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Ecology
 

Ecology

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    Ecology Ecology Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • ECOLOGY
      • The study of living organisms and their interaction with the nonliving environment
    • Historical Background
      • Ecology
      • Eco = “house” ology = “study of”
      • BIOTIC ABIOTIC
    • Realms of Ecology
      • Organisms
      • Populations
      • Communities
      • Ecosystems
      • Biome
      • Biosphere
    •  
    • What Ecologists Study
      • Concerned with levels of organization ABOVE population
    • The Biosphere
      • The portion of the earth where living organisms exist
        • If the earth were an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the skin
    • Atmosphere
      • The troposphere
        • Surface to 17 km (11 miles) up
        • Contains most of the oxygen and nitrogen
      • The stratosphere
        • 17 to 48 km up
        • Contains most of the O 3
        • Screens out all UV-C
        • Screens out most UV-B
        • Screens out some UV-A
    • Hydrosphere
      • All the water on the earth
        • Liquid water
          • Surface
          • underground
        • Ice
          • Polar ice
          • Icebergs
          • Ice in frozen soil
        • Water vapor in the atmosphere
    • Lithosphere
      • Crust and upper mantle
        • Contains all fossil fuels
        • Contains all usable minerals
        • Contains all nutrients for plant life
    • What Sustains Life on Earth?
      • Life on Earth depends on three interconnecting factors
      • One way flow of energy
        • From the sun
        • Through plants and animals
      • Cycling of matter
        • All nutrients must be recycled repeatedly
      • Gravity
        • Allows the planet to hold its atmosphere
        • Causes downward movement of chemicals in cycles
    • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
      • Lights and warms the planet
      • Supports photosynthesis
      • Powers matter cycling
      • Drives climate and weather systems
    • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
      • Lights and warms the planet
        • Earth receives about 1/1,000,000,000 of the suns energy output
        • 34% reflected back into space
        • The remaining 66%
          • Warms the troposphere and land
          • Evaporates water
          • Generates winds
    • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
      • Supports photosynthesis
        • Creates carbohydrates
        • Creates oxygen
        • Speeds decomposition
    • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
      • Powers matter cycling
        • Carbon cycle
        • Nitrogen cycle
        • Water cycle
        • Oxygen cycle
        • Phosphorous cycle
    • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
      • Drives climate and weather systems
        • Distributes heat
        • Distributes fresh water
    • Natural Greenhouse Effect
      • Most solar radiation is degraded into heat
      • Greenhouse gasses keep the heat around the planet
        • Water vapor
        • Carbon dioxide
        • Methane
        • Nitrous oxide
        • ozone
      • Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be as cold as Mars
    • Ecosystem Concepts
      • Biomes – large regions of land characterized by a distinct climate and specific animal and especially plant species
        • Forests
        • Desserts
        • Grasslands
        • Jungles
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Ecosystem Concepts
      • Biomes - consist of two components
        • abiotic
          • Water
          • Air
          • Solar energy
          • nutrients
        • Biotic (biota)
          • Animals
          • Plants
          • microorganisms
    • Ecosystem Concepts
      • Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another
        • Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else
        • Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes
    • Ecosystem Concepts
      • Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another
        • Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else
        • Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes
    • Deciduous Forest/River Ecotone
    • Aquatic/Marine life Zones
      • Fresh water life zones
        • Lakes & ponds
        • Streams & rivers
      • Marine life zones
        • Estuaries
        • Coastlines
        • Coral reefs
        • Deep oceans
    • Abiotic Limitations
      • Abiotic
          • Water – how much or how little
          • Solar energy – shade or sun
          • Nutrients – rich or poor
    • Range of Tolerance
      • There is an optimum range of each abiotic component of a biome for each species
      • Individuals in a population may have slightly different tolerances
    •  
    • Law of Tolerance
      • The levels, abundance and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the ranger tolerated by that species.
      • Translation: Don’t expect to find polar bears in Tahiti
    • Limiting Factor Principle
      • Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance.
      • Translation: If the restaurant serves really spicy food, don’t look for Anglos
    • Limiting Factor Principle
      • Too much of a particular abiotic factor can also be a limiting factor
      • Limiting factors can change
    • Limiting Factor Principle
      • Aquatic or marine life zones also have limiting factors
        • Sunlight
        • Dissolved oxygen
        • Nutrient availability
        • Salinity
    • Living Components of the Biome
      • Metabolism – all living creatures capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth and reproduction
    • Living Components of the Biome
      • All living things are divided into two groups
      • Producers – make their own food from components obtained from the environment
      • Consumers – obtain nutrients and energy by consuming other organisms or their remains
    • Producers Autotrophs
      • Most producers capture sunlight and abiotic nutrients to produce carbohydrates (such as glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in a process called Photosynthesis
    •  
    • Photosynthesis
      • Carbon dioxide + water + solar energy  glucose + oxygen
      • CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + solar energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2
    • Chemosynthesis
      • Hydrogen sulfide + carbon dioxide + geothermal heat  nutrients
      • H 2 S + CO 2 + geothermal heat  nutrients
    •  
    • Consumers Heterotrophs
      • Obtain their energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms or their remains
    • Consumers Heterotrophs
      • All these organisms consume living prey
      • Herbivores – (primary consumers) feed directly on producers
      • Carnivores – ( meat eaters) feed on other consumers
        • Secondary consumers – feed only on primary consumers
        • Tertiary consumers – ( higher level consumers) feed on other carnivores
      • Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals
    • Herbivores Primary Consumers
    • Carnivores Secondary Consumers
    • Heterotrophs some feed on the dead or dying
      • Scavengers – feed on dead animal carcasses
      • Detritivores – feed on waste, parts of carcasses or cast off parts
      • Detritus feeders – feed on partially decomposed organic matter
      • Decomposers – (mostly bacteria and fungi) break down dead organic materials to simpler inorganic compounds
    • Aerobic Respiration and Photosynthesis
      • Photosynthesis
      • Energy + Carbon Dioxide + water  glucose + oxygen
      • sunlight + CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
      • Aerobic Respiration
      • glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + Energy
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy
    • Energy Cycling
      • Solar energy is collected by plants (producers)
        • Most of the energy from the sun is lost as heat
      • Primary consumers (herbivores) eat the plants
        • Most of the energy is lost as heat
      • Secondary consumers (carnivores) eat the primary consumers
        • Most of the energy is lost as heat
    • Energy Cycling
      • Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers
        • Most of the energy is lost as heat
      • Detritivores consume the dead and dying
        • Most of the energy is lost as heat
    • Energy Cycling
        • As you pass up the energy pyramid, the number of organisms decreases.
        • At each step in the pyramid, ~90% of the energy is lost as heat
    • Food Chains
      • Simplified constructs used to show energy flow in the ecosystem
      • Food chains do not exist in nature
    • Food Webs
      • Food webs are more realistic representations of nature
      • Organisms rarely feed at only one trophic level
    • Available Energy
      • How many trophic levels are present depends on how much energy is available in an ecosystem
        • There are rarely more than four or five trophic levels in an ecosystem
      • The amount of energy an ecosystem produces is called the Net Primary Productivity
      • Measured in kcal/m 2 /yr or g/m 2 /yr
    • Net Primary Productivity Equals
      • Rate at which producers store chemical energy as biomass
      • Minus
      • (produced by photosynthesis)
      • Rate at which producers use chemical energy stored as biomass
      • (through aerobic respiration)
    • Net Primary Productivity
    • Different Ecosystems Produce Different Biomass
      • Most Productive
          • Estuaries
          • Swamps/marshes
          • Tropical rainforests
      • Least Productive
          • Open ocean
          • Tundra
          • Desert
    • Human Biomass Usage
      • Humans have taken over, disturbed or degraded ~73% of the earths’ land surface
      • Humans use, waste or destroy ~27% of the earths’ total potential net primary productivity and ~40% of the total potential net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems
    • Matter Cycling
      • Energy is an open system
        • Energy enters the system as sunlight (low entropy) and is degraded and dispersed (high entropy) as organisms use it
      • Matter is a closed system
        • All matter is recycled in one of three ways
    • Matter Cycles
      • There are three major types of nutrient recycling
      • Hydraulic cycle (ex. Water cycle)
      • Atmospheric cycle (ex. Carbon cycle)
      • Sedimentary cycle ( ex. Phosphorous)
    • Hydraulic Cycle
      • Water evaporates and cycles through the biosphere
        • Local
        • Regional
        • global
    •  
    • Atmospheric Cycle
      • A large portion of the nutrient exist in the atmosphere and cycle rapidly through soil, organisms and back to the atmosphere
        • Local
        • Regional
        • Global
    •  
    • Sedimentary Cycle
      • Earths’ crust is the main storehouse. Elements move from the land to the seabed then back to land through geological uplift and volcanic action
        • global
    •