Presentación de Richard Tremblay


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Director del Centro de Excelencia para rl Desarrollo de la Primera Infancia de la Univerisdad de Montreal, Canadá en el Seminario Internacional “El Impacto de la Educación Inicial”, organizado por JUNJI, Unicef y el Ministerio de Hacienda.

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  • Maya by Picasso, 1935
  • Presentación de Richard Tremblay

    1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desarrollo Moral y social DesDe la PriMera infancia : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problemas de Adaptación y Prevención de la Violencia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Richard E. Tremblay University of Montreal University College Dublin
    2. 2. 21
    3. 3. Statistics Canada (2001)
    4. 5. Adolphe Quetelet 1831
    5. 6. Eisner, 2003
    6. 7. <ul><li>Page 31: “The majority of young people who become violent are adolescent-limited offenders who, in fact, show little or no evidence of high levels of aggression or other problem behaviours during their childhood (3) .” </li></ul><ul><li>(3): Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon general. Washington, DC United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2001. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior &quot;Modern Psychological perspectives emphasize that aggressive and violent behaviors are learned responses to frustration, that they can also be learned as instruments for achieving goals, and that the learning occurs by observing models of such behavior. Such models may be observed in the family, among peers, elsewhere in the neighborhood, through the mass media ...&quot;. USA National Academy of Sciences Reiss and Roth, 1993 p.7
    8. 9. The Montreal Longitudinal-Experimental Study Subjects : 1,037 boys from low SES neighborhoods Assessment Ages : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 23, 28 Sources : Teachers, peers, parents, self, official files. Direct Observation in home, at school, in laboratory Experiment : Parent and child training (age 7-9 years) for aggressive boys in kindergarten (randomized)
    9. 10. Brame et al., 2001
    10. 11. Group 4 (4%) Group 2 (53%) Group 3 (28%) Group 1 (14%) PHYSICAL AGGRESSION TRAJECTORIES (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999)
    11. 12. <ul><li>Loeber et al., 2005 </li></ul>
    12. 13. Copyright restrictions may apply. Barker, E. D. et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:592-599. Trajectories for theft (12 to 31 years of age)
    13. 14. Violence, Theft, Executive Function Barker et al., 2007, AGP
    14. 16. HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA (%)
    15. 17. ELEM Boys on YOA (12-17 years) <ul><li>Total 15% (113 / 779) </li></ul><ul><li>Without Supervision 42% </li></ul><ul><li>With Supervision 32% </li></ul><ul><li>With Placement 26% </li></ul>
    16. 18. Criminal Records – ELEM Boys 18-24 years <ul><li>Total 17.6% (137/779) </li></ul><ul><li>Violence 17.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Property 31.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs 16.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Others 34.3% </li></ul>
    17. 19. Court Intervention 13-17 years Violence condemnation 18-24 years (After controling for confounding variables) <ul><li> Predictors OR </li></ul><ul><li>Court Intervention +9 </li></ul><ul><li>Without Supervision +3 </li></ul><ul><li>With Supervision +16 </li></ul><ul><li>Placement +51 </li></ul>
    18. 20. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Tobacco Alcohol Drugs Early Sex Violence Unemployement Poverty School Failure Depression
    19. 21. <ul><li>Page 31: “The majority of young people who become violent are adolescent-limited offenders who, in fact, show little or no evidence of high levels of aggression or other problem behaviours during their childhood (3) .” </li></ul><ul><li>(3): Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon general. Washington, DC United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2001. </li></ul>
    20. 22. Group 4 (4%) Group 2 (53%) Group 3 (28%) Group 1 (14%) PHYSICAL AGGRESSION TRAJECTORIES (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999)
    21. 23. He who considers things in their first growth and origin... will obtain the clearest view of them. Aristotle, Politics, Book 1 chap 2
    22. 24. <ul><li>Picasso </li></ul>
    23. 25. Québec Longitudinal Study of Children Subjets : 2,223 children representing births in 1997-98 (twins: 500 pairs) Age at evaluations : 5, 17, 30, 42 months, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 years Sources of info : Parents, child care provider, teachers, peers, children, official files. Observations at home, in day care, at school, in the laboratory. Domains : Physical, emotional, cognitive, social development
    24. 28. Physical Aggression Trajectories (17 to 60 months) <ul><li>Côté et al., 2007, AGP </li></ul>
    25. 29. Physical Aggression Trajectories From 1.5 and 17 years N=2000 QLSCD N=10 000 NLSCY Côté et al. (2007) Côté et al. (2006) Lacourse et al. (2003) N=1000 MLES
    26. 30. delinquency accidents Depression Obesity Drug abuse School drop-out Unemployment Poverty ENVIRONMENT GENOTYPE Neighborhood Physical and Social Characteristics Risk Factors Proximal Distal Bio-Psy-socio Development Trajectories Additive interactive Brain Development Gene Expression Peers Exposition increases With age Parents Exposition decreases with age Genes-Environment-Brain-Behaviour School 5-12 y. Targeted genes MAOA 5-HTT 5-HT1A 5-HT1B 5-HT2B TPH2 Pregnancy Infancy 0-2 y. Pre-K. 3-4 y. Ado-Adult 13-30 y.
    27. 32. Dionne et al., 2003 A C E 82% 0% 18% A C E 82% 0% 18% Intraclass MZ and DZ correlations and ACE Model for Physical Aggression and Expressive Vocabulary at 18 Months
    28. 33. Chronic Physical Aggression Young mother Low education Single parent Smoke Mother behav. prob. Poverty Pregnancy Birth - 6 M. Obstetrical complic. Mother coercive Poor Marital Relat. Mother depressive 12 M. +
    29. 34. 27 June 2004
    30. 35. Low LG High LG L1 H1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5’ 3’ 5’ 3’
    31. 36. Methylation of rRNA promoter from whole blood DNA High Medium Provençal et al., 2006 Upstream Control Element (-186 - -50) Core Promoter (-50 - +20) Legend: :CG methylated :CG unmethylated :CG ? UCE CP A B C D UCE CP E I J
    32. 38. Causes for Failure to Learn Alternatives to Physical Aggression in EC <ul><li>-Genome characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>-Gene expression triggered by prenatal environment </li></ul><ul><li>-Gene expression triggered by post-natal environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Learning experiences provided by the environment </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>What are the consequences for preventive interventions? Development of Brain Structures and Functions
    33. 39. Preventive Interventions -9m to 5y Parent and Surrogate Parent Support <ul><li>Mother’s pregnancy life style </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting sensitivity and care </li></ul><ul><li>Language development </li></ul><ul><li>Executive function development </li></ul><ul><li>Play-fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Prosocial skills </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul>
    34. 40. Evidence of ECD Services Effects Support to Parenting Olds et al., 1998 (Pregnancy to 24 m.) Antisocial behavior at 15 years of age. Mednick et al., 1987 (Birth +) Antisocial behavior up to adulthood Support to Parenting and Day Care Campbell et al., 2001 (12 to 60 m.) Cognitive development up to adulthood Schweinhart et al., 2006 (36 to 48 m.) Antisocial behavior 18 to 40 years of age. Raine et al., 2001 (36 to 60 months) CNS arousal and orienting at 11 years of age
    35. 41. Cameiro & Heckman, 2003
    36. 42. Conclusions <ul><li>Humans do not learn to physically aggress, they learn not to. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic physical aggression is not something that starts in adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>(idem for vandalism, theft, violation of rules?) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Environmental effects on physical aggression, like genetic effects, are strongly intergenerational. </li></ul>
    37. 43. Conclusions (ctnd) <ul><li>3. Learning not to physically aggress depends on how well the parents learned during their own childhood </li></ul><ul><li>4. Environmental influences on a child’s use of physical aggression probably start at the moment of conception. </li></ul><ul><li>5. If this is true, prevention of chronic physical aggression should probably start at conception, at the latest. </li></ul>
    38. 44. Conclusions (ctnd) <ul><li>6. The earlier we start helping disruptive children the better </li></ul><ul><li>7. Placing disruptive children and adolescents together simply increases the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Young girls become mothers, their socialisation should be THE PRIORITY </li></ul><ul><li>9. Ability to inhibit physical aggression is a thin veneer that can easily break under pressure, hence the importance of situational prevention. </li></ul>
    39. 45. Global ECD Conclusions <ul><li>The Human Brain is the organ that makes us civilized humans </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Brain is like a pension fund, the earlier we invest the greater the returns </li></ul><ul><li>3. Our main Brain Investment Plan dates back to the mid 19 th century: Free universal education starting at 5-7 years of age </li></ul>
    40. 46. Global ECD Conclusions <ul><li>The large majority of children do not have access to effective early childhood development services. </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices usually have the following characteristics: start early , intense, long lasting, comprehensive, well trained staff. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce inequalities in education, health, and well-being we must start by offering effective services to the less privileged from pregnancy onwards. </li></ul>
    41. 47. Unless you give infants everything they want, they cry and get angry, they even beat their own parents … Thus an evil man is rather like a sturdy boy, or a man of childish mind, and evil is simply want of reason at an age when it normally accrues to men by nature governed by discipline and experience of harm. Thomas Hobbes, On the Citizen, 1647
    42. 48. <ul><li>We should be especially careful with our children during their first years. </li></ul><ul><li>For at this stage their behaviour is guided by instinct more than by reason, </li></ul><ul><li>so that they are inclined equally to good and evil </li></ul><ul><li>– more to the latter perhaps – </li></ul><ul><li>and it is always easier to forget good habits </li></ul><ul><li>than to unlearn bad ones. </li></ul><ul><li>This truth was already known to pagan philosophers and caused them great perplexity . </li></ul>Erasmus, 1529
    43. 49. Su Nombre es Hoy (His Name is Today) <ul><li>“ We are guilty of many errors and many faults, </li></ul><ul><li>but our worst crime is abandoning the children, </li></ul><ul><li>neglecting the fountain of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the things we need can wait. </li></ul><ul><li>The child cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>Right now is the time his bones are being formed, </li></ul><ul><li>his blood is being made, </li></ul><ul><li>and his senses are being developed. </li></ul><ul><li>To him we cannot answer ‘Tomorrow,’ </li></ul><ul><li>his name is today.” </li></ul><ul><li> Gabriela Mistral </li></ul>
    44. 50. Mucho Gracias <ul><li>Danke Schön </li></ul>