POLITICS

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  • Politics arises……because of the need to make decisions… …in the face of diversity… …and in the context of complexity.Politics is a complex activity.When interests are uniform, there are no politics.“The unique character of political activity lies…in its publicity.”People cannot opt out of politics.Politics presupposes an established order.
  • “Diverse groups hold together, firstly, because they have a common interest in sheer survival and, secondly, because they practice politics.”  Crick, p. 24
  • Is politics good or bad?More often than not, politics is viewed with derision.However, as politics entails the conciliation of diverse interests, its natural object is the common good.Aristotle: “Politics is the Master Science.”
  • Good governance should be able to:PROMOTE EQUITY AND EQUALITYDEVELOP RESOURCES ANDMETHODS OF GOVERNANCEPROMOTE GENDER BALANCEMOBILIZE RESOURCES FOR SOCIAL PURPOSESSTRENGTHENS INDIGENOUS MECHANISMS
  • Good governance should be able to:OPERATE BY RULE OF LAWDEFINE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP OF NATIONAL SOLUTIONSDEAL WITH TEMPORAL ISSUES
  • Good governance should be able to:OPERATE BY RULE OF LAWDEFINE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP OF NATIONAL SOLUTIONSDEAL WITH TEMPORAL ISSUES
  • Good governance should be able to:OPERATE BY RULE OF LAWDEFINE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP OF NATIONAL SOLUTIONSDEAL WITH TEMPORAL ISSUES
  • GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD ALSO BE:SERVICE ORIENTEDREGULATORY RATHER THAN CONTROLLINGENABLING AND FACILITATIVE
  • GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD ALSO BE:SERVICE ORIENTEDREGULATORY RATHER THAN CONTROLLINGENABLING AND FACILITATIVE
  • GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD ALSO BE:SERVICE ORIENTEDREGULATORY RATHER THAN CONTROLLINGENABLING AND FACILITATIVE
  • INFLUENCE is a species of power but it may connote more than those instances where power and authority manifest themselves. Influence on the other hand is the capacity to produce an effect without the threat of coercion.
  • POLITICS

    1. 1.  Do you thinkwithoutcaring, you arenot involved? Why are youinterested?/disinterested/uninterested? What do you knowabout Politics?
    2. 2. POLITICS is defined as the art andscience of Government.
    3. 3. Politics involves making common decisions fora group of people.
    4. 4. “Man is apoliticalanimal”Aristotle
    5. 5. Tolerance, respect, support andcompromise arethe language ofpoliticsPoliticsitselfadmitsdifferences.
    6. 6. POLIS
    7. 7. A process in the political system in which thegoals of that system are SELECTED andORDERED in terms of priority in theALLOCATION OF RESOURCES. The Allocationof resources is done through authoritativedecisions by individuals, groups orinstitutions to formulate and implementpolicies and programs in behalf of the restof the members of the society.
    8. 8. Who gets what, when & how”Harold Lasswell, 1936
    9. 9. “Politics is theexercise of power”Robert Dahl(and other„realists‟)
    10. 10. “Politics involves theauthoritativeallocation of valuesfor a society”David Easton, ThePoliticalSystem, 1953
    11. 11. PowerWho holds it (authority)How do you get it (politics)RECURRING THEMES
    12. 12. POLITICS:The processes wherebya society makes bindingdecisions
    13. 13. who pays how muchtax?
    14. 14. How to regulatecommercial activity?
    15. 15. How to regulatecivil activity?
    16. 16. POLITICS AND ITS OBJECTSIdeas and interests
    17. 17. POLITICS AND ITS OBJECTSState/Government
    18. 18. POLITICS AND ITS OBJECTSCitizens/Communities
    19. 19. Mankind will neversee an end oftrouble until...lovers of wisdomcome to holdpolitical power, orthe holders ofpower... becomelovers of wisdom.~Plato,The Republic
    20. 20. To put the world right inorder, we must first putthe nation in order; toput the nation inorder, we must first putthe family in order; toput the family inorder, we must firstcultivate our personallife; we must first set ourhearts right.
    21. 21. “The price of apathytowards public affairs isto be ruled by evil men”Plato
    22. 22. THE STUDY OF POLITICSDEALS WITH:GOVERNANCEPOLITICAL PROCESSESINSTITUTIONS GROUPSINDIVIDUALS
    23. 23. GOVERNANCEINDIVIDUALSGROUPSPOLITICAL PROCESSESINSTITUTIONS
    24. 24. POLITICS ALSO DEALS WITH THEFOLLOWING CONCEPTS:
    25. 25. GOVERNANCEThe exercise of POLITICAL, ECONOMIC andADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY in the managementof POLITICAL AFFAIRS. (NEDA, 1998)
    26. 26. 1. POLITICALGOVERNANCE
    27. 27. 2. ECONOMICGOVERNANCE
    28. 28. 3. ADMINISTRATIVEGOVERNANCE
    29. 29. 4. ECOLOGICALGOVERNANCE
    30. 30. REQUIREMENTS OF GOODGOVERNANCETRANSPARENCYLEGITIMACYEFFICIENCYANDEFFECTIVENESSIN THE USE OFRESOURCES
    31. 31. FORMS OF PARTICIPATION
    32. 32. 1. ELECTORAL ACTIVITY
    33. 33. 2. LOBBYING
    34. 34. 3. ORGANIZING
    35. 35. 4. CONTACTING
    36. 36. 5. VIOLENCE
    37. 37. GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD BE ABLETO:1. PROMOTE EQUITY AND EQUALITY
    38. 38. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD BE ABLE TO:2. DEVELOPRESOURCES ANDMETHODS OFGOVERNANCE
    39. 39. GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD BE ABLETO:3. PROMOTE GENDER BALANCE
    40. 40. GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULDBE ABLE TO:4. MOBILIZERESOURCES FORSOCIAL PURPOSE
    41. 41. GOOD GOVERNANCE SHOULD BE ABLETO:5. STRENGTHENS INDIGENOUSMECHANISMS
    42. 42. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD BE ABLE TO:1. OPERATE BY RULE OF LAW
    43. 43. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD BE ABLE TO:2. DEFINE AND TAKE OWNERSHIPOF NATIONAL ISSUES
    44. 44. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD BE ABLE TO:3. DEAL WITH TEMPORAL ISSUES
    45. 45. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD ALSO BE:1. SERVICEORIENTED
    46. 46. GOOD GOVERNANCESHOULD ALSO BE:
    47. 47. GOODGOVERNANCESHOULD ALSOBE:3. ENABLINGANDFACILITATIVE
    48. 48. CONCEPT OF POWERPOWER is the capacity of an actor to compel orinfluence other actors to alter their behavioror to do what they would not do otherwise.
    49. 49. POWER maybe measuredin terms of itsDOMAIN, SCOPE andWEIGHT.
    50. 50. DOMAIN OF POWER refers to theaggregate of individuals whosebehavior it can alter.
    51. 51. SCOPE OF POWERcovers the valuesimplicated in theobjectives of thepower wielder.
    52. 52. WEIGHT OF POWERrefers to the extent itaffects policies
    53. 53. AUTHORITY refers to the formal or legalrelationships between policymakers andcitizens.
    54. 54. Influence is the capacity to producean effect without the threat ofcoercion.
    55. 55. LEGITIMACY is the extent to whichcitizens regard the state and itsinstitutions including its policies andprograms as morally right andacceptable.
    56. 56. ATTITUDE is a learnedpredispositiontowards politicalobjects. It is anidea charged withemotions, whichpredisposes certainkinds of actions toa particularsituation.
    57. 57. PUBLIC OPINIONrefers to thesummation ofthe expressedor verbalizedattitudes ofindividuals.
    58. 58. PERCEPTION is the expression of allthose members of a group who aregiving attention in any way to a givenissue. It is a selection process bywhich individuals choose and organizestimuli that they think fit for theirattention.
    59. 59. VALUES are enduring beliefsthat a specific end-state ofexisting order or mode ofconduct preferable to anopposite state. It includesthe goals targeted by apolitical activity and thebehavior employed inachieving said goals.
    60. 60. CONFLICT is a disharmony arisingfrom stresses and strains due tosome changes in the politicalenvironment.
    61. 61. DECISION-MAKING is theprocess by which authorizedindividuals or groups makedecisions with the effect ofallocating resources in thesociety throughresolutions, laws, policies, programs, decrees, etc.
    62. 62. According to JOHNCALHOUN “interests weredestined to bevaried and diversein the society”Because ofdiversity, individuals tend to associatethemselves.
    63. 63. DecisionMakingPolicyPolitical EnvironmentSupportsDemands

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