Ecology
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Ecology

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Ecology Ecology Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • ECOLOGY
    • The study of living organisms and their interaction with the nonliving environment
  • Historical Background
    • Ecology
    • Eco = “house” ology = “study of”
    • BIOTIC ABIOTIC
  • Realms of Ecology
    • Organisms
    • Populations
    • Communities
    • Ecosystems
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
  •  
  • What Ecologists Study
    • Concerned with levels of organization ABOVE population
  • The Biosphere
    • The portion of the earth where living organisms exist
      • If the earth were an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the skin
  • Atmosphere
    • The troposphere
      • Surface to 17 km (11 miles) up
      • Contains most of the oxygen and nitrogen
    • The stratosphere
      • 17 to 48 km up
      • Contains most of the O 3
      • Screens out all UV-C
      • Screens out most UV-B
      • Screens out some UV-A
  • Hydrosphere
    • All the water on the earth
      • Liquid water
        • Surface
        • underground
      • Ice
        • Polar ice
        • Icebergs
        • Ice in frozen soil
      • Water vapor in the atmosphere
  • Lithosphere
    • Crust and upper mantle
      • Contains all fossil fuels
      • Contains all usable minerals
      • Contains all nutrients for plant life
  • What Sustains Life on Earth?
    • Life on Earth depends on three interconnecting factors
    • One way flow of energy
      • From the sun
      • Through plants and animals
    • Cycling of matter
      • All nutrients must be recycled repeatedly
    • Gravity
      • Allows the planet to hold its atmosphere
      • Causes downward movement of chemicals in cycles
  • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
    • Lights and warms the planet
    • Supports photosynthesis
    • Powers matter cycling
    • Drives climate and weather systems
  • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
    • Lights and warms the planet
      • Earth receives about 1/1,000,000,000 of the suns energy output
      • 34% reflected back into space
      • The remaining 66%
        • Warms the troposphere and land
        • Evaporates water
        • Generates winds
  • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
    • Supports photosynthesis
      • Creates carbohydrates
      • Creates oxygen
      • Speeds decomposition
  • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
    • Powers matter cycling
      • Carbon cycle
      • Nitrogen cycle
      • Water cycle
      • Oxygen cycle
      • Phosphorous cycle
  • How the Sun Helps Sustain Life
    • Drives climate and weather systems
      • Distributes heat
      • Distributes fresh water
  • Natural Greenhouse Effect
    • Most solar radiation is degraded into heat
    • Greenhouse gasses keep the heat around the planet
      • Water vapor
      • Carbon dioxide
      • Methane
      • Nitrous oxide
      • ozone
    • Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be as cold as Mars
  • Ecosystem Concepts
    • Biomes – large regions of land characterized by a distinct climate and specific animal and especially plant species
      • Forests
      • Desserts
      • Grasslands
      • Jungles
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Ecosystem Concepts
    • Biomes - consist of two components
      • abiotic
        • Water
        • Air
        • Solar energy
        • nutrients
      • Biotic (biota)
        • Animals
        • Plants
        • microorganisms
  • Ecosystem Concepts
    • Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another
      • Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else
      • Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes
  • Ecosystem Concepts
    • Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another
      • Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else
      • Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes
  • Deciduous Forest/River Ecotone
  • Aquatic/Marine life Zones
    • Fresh water life zones
      • Lakes & ponds
      • Streams & rivers
    • Marine life zones
      • Estuaries
      • Coastlines
      • Coral reefs
      • Deep oceans
  • Abiotic Limitations
    • Abiotic
        • Water – how much or how little
        • Solar energy – shade or sun
        • Nutrients – rich or poor
  • Range of Tolerance
    • There is an optimum range of each abiotic component of a biome for each species
    • Individuals in a population may have slightly different tolerances
  •  
  • Law of Tolerance
    • The levels, abundance and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the ranger tolerated by that species.
    • Translation: Don’t expect to find polar bears in Tahiti
  • Limiting Factor Principle
    • Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance.
    • Translation: If the restaurant serves really spicy food, don’t look for Anglos
  • Limiting Factor Principle
    • Too much of a particular abiotic factor can also be a limiting factor
    • Limiting factors can change
  • Limiting Factor Principle
    • Aquatic or marine life zones also have limiting factors
      • Sunlight
      • Dissolved oxygen
      • Nutrient availability
      • Salinity
  • Living Components of the Biome
    • Metabolism – all living creatures capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth and reproduction
  • Living Components of the Biome
    • All living things are divided into two groups
    • Producers – make their own food from components obtained from the environment
    • Consumers – obtain nutrients and energy by consuming other organisms or their remains
  • Producers Autotrophs
    • Most producers capture sunlight and abiotic nutrients to produce carbohydrates (such as glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in a process called Photosynthesis
  •  
  • Photosynthesis
    • Carbon dioxide + water + solar energy  glucose + oxygen
    • CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + solar energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2
  • Chemosynthesis
    • Hydrogen sulfide + carbon dioxide + geothermal heat  nutrients
    • H 2 S + CO 2 + geothermal heat  nutrients
  •  
  • Consumers Heterotrophs
    • Obtain their energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms or their remains
  • Consumers Heterotrophs
    • All these organisms consume living prey
    • Herbivores – (primary consumers) feed directly on producers
    • Carnivores – ( meat eaters) feed on other consumers
      • Secondary consumers – feed only on primary consumers
      • Tertiary consumers – ( higher level consumers) feed on other carnivores
    • Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals
  • Herbivores Primary Consumers
  • Carnivores Secondary Consumers
  • Heterotrophs some feed on the dead or dying
    • Scavengers – feed on dead animal carcasses
    • Detritivores – feed on waste, parts of carcasses or cast off parts
    • Detritus feeders – feed on partially decomposed organic matter
    • Decomposers – (mostly bacteria and fungi) break down dead organic materials to simpler inorganic compounds
  • Aerobic Respiration and Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis
    • Energy + Carbon Dioxide + water  glucose + oxygen
    • sunlight + CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
    • Aerobic Respiration
    • glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + Energy
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy
  • Energy Cycling
    • Solar energy is collected by plants (producers)
      • Most of the energy from the sun is lost as heat
    • Primary consumers (herbivores) eat the plants
      • Most of the energy is lost as heat
    • Secondary consumers (carnivores) eat the primary consumers
      • Most of the energy is lost as heat
  • Energy Cycling
    • Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers
      • Most of the energy is lost as heat
    • Detritivores consume the dead and dying
      • Most of the energy is lost as heat
  • Energy Cycling
      • As you pass up the energy pyramid, the number of organisms decreases.
      • At each step in the pyramid, ~90% of the energy is lost as heat
  • Food Chains
    • Simplified constructs used to show energy flow in the ecosystem
    • Food chains do not exist in nature
  • Food Webs
    • Food webs are more realistic representations of nature
    • Organisms rarely feed at only one trophic level
  • Available Energy
    • How many trophic levels are present depends on how much energy is available in an ecosystem
      • There are rarely more than four or five trophic levels in an ecosystem
    • The amount of energy an ecosystem produces is called the Net Primary Productivity
    • Measured in kcal/m 2 /yr or g/m 2 /yr
  • Net Primary Productivity Equals
    • Rate at which producers store chemical energy as biomass
    • Minus
    • (produced by photosynthesis)
    • Rate at which producers use chemical energy stored as biomass
    • (through aerobic respiration)
  • Net Primary Productivity
  • Different Ecosystems Produce Different Biomass
    • Most Productive
        • Estuaries
        • Swamps/marshes
        • Tropical rainforests
    • Least Productive
        • Open ocean
        • Tundra
        • Desert
  • Human Biomass Usage
    • Humans have taken over, disturbed or degraded ~73% of the earths’ land surface
    • Humans use, waste or destroy ~27% of the earths’ total potential net primary productivity and ~40% of the total potential net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems
  • Matter Cycling
    • Energy is an open system
      • Energy enters the system as sunlight (low entropy) and is degraded and dispersed (high entropy) as organisms use it
    • Matter is a closed system
      • All matter is recycled in one of three ways
  • Matter Cycles
    • There are three major types of nutrient recycling
    • Hydraulic cycle (ex. Water cycle)
    • Atmospheric cycle (ex. Carbon cycle)
    • Sedimentary cycle ( ex. Phosphorous)
  • Hydraulic Cycle
    • Water evaporates and cycles through the biosphere
      • Local
      • Regional
      • global
  •  
  • Atmospheric Cycle
    • A large portion of the nutrient exist in the atmosphere and cycle rapidly through soil, organisms and back to the atmosphere
      • Local
      • Regional
      • Global
  •  
  • Sedimentary Cycle
    • Earths’ crust is the main storehouse. Elements move from the land to the seabed then back to land through geological uplift and volcanic action
      • global
  •