Katipunan

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Katipunan

  1. 1. Junhel Dalanon, DDM, MAT
  2. 2. The Katipunan is Born <ul><li>Andres Bonifaciowas also a member of La Liga Filipina, although he soon lost hope in gaining reforms though peaceful means. This feeling was especially heightened when Jose Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. Bonifacio became convinced that the only way the Philippines could gain independence was through a revolution. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Bonifacio then founded the “ Katastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipuanan ng mga Anak ng Bayan ” (KKK) on July 7, 1892 in a house on Azcarraga street (now Claro M. Recto), in Tondo Manila. The Katipunan had colorful beginnings. As a symbol of the member’s loyalty, they performed the solemn rite of sanduguan (blood compact), wherein each one signed his name with his own blood.. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The members agreed to recruit more people using the “triangle system” of enlistment. Each original member would recruit tow new members who were not related to each other. Each new member would do the same thing, and so on down the line. Members were also asked to contribute one Real (about 25 centavos) each month in order to raise funds for the association. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>▪ The political goal was to completely separate the Philippines from Spain after declaring the country’s independence. ▪ The moral goal was to teach the Filipinos good manners, cleanliness, hygiene, fine morals, and how to guard themselves against religious fanaticism.. ▪ The civic goal was to encourage Filipinos to help themselves and to defend the poor oppressed. </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Kataastaasang Sanggunian ” (supreme council) was the highest governing body of the Katipunan. It was headed by a supremo, or president. Each province had a “ Sangguaniang Bayan ” (Provincial Council) and each town had a “ Sangguniang Balangay ” (Popular Council). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leaders <ul><li>▪ Deodato Arellano -Supremo ▪ Ladislao Diwa -Fiscal ▪ Teodora Plata -Secretary ▪ Valentine Diaz -treasurer ▪ Andres Bonifacio -controller </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jose Rizal and the Katipunan <ul><li>Jose Rizal never became involved in the organization and activities of the Katipunan; but the Katipuneros still looked up to him as a leader. In fact, Rizal’s name was used as a password among the society’s highest-ranking members, who were called bayani. </li></ul><ul><li>Andres Bonifacio had already known Rizal during his La Liga Filipina days, although Rizal did not know Bonifacio personally Nevertheless, Bonifacio so respected Rizal’s intelligence and talent that in June 1896, he sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to seek Rizal’s advice on the planned revolution. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Rizal told Valenzuela that the timing was not right for a revolution. The people were not yet ready and they did not have enough weapons. He suggested that the Katipunan obtain the support of wealthy and influential Filipinos first, in order to gain financial assistance. He also recommended Antonio Luna as commander of its armed forces, since Luna had much knowledge and expertise in military tactics. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Valenzuela returned to Manila on June 26 and relayed Rizal’s advice to Bonifacio, who admitted that it would indeed be fatal for the Filipinos to fight without enough weapons. However, there was no stopping the Revolution. Bonifacio ordered his men to prepare for battle. He directed them to store enough food and other supplies. Battle plans were made with the help of Emilio Jacinto. It was suggested that the revolutionary headquarters be located near the seas or mountains to provide for an easy retreat, if necessary. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Katipunan is Discovered <ul><li>Rumors about a secret revolutionary society had long been in circulation, although no solid evidence could be found to support them. The big break as far as the Spanish authorities was concerned, came on August 19, 1896 when a KKK member, Teodoro Patiño told his sister Honoria about the existence of the Katipunan. Patiño was a worker in the printing press of Diario de Manila . Honoria was then living with nuns in a Mandaluyong orphanage. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The information upset Honoria so much that she told the orphanage’s Mother Superior, Sor Teresa de Jesus, what her brother had revealed. Sor Teresa suggested they seek the advice of Father Mariano Gil, the parish priest of Tondo. </li></ul><ul><li>After hearing Patiño’s revelations, Father Mariano Gil-accompanied by several Guardias Civiles immediately searched the premises of Diario de Manila and found evidence of the Katipunan’s existence. The governor general was quickly informed. The printing press was padlocked and hundreds of suspected KKK members were arrested. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cry of Pugadlawin <ul><li>News about the discovery of the Katipunan spread to Manila and nearby suburbs, and Andres Bonifacio immediately called for a general meeting. Various wings of the Katipunan gathered at the house of Juan Ramos in Pugadlawin on August 23, 1896. Ramos was the son of Melchora Aquino, also known as “Tandang Sora” and was later acknowledged as the Mother of the Katipunan.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Bonifacio asked his men whether they were willing to fight to the bitter end. Everyone shouted their approval, except for Teodoro Plata, who though that it was too soon for a revolution. Heartened by his men’s response, Bonifacio then asked them to tear their cedulas (residence certificates) to pieces, as a sign of their defiance and determination to rise against the Spaniards. The men immediately tore up their cedulas, shouting, Mabuhay ang Pilipinas (long live the Philippines) or the Cry of Pugadlawin. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Katipunan in Cavite <ul><li>Cavite soon became the center of the Revolution, and the Katipuneros there divided themselves into the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions. Baldomero Aguinaldo, brother of Emilio Aguinaldo, headed the Magdalo group, which was stationed in Kawit. General Mariano Alvarez led the Magdiwang group, which was stationed in Noveleta. </li></ul><ul><li>The two groups fought in separate battles. Emilio Aguinaldo overran Kawit on August 31, 1896, while Alvarez attacked Noveleta. In Bacoor, Aguinaldo tried to intercept Spanish reinforcements coming from Manila; but he was repulsed and forced to retreat to nearby Imus. Here, on the morning of September 5, he defeated the Spanish troops under the command of General Aguirre. A hundred Spaniards were killed and 60 weapons were confiscated. Aguinaldo was hailed as a hero. The adoring Caviteños referred to him as “General Miong” and no longer “Kapitan Miong.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>General Aguinaldo’s numerous victories in the battlefield made him the acknowledged revolutionary leader in Cavite. He issued a proclamation on October 31, 1896 enjoining the people to take courage and continue fighting for Philippine independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Owing to the defeat of the Spaniards in Cavite, Camilo de Polavieja replaced Ramon Blanco as governor general on December 13, 1896. Polavieja was more successful than his predecessor and slowly regained one-third of the province. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Revolution Continues <ul><li>Bonifacio’s death did not deter the Filipinos from fighting for their freedom. The Spanish government, for its part, doubled its efforts in trying to control Cavite, which was considered the seat of the Revolution. When Governor General Primo de Rivera replaced Camilo Polavieja on April 27, 1897, he immediately marched to Naic, Cavite to persuade the Filipinos to surrender. The rebels, however, stood their ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Aguinaldo realized that Cavite was no longer safe for his men. They moved to Batangas, where they temporarily set up camp in the town of Talisay. However, Spanish soldiers were able to pursue them there. Thus, they retreated to Morong on June 10, 1897 and proceeded to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Biak-na Bato Republic <ul><li>Emilio Aguinaldo established his headquarters in Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan province. The news immediately spread throughout the country, and the revolutionaries were once more in high spirits. General llanera, who was in Nueva Ecija, declared his support for Aguinaldo. In July 1897, Aguinaldo established the Biak-na-Bato Republic and issued a proclamation stating the following demands: </li></ul><ul><li>▪ Expulsion of the friars and the return of the friar lands to the Filipinos ▪ Representation of the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes ▪ Freedom of the press and of religion ▪ Abolition of the government’s power to banish Filipinos ▪ Equality for all before the law. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. It was signed on November 1, 1897. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution provided for the establishment of a Supreme council that would serve as the highest governing body of the Republic. It also outlined certain basic human rights, such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and the right to education. Emilio Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias were elected Supreme Council president and vice president, respectively. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Pedro Paterno, a Spaniard born in the Philippines volunteered to act as negotiator between Aguinaldo and Gov. Primo de Rivera in order to end the clashes. Paterno’s effort paid off when on, December 15, 1897, the Pact he sign the Pact as the representative of the revolutionaries, and de Rivera as the representative of the Spanish government. The Leaders are: Emilio Aguinaldo-President, Mariano Trias-Vice President, Antonio Montenegro-Secretary, Baldomero Aguinaldo-Treasurer, and Emilio Riego de Dios. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>On December 23, 1897, Generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet of the Spanish army arrived in Biak-na-Bato and became hostages of the rebels. A ceasefire was declared by both camps and an agreement between Aguinaldo and the Spanish forces was made -that the Spanish government will grant self-rule to the Philippines in 3 years if Aguinaldo went to exile and surrender his arms. In exchange, Aguinaldo will receive P800,000 (Mexican Pesos) as remuneration to the revolutionaries and an amnesty. After receiving a partial payment of P400,000, Aguinaldo left for Hong Kong on December 27, 1897. Some Filipino generals, however, did not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. They refused to surrender their arms. Nevertheless, the Te Deum was still sung on January 23, 1898. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biak-na-Bato Fails <ul><li>The Filipino’s and the Spaniards did not trust each other. As a result, periodic clashes between the two groups still took place even after Aguinaldo’s departure from the country. The Spanish did not pay the entire agreed amount. </li></ul>

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