CrossFit – Constantly Varied Functional Movements executed at a High Intensity- Constantly Varied – General Physical Preparedness (GPP) is a term used to describe the generalized basequalities of an athlete. The aim of GPP is to establish a broad foundational fitness level that can then beconverted and applied throughout a wide range of tasks hoping to consistently make gains in the 10 GeneralPhysical Skills of Fitness which prepares you for any physical challenge.- Functional Movement – Magic in the movement, Natural, Seen in nature, Universal Motor RecruitmentPatterns (UMCP), essential to quality of life, Safe, Compound yet Irreducible, core to extremity = efficiencyWhat is CrossFit? Constantly Varied Functional Movements Executed at High Intensity - Maintaining S-Curve = core strength - Only option with heavy loads - Large loads, long distances, quickly - (Force x Distance)/Time = Power (average)Two types of Intensity- Absolute Intensity = Power- Relative Intensity = based off a person‟s physical and psychological tolerance- Intensity gives results faster and better than and in as many areas as possible- Specialize at unspecializing; vary uniform, time of day, everythingFounder Greg Glassman – “Magic in the Movement”Virtuosity – doing the common uncommonly well, stellar even with a PVC pipeFour Models:1- 10 General Skills – fittest = best balance of every skill, Balance of Physiological Adaptation 10 General Physical Skills If your goal is optimum physical competence then all the general physical skills must be considered:1. Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance – The ability of body systems to gather, process, and deliveroxygen.2. Stamina - The ability of body systems to process, deliver, store, and utilize energy.3. Strength - The ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply force.4. Flexibility - the ability to maximize the range of motion at a given joint.5. Power - The ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply maximum force inminimum time.6. Speed - The ability to minimize the time cycle of a repeated movement.7. Coordination - The ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement.8. Agility - The ability to minimize transition time from one movement pattern to another9. Balance - The ability to control the placement of the body‟s center of gravity in relation to its support base.10. Accuracy - The ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity.
- Cardiovascular Respiratory Endurance (CVRE) - Stamina Organic; requires training - Strength - Flexibility - Power Organic and adaptations of both; requires - Speed training and practice - Coordination - Accuracy Neurological; requires practice - Balance - Agility2 – The Hopper – Physical Challenge Lottery, measurable tasks, quantifiable, Balance of Skills and DrillThe performance of Athletic Tasks: Fitness is about being able to perform well at any task imaginable. Thismodel suggests that your fitness can be measured by your capacity to perform well at these tasks in relation toother individuals. 3 – Metabolic Pathways – three separate pathways - Phosphagen – 10 seconds or less, like 100m sprint or shot put, Anaerobic activity - Glycolytic – no more than two minutes, like 400m sprint, best blend of phosphagen and oxidative, anaerobic activity
- Oxidative – much longer activities like marathons or triathlons, aerobic activity - Balance of Bioenergetics4 – Sickness, Well, Fit Continuum Model - All markers should be moving towards fit - Balance Health and Lifestyle - Integration of Power / Work capacity - Fitness = Work Capacity across a broad time and modal domains - Want to see this Increase - Third Axis is Age, for Health we add the age domainAcceptable degradation of technique is sacrificed for IntensityTechnique vs. Intensity = gets results and allows body adaptation, we want both - Safety – Whats the risk involved? - Efficacy – What am I going to get out of it? - Efficiency – How long is it going to take? Example – 100 Unbroken Pullups 50 Unbroken Pullups 10 Unbroken Pullups Efficacy – 100 pullups Efficacy – 50 pullups Efficacy – 50 pullups Efficiency – takes 3 weeks Efficiency – takes 6 months Efficiency – takes 3 years Safety – 93% of athletes will die Safety – sore hands, blisters Safety – no injuries at all
Efficiency Strength – productive application of force - Productive application of a movement or task - Heavier the weight, the more neurological the movement and less margin of errorThreshold Training Example Lance Sarah James Clean/Jerk 3 min 30/30 correct 3 min 25/30 correct 3 min 5/30 correct 135 lbs. (Increase intensity) (Good) (Slow down, work on technique) Nutrition – Theoretical Hierarchy of CrossFit What food is – three major macronutrients – Protein, Carbohydrates, Fat (Specific hormonal response from each) Protein – meat, eggs, protein powder, jerky, etc. – broken down into amino acids Carbohydrates – vegetables, fruit, licorice, grains, beer Fats – nuts, butter, oil, mayo, avocado, olives
Protein – once eaten, pancreas secretes glucagon, which mobilizes energy out of cells in muscles Carbs – pancreas secretes insulin, it stores energy back in cells, control amount of sugar in blood Fat – neutral, can slow down absorption of food Normal body maintains 5 grams of sugar in the body at all time Glycemic Index: is simply a measure of a foods propensity to raise blood sugar. Pg 69 (pay attention to the lecture on nutrition & understand glucagon) Hyperinsulinemia – chronically elevated level of insulin - snow ball effect, body has to create more and more insulin to bring down level of sugar until body can‟t keep up, person develop diabetes Way to combat this rollercoaster: - Eat real food – if you can grow it or kill it, you should eat it - goes bad, short shelf life Meats and Vegetables – Protein/Carbs Nuts and seeds – Fats Some Fruit – Carbs Little Starch – carbs but very little, only every once in a while, use like a condiment No sugar – none Eat to avoid sickness, regarding quality of food Weighing and Measuring, pg 72 - „Zone diet‟ – based off body size and activity level, lean body mass (normally 10% of body mass) (CrossFit recommended foods include “eat meat and veggies, nuts, seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar) - Prescription – 30% Protein, 40% Carbs, 30% Fat broken into „blocks‟ Example – 160 lb lean body mass = 16 blocksOne block = 7 grams of protein, 9 grams of carbs, 1.5 grams of fat Block– unit of measure used to simplify theprocess of making a meal (a 3 block meal will have 3 blocks of protein, 3 blocks of Carbs and 3 blocks of fat)pg 72
One block Four blocks ½ Apple Two Apples 1 oz Chicken 4 oz Chicken 3 almonds 12 almonds - No more than five blocks per meal - No longer than 3 ½ hours without eating - Have to weigh/measure your food until you understand sizes - You will start to lose a lot of fat, might not have a lot of fat to use for energy - Leave protein/carbs (teeter-totter), increase fat at some meals for energy Fish Oil – Omega 3-Fats – two types of Omega 3-Fats – EPA and DHA - Helps combat inflammation, 3-5 grams per day - Helps with recovery - Blood thinner (don‟t take while on deployment) GHD – Glute Ham Developer, Trunk = Lumbar curve = back Why? 1. Builds Kinesthetic Awareness – understand where your body is displaced 2. Build language or vernacular Definitions: 1. Core – Abs, erectors, hip flexors 2. Core Strength – MLS or midline stabilization 3. MLS – ability to resist flexion or spine or hyperextension of trunk/back 4. Flexion – decreasing ankle of a joint 5. Extension – increases ankle of a joint 6. Static – Not moving 7. Dynamic – MovingHip Extension – Dynamic – Hips, Static – Trunk/Back (25-30 reps in a row is goal) Back Extension – Dynamic – Trunk, Static – hips
Hip and Back Extension – Trunk Flexion / Hip Inflexion then Trunk/Hip Flexion, then Trunk/Hip Inflexion, then back up in reverse order Abmat Situp – Dynamic – Hips, Trunk – Static½ Range of Motion – GHD Situp - ROM – Knee-Hip-Shoulder are in a straight line - Anything more, back is in hyperextension - Illiopsoas – some attachments are on L1-L5 spine and wrap around pelvis - Rectis Femoris – helps Illiopsoas, flex the quadriceps to help situp (25-30 reps in a row is goal)Full ROM GHD Situp - Hyperextend back to touch floor
Programming – more you do it the better you get! Method to the Madness! - Goals Increase – Fitness - Work Capacity across a Broad Time and Modal Domain - General Physical Preparedness Weekly Program Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Elizabeth 21-15-9 Cindy AMRAP Push Press* Rest** Filthy 50 Deadliftx5 315lb Rest** Clean/Jerk 135 lb 5xPullups 2-2-2-2-2 or Rowing 250m or Ring Dips 10xPushups (Heavy) Active Rest*** Active Rest*** 15xSquats Timeline (10-60min) 10 min 20 min 25 min 30 min 7 min Movements Gymnastics X X X Weightlifting X X X X Monostructural X Scheme Single X Couplet X X Triplet X Chipper (6 or more) X Priority Task X X X Time X X Push Press* = all five sets are "working sets", at least 85% of one rep max Rest** = Full Rest or Nothing Active Rest*** = Light Jog, Mobility Work, Movement Skills Scaling preserves the stimulusPitfalls: 1 WOD vs. 2 WOD per dayBenchmarks – Keeping training log-reviewing times/task/weight lifted for same workout over time to see ifyou‟re improving - Nine (9) foundational movements – Three Series – Squat, Press, and Deadlift - Air Squat or Squat >>> Front Squat >>> Overhead Squat - Shoulder Press or Press >>> Push Press >>> Push Jerk - Deadlift >>> Sumo Deadlift High Pull >>> Medicine Ball Clean Why only three movements? Five Reasons: - Midline Stabilization – MLS - Active Shoulders – AS – retraction/elevation of scapula - Posterior Chain Engagement – weight in heels, balance in frontal chain - Range of Motion – specific to each exercise - Core to Extremity – starts in center, radiates outFoundation – put these movements together to make more, new movements
Air Squat, Why? – You need to squat well, can take years to develop good technique - Setup – feet shoulder width apart, toes pointed slightly out, neutral S-curve of spine, and gaze is neutral - Points of Performance – POP: - Lumbar curve – maintained at bottom of squat, Fault – loss of lumbar curve - Weight in heels maintained, Fault – weight in toes, stay in frontal plain posture - Depth – dip below the knee to get full range of motion, must be done to stand up from sitting on ground, and strengthens all ligaments/tendons of the knee, Fault – not reach depth - Knees – should maintain same direction as toes, out not in, Fault – knee‟s caving in towards each other - Line of Action – LOA – first thing to move is hips out, then down, Fault – knee‟s initiate movement firstPoor Form - Immature squat – more parts of body are outside Frontal Plain - Torso needs to be more upright/vertical, increase flexibility - Butt wink – tuck of the pelvis, L1-L5 are pulled in by hamstrings at base of squatFront Squat – add „front rack position,‟ loose two finger grip, bar sits on shoulders, triceps are parallel toground - POP - Elbows high, Fault – elbows drop - Bar on Rack – Fault – bar falls off rack, body supports load, not grip or wristsOverhead Squat – Pass through, wide grip on bar, rotate bar overhead behind you in frontal plain - Active shoulders pressing into bar and up - Demands core strength and flexibility, develops both as well - POP: - Bar stays in frontal plain, Fault – Bar forward of frontal plain, forces body/bar forward - Active shoulders, Fault – lazy, arms bent Press - Setup – feet under hips, knees/hips at full extension, tight stomach, hands outside shoulders, full grip on bar, elbows in front of the bar - MLS – maintain midline stabilization throughout all movement - Bar travel path – maintain frontal plain - Overhead position – active shoulders pressed up to weight - Posterior Chain Engagement - push through hands Cue – “Press” Fault – Bar not overhead - Arc bar around the face, elbows may be break at start
- Not locking out elbows overhead Push Press – allows you to lift 30% more weight than Press, add velocity with dip Setup – Same as with Press Cue – “Dip, Drive, Press” Fault – Forward inclination of the chest, chest and bar lean forward away from frontal plain - Muted hip - hips move forward on dip, heels come up - Cocking/Pausing – Dips and holds the weight down, not one fluid movementPush Jerk – allows you to lift 30% more weight than Push Press, add the catch position - Setup – Same as Press and Push Press - Cue – “Dip, Drive, Catch, Stand” Fault – No Hip Extenstion – doesn‟t fully utilize hips to „catch‟ - Lazy landing – catch has bent arms overhead - Not Finishing – brings arms down before standing up fully - Too wide of a landing – legs flare out wide Deadlift - Setup – Feet in between hip/shoulder width, S-curve of spine, heels to ground, shoulders directly over or slightly in front of bar - POP – MLS - Shoulder/hips at same rate - Keep bar close to body - Fault – Loss of S-curve - Weight on toes, pushes body forward - Hips too low in squat position - Bring chest up too fast, before bar is above knee - Straighten knee‟s to quick, puts more pressure on lower back / hips up too fast Sumo Deadlift High Pull - Setup – feet are wider than shoulder width and hands are much closer together when compared to the Deadlift - POP – Core to extremity movement - Fault – Pulling with arms too early, takes away power of hips - Moves to slow - Elbows too low, looks like a curl
- Improper return Medicine Ball Clean - POP – Full extension = standing up fully, pull under into front squat - Fault – Lack of extension, not completely standing up - Bending arms too early before full extension - Curling the ball up, not using hp power - „Home schooler‟ – tossing ball to yourself and catching it - Catching too high - Sloppy landingRhabdomyolisis- medical condition when muscle tissue breaks down and the contents of the muscle cells arereleased into the tissue. The molecule myoglobin is toxic to the kidneys and can cause failure and lead todeath. (seen after high-intensity workouts). Symptoms- muscle pain, nausea & vomiting, abdominalcramping and in some cases causes dark red Coca Cola like urine.