participants prefer the NL interface:
    • “ less moving around and all in one place. There are fewer steps.” (ML, age 20-39, P6)
    • For long term usage: ML interface
    • “ I would choose interface 1 because I have fewer options to scroll through. Interface 2: Use interface two when I have more time.” (ML, age 20-39, P10)
  • 37. Conclusion
  • 38. Conclusion
    • Senior Users:
    • Learning
    • Senior participants prefer ML interface
    • Drawbacks exist, but can be overcome by switching to interface 2
    • Long Term Usage
    • Equal number of senior participants prefer the ML and NL Interfaces
    • but no drawback was found
  • 39. Conclusion
    • Younger Users:
    • There was no distinct improvement in terms of performance when learning through the ML interface
    • For long term usage, the ML interface is beneficial to younger population as the basic interface makes the operations more efficient
  • 40. Questions and Answer