Teenagers’ short message service (sms)
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Teenagers’ short message service (sms) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TEENAGERS’ SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS) STYLES
    A PAPERPresented to the Academy of Foreign Language BinaSaranaInformatikaIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Diploma Three (D.III) Programme   ByNOVI ERNAWATI31080024
    English Department
    The Academy of Foreign Language BinaSaranaInformatika
    Jakarta 2011
  • 2. CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
    Chapter 1
    1.1. Background and Reason of Choosing the Title
    Language is means of communication. Transferring information between humans.
    The way someone communicate to one another depends on how close the relationship among them.
    Technology application makes the flow of information limitless.
    In terms of efficiency, the information may be shortened as long as it is understood by other persons involved in the communication.
    SMS use is may be the answer of teens to share information.
    Teens build their SMS styles. Short message service (SMS) is a technology that enables the sending and receiving of messages between mobile phone. More practical, cheaper and easier compared to cost when dialing someone.
    Teenagers can send a text a message more than 50 short message service (SMS) per days. Most of teenagers create styles writes to a text message and it become habitual and characteristic to send a text message. Styles as is written by teenagers are very unique with kind of styles.
    Of all these facts, analyzing teens’ SMS styles is such an interesting thing to conduct.
     
  • 3. 1.2. Statement of the Problem
    Chapter 1
    What are short message services (SMS) styles usually used by teenagers?
    What are teenager’s reasons to shorten their message?
    What description could be presented through this discussion of styles?
     
    1.3. Scope of the Problem
    Analysis is limited to know the styles, their reasons, and find out if there is variations in SMS style as usually done by teenagers.
    1.4. Methods and Procedures of the Analysis
    • This paper is conducted by implementing methods and procedure later on the analysis. Descriptive method will be applied here. Field research is needed in obtaining data SMS. After getting the data, then looking for relevant theories and classification or any description of SMS styles is also executed. Moreover, the writer also collects some data from books, articles, text message from teenagers and from any sources which are related to the topic and find important information and those will be presented descriptively. Browsing from the web is also conducted.
    • 4. This paper is then divided into several chapters. For Chapter I, it presents the background of the topic, problems, limitation of problems, and methods and procedure of the analysis. For the second chapter, it covers relevant theories which support later for discussion on Chapter III. The last chapter presents conclusion and suggestion.
  • CHAPTER II : THEORETICAL REVIEW
    Chapter 2
    Acronyms
    Blending
    Clipping
    Teens’ SMS Style
    Morphology
    Coinage
    Compounding
    Back Formation
    Truncation
    Contractions
  • 5. Chapter 2
    2.1. Morphology
    Brinton (2000:33), Morphology is the study of the structure or form of words in a particular language, and of their classification.
    Carstairs-McCharthy, Booij and Brinton have the same opinion that used structure of word or patterns to technical of language called morphology.
    Morphology has word formation processes, and language users may also make new words by means of word creation (or word manufacturing). The following types can be distinguished like acronyms, blending, clipping, coinage, compounding, back formation, truncation, and contraction.
  • 6. 2.1.1. Acronyms
    Chapter 2
    Booij(2005:35) stated that combination of initial letters of a word sequence is called acronyms. For example, NATO > North Atlantic Treaty Organization, UP > Young Urban Professional.
    Lieber (2009:66) said that in acronyms, the new word is pronounced as a word, rather than as a series of letters. For example, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome gives us AIDS, pronounced [eidz].
    According to Aarts and McMahon (2006:510), an acronym is an initials which is pronounced according to ordinary grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. For example, AIDS >Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome pronounced[eidz], BASIC > Basic All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, EFTPOS > Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale, LASER > Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, SALT > Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, SCUBA > Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, TESOL [‘ti:sal] > Teaching of English to Speakers of other Languages, UNESCO > United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization are acronyms.
    Booij, Lieber, Aarts and McMahon agree that acronyms initially capitalized of a word and pronounced as a word.
  • 7. 2.1.2. Blending
    Chapter 2
    Arabi(2008:14) stated that another category of abbreviations in which the first syllables of two or three words are combined and pronounced as an ordinary word, such as codec > coder-decoder, modem > modulator-demodulator, inmarsat > international maritime satellite organization. Other forms of blending are made of the first syllable of the first word and the last syllable of the second word, such as netiquette > network-etiquette, webinar-web-based seminar.
    According to Booij (2005:41), blending is quite popular as a means of creating new English words. Try to come up with some meaning for the following recent blends, such as: fallowed, graffiti, metro sexual, nicotine, and padlock. In more details, blending combination of the first part of one word with the second part of another.
    Brinton (2000:120) said that a blend involves two processes of word formation, compounding and clipping. Two free words are combined and blended, usually by clipping of the end of the first word and the beginning of the second word, although sometimes one or the other morpheme is left intact. Blends are sometimes called “portmanteau” words.
    Brinton added that blending as a process a word formation overwhelm compounding and clipping.
    Arabi, Booij and Brinton agree that blending deal with word formation through combining parts of word to create a new word.
  • 8. 2.1.3. Clipping
    Chapter 2
    According to Brinton (2000:121-122), a clipping is the result of deliberately dropping part of a word, usually either the end or the beginning, or less often both, while retaining the same meaning and same word class. As in the following example: mimeo > mimeograph, fax > facsimile, burger > hamburger, flu > influenza etc.In more details, Brinton clearly clipping is generally not sensitive to morphological boundaries, though it does usually reflect phonological processes, selecting the longest possible syllable, what is called a maximal syllable. Such as, narc rather than nar. clipping often begin life as colloquial forms, such as the clipped forms prof > professor, gym > gymnasium, chem. > chemistry, psych > psychology, or lab > laboratory one hears on campus, but many have become fully accepted in the standard language and are no longer recognized as clipped forms.
    Arabi (2008:14) said that a category of abbreviations in which some of the letters or sounds of a word are omitted on the key letters are combined, for instance: bldg> building, mux > multiplexer etc.
    Lieber (2009:66) stated that clipping is a means of creating new words already existing words. For example, we have info created from information, blog created from web blog, or fridge created from refrigerator.
    Brinton, Arabi and Lieber have the same idea that abbreviation some words or sounds of a word which omitted the real meaning called clipping.
  • 9. 2.1.4. Coinage
    Chapter 2
    Smith (2009:19) said that closed-class words cannot be joined readily by new coinages; they form a restricted set of forms which play important cohesive roles in discourse. They are sometimes known as ‘grammar words’, a rather confusing description which will be generally avoided here.
    According to Lieber (2009:211), a word that is made up from whole cloth rather than by affixation, compounding, conversion, blending, reduplication, or other processes.
    Lieber added that coinage as a process a word formation rather than affixation, compounding, conversion, blending, reduplication and other process.
    Smith and Lieber agree that made up a new word with closed-class words, a process called coinage.
  • 10. 2.1.5. Compounding
    Chapter 2
    Smith (2009:184) stated that a process of lexical morphology (word-formation), where by derived forms are produced by placing two free morphemes together.
    Booij (2005:90) said that in many languages, compounding (also called composition) is the most frequently used way of making new lexemes. Its defining property is that it consists of the combination of lexemes into larger words. In simple cases, compounding consists of the combination of two words, in which one word modifies the meaning of the other, the head. This means that such compounds have a binary structure.
    Smith and Booij expressed that compounding deal with word formation with consist of the combination of two words.
  • 11. 2.1.6. Back Formation
    Chapter 2
    Booij(2005:55) stated that a prototypical case of paradigmatic word-formation is back formation in which the direction of derivation is inverted: the less complex word in derived from the more complex word by omitting something. For instance, sculpt > sculptor, babysit > babysitter etc.
    According to Lieber (2009:198), a morphological process in which a word is formed by subtracting a piece, usually an affix, from a word which is or appears to be complex. In English, for example, the verb peddle was created by back formation from peddler (originally spelled speddlar).
    According to Brinton (2000:120), in back formation speakers derive a morphologically simple word from a form which they analyze, on the basis of derivational and inflectional patterns existing in English, as a morphologically complex word.
    Booij, Lieber and Brinton agree that word formed in derived from complex words by omitted something.
  • 12. 2.1.7. Truncation
    Chapter 2
    Booij(2005:36) stated that linguists also use the term truncation. Especially in relation to the formation of personal names which have an affective load and faction as hypocoristic (names of endearment). In many cases, the stressed syllable of the full form is the core of the truncated name, which consists of one or two syllable.
    According to Arabi (2008:14), a category of abbreviations in which a word is simply shortened by cutting off the first or last syllable, such as phone > telephone, amp > amplifier, fig > figure. For building such short forms, it is recommended to select at least three letters of the word.
    Booij and Arabi expressed that truncation is a simply word in which omitted several words and consist of one or two syllable.
  • 13. 2.1.8. Contractions
    Chapter 2
    Arabi(2008:15) stated that a category of abbreviations in which the first and last letters of a word is selected, such as Mr > Mister, Dr > Doctor.
    Aarts and McMahon (2006:533) said that the status of ‘weak’ auxiliaries is somewhat less settled. Some descriptions treat contractions such as I’m, we’ll and she’s as reductions of the corresponding strong forms I am, we will and she has/is, whereas others recognize parallel inventories of strong and weak auxiliaries.
    Arabi, Aarts and McMahon expressed that a word formation in which become abbreviation one or two word and form from weak auxiliaries.
  • 14. 2.2. Definition of Short Message Service (SMS)
    Chapter 2
    Hillebrand(2010:28) stated that the short message service (SMS) as a very special type of messaging implemented as an integral part of the signaling systems, was proposed in GSM as the only new service that did not already exist in public networks. In more details, Hillebrand clearly the long existing idea of an enhanced paging service integrated into the new mobile communication system could be realized by the short message service (SMS) ‘point-to-point, mobile terminated’.
     Jonack(2004:14) said that short message service is a very clever and economical resource that was designed back in the 1980s when GSM specifications were taken from CNET (the research center of France Telecom) and redeveloped as a worldwide standard.
    According to Fulton and Fedricks (2010:255), SMS (short message service) text messages are another form of instant communication. SMS text messages can contain only 160 characters. Instant messages, by contrast, are not typically limited in length, and they can contain more than text, unlike SMS text messages which are text only. SMS is designed to be sent between cell phones, or from a PC to a cell phone.
     Hillebrand, Jonack, Fulton and Fedricks stated that short message service (SMS) is the new mobile communication system which easier, cheaper and practicial using SMS text messages with writes point to point or mobile terminated. Short message service (SMS) is designed to be sent between mobile phone.
  • 15. CHAPTER III : DISCUSSION
    Chapter 3
    3.1. SMS Styles
    There are some short message service (SMS) styles usually used by teenagers. Those styles become habits for us. They used short message service (SMS) for communication with their friends via mobile phone. When they communication used short message service (SMS), they apply some styles. Commonly, these styles understood to each others. There are some short message service (SMS) styles usually understood by teenagers. For example, acronyms, blending, clipping, coinage, compounding, back formation, truncation, and contraction.
    The next, there are some example short message service (SMS) here agreement with those styles. Which is supported by data in short message service (SMS) myself and I require some short message service (SMS) to my friends because for try complete short message service (SMS) styles. In analysis later the words of abbreviation here will bolt and italic so that more clear and easier understand with look at those short message service (SMS), which the words included acronyms, blending, clipping, coinage, compounding, back formation, truncation, and contraction.
  • 16. 3.1.1. Acronyms
    There are nine example of abbreviation deal with acronyms presented here.
    BTW, wht r u doing now? This short message service (SMS) receive on June 3, 2011 at 13.09. Btw here included to acronyms because the theory said that combination of initial letters of a word sequence called acronyms. So, the initial letters by the way is BTW. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to acronyms.
    Chapter 3
    3.1.2. Blending
    There are five example of abbreviation deal with blending presented here.
    • I have modem, I use speedy modem, I think it’s faster than other modem, it’s from Telkom, and sometimes it needs time to connect to the internet but I think it’s enough for me. There are 3 wires on that modem black, yellow, n grey. It has different function, by the way I like using this kinda modem. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 8.55. Modem here included to blending because the theory said that another category of abbreviations in which the first syllables of two or three words are combined and pronounced as an ordinary word called blending. So, modem is combined and pronounced as an ordinary word that is modulator-demodulator. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to blending.
  • 3.1.3. Clipping
    There are eleven example of abbreviation deal with clipping presented here.
    I luv u so much. This short message service (SMS) received on May 28, 2011 at 2 o’clock. Luv and u here included to clipping because the theory expressed that a category of abbreviations in which some of the letters or sounds of a word are omitted on the key letters are combine called clipping. So, luv and u the shortening or reducing long words love and you. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to clipping.
    Chapter 3
    3.1.4. Coinage
    There are two example of abbreviation deal with coinage presented here.
    • I ate sandwich this morning. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 9.25. Sandwich here included to coinage because the theory stated that closed-class words cannot be joined readily by new coinages; they form a restricted set of forms which play important cohesive roles in discourse. They are sometimes known as ‘grammar words’, a rather confusing description which will be generally avoided here called coinage. So, sandwich creation of a totally new word. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to coinage.
  • 3.1.5. Compounding
    There are five example of abbreviation deal with compounding presented here.
    I’ll not do my homwrktmrrow. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 10.26. Homwrkhere included to compounding because the theory said that a process of lexical morphology (word-formation), where by derived forms are produced by placing two free morphemes together called compounding. So, homwrkis placing two free morphemes that is home-work. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to compounding.
    Chapter 3
    3.1.6. Back Formation
    There are four example of abbreviation deal with back formation presented here.
    • Guys, can you edit my profile? This short message service (SMS) received on June 12, 2011 at 7.12. Edit here included to back formation because the theory expressed that a prototypical case of paradigmatic word-formation is back formation in which the direction of derivation is inverted: the less complex word in derived from the more complex word by omitting something called back formation. So, edit is word formed in derived from complex words by omitted something that is editor. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to back formation.
  • 3.1.7. Truncation
    There are seven example of abbreviation deal with truncation presented here.
    R. A Kartini is my favrite Indonesian fig. This short message service (SMS) received on June 12, 2011 at 17.41. Fig here include to truncation because the theory expressed that a category of abbreviations in which a word is simply shortened by cutting off the first or last syllable called truncation. So, fig is a weak auxiliary that is figure. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to truncation.
    Chapter 3
    3.1.8. Contraction
    There are seven example of abbreviation deal with contraction presented here.
    • I’ll be arriving at station at usual place c u 2morrow. This short message service (SMS) received on June 4, 2011 at 13.55. I’ll here include to contraction because the theory expressed that a category of abbreviations in which the first and last letters of a word is selected called contraction. So, I’ll is weak auxiliaries that is I will. Exactly, this short message service (SMS) included to contraction.
  • 3.2. Finding
    The analysis short message service (SMS) styles, I found some different styles to every message, and which is the words included acronyms, blending, clipping, coinage, compounding, back formation, truncation, and contraction. Here, several examples with different styles to every message.
    U mine me, me mine u, can’t life without u, ILU so mac. This short message service (SMS) receive on June 6, 2011 at 9.23. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, can’t include contraction, u and mac include clipping, ILU include acronyms.
    OMG, my keyboard is broken. I don’t finish type my assignment. Wat I do? This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 17.00. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, OMG include acronyms, keyboard includecompounding, don’t include contraction and watinclude clipping.
    BTW, wht r u doing now? This short message service (SMS) receive on June 3, 2011 at 13.09. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, BTW include acronyms, wht r u include clipping.
    Chapter 3
  • 17. I’ll not do my homwrktmrrow. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 10.26. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, I’ll include contraction, homwrk include compounding and tmrrow include clipping.
    Sist, do u free tomorrow morning? I want 2 ask u 2 join with me 2 have brunch at 10.30 a.m. at our favorite café. Would u sist? This short message service (SMS) received on June 5, 2011 at 20.07. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, sist include truncation, u and 2 include clipping, brunch include blending and a.m. include acronyms.
    Morning, have a gud day GBUfrens. This short message service (SMS) receive on June 4, 2011 at 10.20. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, gud and frensinclude clipping, GBU include acronyms.
    Friends, happy b’day, wish u all the best, thing in ur life. This short message service (SMS) receive on June 6, 2011 at 9.25. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, b’day and ur include clipping, WYATB include acronyms.
    Yesterday, ICU in front of trader a newspaper in station. U wears blue clothes. Is that u girl? This short message service (SMS) receive on June 6, 2011 at 16.41. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, ICU include acronyms and u include clipping.
    Chapter 3
  • 18. I have modem, I use speedy modem, I think it’s faster than other modem, it’s from Telkom, and sometimes it needs time to connect to the internet but I think it’s enough for me. There are 3 wires on that modem black, yellow, n grey. It has different function, by the way I like using this kinda modem. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 8.55. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, modem include blending, it’s include contraction, BTW include acronyms.
    Guys, at BSI any hotspot area, so you can browse. At Detos too any Wi-Fi zone, so we can browsing, just bring your net book or blackberry. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 8.59. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, BSI include acronyms, WI-FI include blending and net book include compounding.
    I’ll be arriving at station at usual place. C u 2morrow. This short message service (SMS) received on June 4, 2011 at 13.55. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, I’ll include contraction and c u 2morrow include clipping.
    I thnk, he’s not a pick pockt like u say bfore. This short message service (SMS) received on June 9, 2011 at 10.40. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, he’s include contraction, pick pockt include compounding, u and bfore include clipping.
    Chapter 3
  • 19. Chapter 3
    I cannottypewrite now, bcause I so buzy. This short message service (SMS) received on June 12, 2011 at 7.19. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, cannot include contraction, typewrite include back formation, bcause and buzy include clipping.
    Are ukidd? This short message service (SMS) received on May 28, 2011 at 2 o’clock. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, u include clipping and kidd include truncation.
    R.A Kartini is my favrite Indonesian fig. This short message service (SMS) received on May 28, 2011 at 2 o’clock. There are some short message service (SMS) styles in this message. For example, favrite include clipping, and fir include truncation.
  • 20. 3.3. Variations
    Several variations short message service (SMS) styles usually finded by message presented here.
    Beiby, beb - baby
    C, cee - see
    Luv, luph, lope, lov3, lop3 - love
    Hpyb’day, ppyb’day, happy b’day, hb – happy birthday
    Dunno - don’t know
    Wht, wat – what
    R, re, ar – are
    Tmrrow, 2morrow, tmrrw, 2morro – tomorrow
    Frens, flend, frenz - friend
    Thx, thnx, thankz, thengs - thanks
    Bcoz, coz, bcause, cuz – because
    Gud – good
    Bfore, b4 – before
    To – 2
    N – and
    U - you
    Chapter 3
  • 21. CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
    Chapter 4
    4.1. Conclusion
    Referring to what have been discussed in the previous chapter, it is reasonable to present such a conclusion here. Short message service (SMS) styles are usually used by teenagers to communicate or share such information to their friends. They share it via cell-phone. They unfold and apply new styles so that they may have the same comprehension and understanding one to another. The more they send messages, the more they apply different styles. As there are eight styles of SMS, clipping poses as the most style often used by teenagers, followed by acronyms, and the least is coinage.
    There are 11 SMS with clipping, 9 for acronyms, 8 for contraction, 7 for truncation, 5 for blending, 4 for compounding, 4 for back formation, 2 for coinage.
    There is also another finding about SMS style, here called as “variants”. It refers to a lexical word but it could be presented in many forms. As referred to data obtained, it is classified into clipping, but nor for other SMS styles.
    Teenagers have their own reason for applying SMS while they communicate with their friends and someone else. Teenagers more choose short message service (SMS) for communicate because it is cheaper, easier and more practical, and not spending much money. Teenagers commonly communicate more than 50 short message service (SMS) per days. This may also be influenced by the provision of free SMS from provider. There are several providers which give free SMS with special requirements, such sending 2 SMS will get 50 free SMS. This all will make teenagers possible to choose using SMS to communicate with someone else. They apply all kinds of SMS styles uniquely like clipping, acronyms, contraction, blending, coinage, compounding, back formation, and truncation.
  • 22. 4.2. Suggestion
    Based on the conclusion above and realizing the importance of this topic, then I finally present several suggestions, as following:
    Before choosing the topic to be conducted in your research, you must be acquainted enough with information about the topic so that you will not confuse with your chosen.
    If you want to do analysis on the obtained data, it would be better if you prepare for needed materials to complete it, such as relevant references, literary reviews, and others supporting materials. These all will be helpful the time you conduct the analysis.
    Finding some examples on short message service (SMS) styles may also be helpful to make you be more familiar to the topic plan to be discussed.
    Enriching your data may also be gained by asking your friends’ SMS. By doing this, you may know more about the SMS styles applied recently among teenagers.
    Technology is vastly developed, and the use of SMS to communicate will be more flourish especially among teenagers, so the style of SMS may be richer. So, further discussion on this topic is widely opened.
    Chapter 4
  • 23. Thank You