A process in the political system in which thegoals of that system are SELECTED andORDERED in terms of priority in theALLOCATION OF RESOURCES. The Allocationof resources is done through authoritativedecisions by individuals, groups orinstitutions to formulate and implementpolicies and programs in behalf of the restof the members of the society.
Who gets what, when & how”Harold Lasswell, 1936
“Politics is theexercise of power”Robert Dahl(and other„realists‟)
“Politics involves theauthoritativeallocation of valuesfor a society”David Easton, ThePoliticalSystem, 1953
PowerWho holds it (authority)How do you get it (politics)RECURRING THEMES
POLITICS:The processes wherebya society makes bindingdecisions
Mankind will neversee an end oftrouble until...lovers of wisdomcome to holdpolitical power, orthe holders ofpower... becomelovers of wisdom.~Plato,The Republic
To put the world right inorder, we must first putthe nation in order; toput the nation inorder, we must first putthe family in order; toput the family inorder, we must firstcultivate our personallife; we must first set ourhearts right.
“The price of apathytowards public affairs isto be ruled by evil men”Plato
THE STUDY OF POLITICSDEALS WITH:GOVERNANCEPOLITICAL PROCESSESINSTITUTIONS GROUPSINDIVIDUALS
CONCEPT OF POWERPOWER is the capacity of an actor to compel orinfluence other actors to alter their behavioror to do what they would not do otherwise.
POWER maybe measuredin terms of itsDOMAIN, SCOPE andWEIGHT.
DOMAIN OF POWER refers to theaggregate of individuals whosebehavior it can alter.
SCOPE OF POWERcovers the valuesimplicated in theobjectives of thepower wielder.
WEIGHT OF POWERrefers to the extent itaffects policies
AUTHORITY refers to the formal or legalrelationships between policymakers andcitizens.
Influence is the capacity to producean effect without the threat ofcoercion.
LEGITIMACY is the extent to whichcitizens regard the state and itsinstitutions including its policies andprograms as morally right andacceptable.
ATTITUDE is a learnedpredispositiontowards politicalobjects. It is anidea charged withemotions, whichpredisposes certainkinds of actions toa particularsituation.
PUBLIC OPINIONrefers to thesummation ofthe expressedor verbalizedattitudes ofindividuals.
PERCEPTION is the expression of allthose members of a group who aregiving attention in any way to a givenissue. It is a selection process bywhich individuals choose and organizestimuli that they think fit for theirattention.
VALUES are enduring beliefsthat a specific end-state ofexisting order or mode ofconduct preferable to anopposite state. It includesthe goals targeted by apolitical activity and thebehavior employed inachieving said goals.
CONFLICT is a disharmony arisingfrom stresses and strains due tosome changes in the politicalenvironment.
DECISION-MAKING is theprocess by which authorizedindividuals or groups makedecisions with the effect ofallocating resources in thesociety throughresolutions, laws, policies, programs, decrees, etc.
According to JOHNCALHOUN “interests weredestined to bevaried and diversein the society”Because ofdiversity, individuals tend to associatethemselves.