Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Stonehenge in Southern England(2) Epic of Gilgamesh is first wri...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy957 BC Solomon builds first Jewish temple in Jerusalem800 BC Olmecs ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) c. 500; Polynesian culture develops in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga(2)...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Death of Empedocles, who developed Four Elements theory of the n...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Posthumous production of SophoclesOedipus at Colonus(2) Death of...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Alexander the Great enters Babylon; Conquers Persian Empire(2) D...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) c. 260; Mauryan king Ashoka converts to Buddhism(2) c. 260; Firs...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Romans capture Carthage; Carthaginian territory incorporated int...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy70 Roman army under Titus captures Jerusalem and destroys Jewish Tem...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy122 Hadrians Wall built in Britain132 c. 132-135; Jewish Rebellion i...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy301 Armenia becomes first state to officially adopt Christianity200 ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy354 St. Augustines Birth(1) Huns invade Europe(2) Picts invade Roman...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Vandals invade Iberian Peninsula(2) Revolt in Britain marks the ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Cosmas IndicopleustesTopographica Christiana attempts to demonst...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy628 Muslim army captures Mecca582 Cassiodorus History of the Goths57...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy710 Islamic forces conquer Tangiers; Caliphate controls entire North...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Pope Gregory II excommunicates Leo III for iconoclasm(2) Histori...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy900 Laguna Copperplate Inscription930 Althing established in Iceland...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1050 Tughril Beg conquers Isfahan and establishes Seljuk capital the...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1115 Peter Abelard becomes chair of theology at Notre Dame1065 Westm...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace of Constance confirms the autonomy of Italian cities from ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Western façade of Notre Dame Cathedral completedSt. Thomas Aquin...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Mohammed ibn Nasr founds Nasrid Dynasty in Granada(2) Mongol lea...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Edward III of England lands in Antwerp with his army(2) Holy Rom...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Emperor Charles IV issues Golden Bull establishing a system of s...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Frederick VI of the House of Hohenzollern recognized as Margrave...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyMachiavellis Birth1492 Spanish forces conquer final Moorish strongho...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1513 Machiavelli wrote "The Prince"(1) Portugal rules Bahrain 1521 -...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Martin Luther publishes a full translation of the Old and New Te...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) St. Basil in Moscow completed(2) St Pauls in London burns(3) Fra...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1613(1) Sir Walter a Raleigh writes The History of the World(2) El G...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Jan Vermeer born(2) John Locke born1637(1) Educational reforms b...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyThomas Hobbes Leviathan was published1672 English and French war aga...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1684(1) Bach born(2) Handel born(3) Louis XIV revokes the Edict of N...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyJohn Rosseau was born.1724 Immanuel Kant born1709 Battle of Poltava1...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Bach dies(2) The Great Awakening ends in America17501729 Jonatha...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Braddock defeated at Fort Duquesne (1) Voltaire in Geneva(2) Aca...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon(2) David H...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) French Revolutionary Wars begins(2) Battle of Valmy(1) Napoleon ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Battle of Austerlitz(2) Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats French fl...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The War of 1812 ends with the Treaty of Ghent, reaffirming prewa...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Edouard Manet born(2) Lewis Carroll born(3) Louisa May Alcott bo...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) YMCA founded(2) Friedrich Nietzsche born(1) Revolution of 1848 b...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The Charge of the Light Brigade by Lord Tennyson(2) Oscar Wilde ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace of Prague between Prussia and Austria; Austria excluded fr...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Greco-Turkish War(2) Afghan-British War, Second begins(1) Zulu-B...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) At the Moulin Rouge by Toulouse-Lautrec(2) The Nutcracker Suite ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace Conference at the Hague(2) Second Boer War begins(3) Boxer...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The First World War (World War I) begins after Germany declares ...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Three Musicians by Picasso(2) Wall Street bomb explodes(1) Turki...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Germany occupies the Rhineland(2) Spanish Civil War breaks out b...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Battle of Stalingrad begins(2) Americans destroy 4 Japanese airc...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Abstract-Expressionist Jackson Pollocks Number 5(2) Tennessee Wi...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) OAU formed(2) Kenya becomes independent from Great Britain; Jomo...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The last group of Americans are evacuated from Saigon, South Vie...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) U. S. actress Bette Davis dies.(2) Globe Theatre found(3) Salvad...
Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Israel withdraws from southern Lebanon(2) USS Cole Attacked in A...
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A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS

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A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS

  1. 1. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Stonehenge in Southern England(2) Epic of Gilgamesh is first written mythc. 4300 BC Megalithic tombs in Western Europe1800 BC c. 1800-1750; Hammurabi establishes Babylonian Empire Earliest prohibitions against pork among shepherd tribes in Middle East2000 BC Hittites establish empire in Anatolia (modern Turkey)1813 BC Emergence of Assyrian power under Shamshi-Adad I2100 BC First Ziggurats in Sumer2334 BC c. 2334-2193; First deification of kings in Sumer2700 BC Yin and Yang theory developed in China1333 BC Tutankhaman (King Tut) reestablishes polytheism as official religion in Egypt1353 BC Amenhotep IV introduces monotheism to Egypt1450 BC Mycenaean Greeks conquer Minoan Civilization on Crete Brahma worship in India1500 BC c. 1504-1492; Thutmose I expands Egypt into Palestine, Syria, and Nubia1700 BC c. 1700-1650; Chariot-equipped Hyksos begin invasions and conquer Middle Kingdom Egypt1750 BC Collapse of Indus River Valley civilization at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa1200 BC c. 1200-1100; Judaism established in PalestineGOD CREATED THE WORLDPage 1 of 57 pages
  2. 2. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy957 BC Solomon builds first Jewish temple in Jerusalem800 BC Olmecs build pyramids in Central America (modern Mexico)850 BCc. 850-750; Approximate date of written transcriptions ofHomersIliad and Odyssey from existing oral tradition883 BC Revival of Assyrian power under Ashurnasirpal II1006 BC c. 1006-965; David becomes king of Israel and conquers Jerusalem612 BC Babylonians sack Nineveh; Assyrian power collapses671 BC Assyrians conquer Egypt722 BC Sargon II seizes power in Assyria; destroys the Kingdom of Israel744 BC Tiglath-Pileser III succeeds in Assyria; Conquers Syria, Palestine, Israel, and Babylon772 BCConstruction begins on Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of Seven Wonders ofthe Ancient World776 BC First Olympic Games held in Greece553 BCc. 553; Death of Zoroaster; Teachings emphasizing monotheism and eschatologybecome official religion of Persian Empire565 BC Spread of Taoism in China587 BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon destroys Jerusalem; Babylonian Captivity of the Jews begins600 BC c. 600; Greeks colonize southern France c. 600; Sappho is priestess of love cult on Lesbos605 BC Babylonians defeat last Assyrian army at Megiddo; End of Assyria as an independent kingdomPage 2 of 57 pages
  3. 3. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) c. 500; Polynesian culture develops in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga(2) Earliest versions of Sun Tzus The Art of War(3) Heraclitus becomes one of the earliest dialectical philosophers(1) Spartan army under King Leonidas defeated by Persians at Battle of Thermopylae(2) Greek fleet defeats Persian fleet at Battle of Salamis469 BC Socrates birth539 BC Babylonian empire conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia498 BC Pindar begins composing his Odes500 BC499 BC Ionian Revolt marks beginning of Persian-Greek Wars515 BC c. 515; Birth of Parmenides, who becomes founder of metaphysics517 BC Hsiao Yen (Wu Ti) backs Buddhist missionary efforts in central China522 BC Darius I rises to power in Persia; Expands Persian Empire to its maximum extent472 BC Aeschyluss tragedyPersae performed478 BC Athens founds Delian League to lead the Greek war against Persia480 BC479 BCBattles of Plataea and Mycale mark the end of Spartan leadership of the Greek coalition againstPersia490 BC Athenians defeat Persians at Battle of Marathon495 BC c. 495-483; Confucius teaches throughout China466 BC Delian League decisively defeats Persian fleet at Battle of Eurymedon RiverPage 3 of 57 pages
  4. 4. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Death of Empedocles, who developed Four Elements theory of the naturalworld(2) c. 430; Herodotus writes his History427 BC Platos Birth438 BC Phidias completes Parthenon440 BC Sophocles tragedyAntigone441 BC First stage success of Euripides in Athens455 BC Anaxagoras teaches atomistic theory of the natural world457 BC First Peloponnesian War; Sparta dominant in Peloponnesian Peninsula423 BC Aristophanes comedyThe Clouds426 BC Euripides Andromache428 BC Euripides Hippolytus ; portrays struggle between sexual desire and asceticism430 BC429 BC c. 429, SophoclesOedipus Rex431 BC Second Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta begins Euripides Medea415 BC Athens sends large expeditionary force to Sicily; Athenians are decisively defeated Euripides The Trojan Women420 BC c. 420-413; SophoclesElectra421 BC Aristophanes comedyThe PeacePage 4 of 57 pages
  5. 5. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Posthumous production of SophoclesOedipus at Colonus(2) Death of Thucydides, who leaves behind The History of the Peloponnesian War380 BC Plato wrote the Republic384 BC Aristotles Birth350 BC Aristotle wrote the "Politics"347 BC Platos Death336 BC Philip II of Macedon assassinated; Alexander rises to power in Macedon404 BC Athens surrenders, marking end of Peloponnesian War405 BC With Persian aid, Spartan fleet decisively defeats Athenians at the battle of Aegospotami411 BC Outnumbered Athenian fleet defeats Spartans at Battle of Cynossema Aristophanes anti-war satire Lysistrata343 BC Rome subdues Campania in First Samnite War367 BC Aristotle begins study at Platos Academy371 BC Thebes defeats Sparta at Battle of Leuctra; Spartan helots freed385 BC Plato establishes his Academy401 BC Battle of Cunaxa; Xenophon and 10,000 Greek mercenaries retreat through Persian Empire399 BC Trial and death of Socrates335 BC Alexander destroys the rebellious city of Thebes and enslaves its population Aristotle opens the Lyceum338 BCPhilip II of Macedon defeats Greek army at Battle of Chaeronea; End of independent Greek city-states340 BC Athens forms Hellenic League to resist Philip II of MacedonPage 5 of 57 pages
  6. 6. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Alexander the Great enters Babylon; Conquers Persian Empire(2) Darius III assassinated by Persian satrap Bessus(1) Alexanders general Ptolemy establishes control of Egypt(2) Alexander the Great dies; Wars of the Diadochoi (Successors) begin322 BC Aristotles Death290 BC Rome completes conquest of Samnites; Effectively controls Italy Approximate date for the construction of the Library of Alexandria283 BC Pharos lighthouse in Alexandria332 BC Alexander conquers Palestine and Egypt334 BC Alexander the Great Invades Asia Minor and defeats Persians at Granicus River312 BC Seleucus establishes Seleucid Empire in Mesopotamia323 BC324 BC Menander introduces New Comedy to Greece326 BCMacedonian army defeats King Porus at the battle of The Hydaspes River; Alexander the Greatsarmy mutinies and refuses to march farther into India330 BC329 BC Alexander the Great reaches India331 BC Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela; Effectively destroys Persian army281 BC Completion of the Colossus of Rhodes, one of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World289 BC Chinese ruler/philosopher Mencius dies; Responsible for refining Confucianism300 BC c. 300 BCE; Epicurus founds school of philosophy in Athens301 BC Antigonus dies at battle of Ipsus; Dissolution of Alexanders empire is confirmed Zeno introduces Stoic philosophy in AthensPage 6 of 57 pages
  7. 7. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) c. 260; Mauryan king Ashoka converts to Buddhism(2) c. 260; First gladiatorial games in Rome(1) c. 150; El Mirador (Guatemala) has become largest center of Mayan civilization(2) c. 150; Polybius publishes first part of The Histories150 BC219 BC Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins221 BC Chinese Emperor Shih Huang-ti outlaws and persecutes Confucianism241 BCFirst Punic War ends after Carthaginian defeat at the battle of the Aegates Islands; Romeconquers Sicily and makes it the first Roman province260 BC264 BC First Punic War begins between Rome and Carthage272 BC Rome conquers Tarentum and unifies Italian Peninsula171 BC Third Macedonian War between Rome and Macedon190 BCRome defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at battle of Magnesia; Rome secures control of Greeceand gains territory in Asia Minor202 BCRoman army under Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Zama; Second Punic War ends withRome dominant in the Mediterranean206 BCRoman army under Scipio Africanus defeats Carthaginians at battle of Ilipa; Rome conquersHispania216 BC Hannibals Carthaginian army destroys 16 Roman legions at Battle of Cannae217 BC Roman army ambushed and destroyed at Battle of Lake Trasimene167 BC Mattahias the Hasmonian begins Maccabean Revolt against Seleucid rule in Judea168 BC Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon at battle of Pydna; Rome assures dominance in GreecePage 7 of 57 pages
  8. 8. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Romans capture Carthage; Carthaginian territory incorporated into Roman province of Africa(2) Rome eliminates democracies in Greece(1) Virgil begins hisEclogues(2) Second Triumvirate deifies Julius Caesar; Origin of Caesar worship35 BC First volume of HoracesSatires19 BC Virgil dies; Augustus immediately publishes theAeneid105 BC Proto-Germanic Cimbri and Teutones destroy a Roman army at battle of Arausio144 BC Mithridates I of Parthia conquers Babylonia, Media, and Persia146 BC149 BC Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins; Roman army besieges Carthage51 BC Ciceros De Republica53 BC Parthians crush Roman army at battle of Carrhae; Crassus killed afterward58 BC Julius Caesar invades Gaul; Gallic Wars begin63 BC Judea becomes client-kingdom of Rome102 BC Roman army under Gaius Marius defeats Teutones at battle of Aquae Sextiae104 BC Second Slave Revolt in Sicily42 BC Marcus Junius Brutus defeated at the Second Battle of Philippi; Commits suicide soon after45 BCJulius Caesar defeats conservative republican army at the Battle of Munda; Caesar returns toRome to rule as dictatorJulius Caesar enforces the Julian Calendar developed by Sosigenes of Alexandria48 BC Caesar defeats Senetorial army under Crassus at PharsalusPage 8 of 57 pages
  9. 9. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy70 Roman army under Titus captures Jerusalem and destroys Jewish Temple73 Jewish Zealots commit mass suicide at Masada18 BC Ovids Amores16 Romans defeat Arminius but German tribes remain independent9Germanic revolt against Rome under Arminius; Destroys Varus and three legions at battle ofTeutoburg Forest7 Ovids Metamorphoses6 AD Rome incorporates client-kingdom of Judea into new province of Iudaea4 c. 4; Approximate date of the birth of Jesus15 BC Augustus expands Romes frontier to the Danube River64 Fires destroy half of Rome; Nero blames Christians and begins persecutions63 Senecas work of stoic philosophy, Epistolae Morales46 Paul of Tarsus begins missionary work in Asia Minor30 c. 30; Crucifixion and death of Jesus27 c. 27; Jesus is baptized and begins ministry17Livy, Roman historian, dies leaving behind his 142-volume history of Rome, AbUrbe Condita67 Official introduction of Buddhism into China66 First Jewish Revolt against Roman rule in Judaea Petronius SatyriconPage 9 of 57 pages
  10. 10. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy122 Hadrians Wall built in Britain132 c. 132-135; Jewish Rebellion in Jerusalem79 Pliny the Elder killed in Pompeii during eruption of Vesuvius76 Chinese army defeats Xiongnu nomads (Probably the early Huns)115 Emperor Trajan expands the Roman frontier to the Tigris River114 Rome annexes Armenia113 Trajans Column erected in newly rebuilt Roman Forum106105 Tacitus Historiae80 Colosseum opens in Rome125 Approximate date of completion of the Pantheon in Rome121 Seutonius Lives of the Caesars120 c. 120; Plutarchs Parallel Lives117 Tacitus Annales167 Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius leads series of successful campaigns against Germanic tribes155Martyrdom of Polycarp, an early Christian bishop in Smyrna; His Letter to thePhilippians among earliest Christian writings to survive135 Hadrian orders destruction of Jerusalem and enforces a diaspora of the JewsPage 10 of 57 pages
  11. 11. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy301 Armenia becomes first state to officially adopt Christianity200 Judah haNasi compilesMishnah , the foundation of Talmudic Law197Approximate date of Tertullians conversion to Christianity; Introduced the termTrinity into Christian theology180 Marcus AureliusMeditations ; Stoic philosophy268 Roman emperor Claudius II repels invasion of Goths; Gains title Gothicus260 Persian King Shapur I defeats Roman army and seizes emperor Valerian250Roman emperor Decius begins systematic persecution of Christians to ensuredominance of paganism247 Philippus holds games to celebrate millennial anniversary of the founding of Rome244241 Shapur I expands the Sassanid Empire at the expense of Roman territory306 Baths of Diocletian open in Rome, the most lavish public bath in Rome303Roman emperor Diocletian begins the Great Persecution of Christians andManicheans in the empire276Mani executed; Teachings will become Manichaeism, which combines Christiansalvation and Zoroastrian dualism275 c. 275; Anthony begins hermetic life of study; Beginning of Christian Monasticism274 Aurelian defeats rebels at Châlons to restore Roman authority in Gaul313Constantine issues the Edict of Milan granting official toleration to Christianity inthe Roman EmpirePage 11 of 57 pages
  12. 12. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy354 St. Augustines Birth(1) Huns invade Europe(2) Picts invade Roman Britain379 Roman emperor Theodosius makes treaty with Visigoths as military allies of Rome341 Coptic Christianity introduced to Ethiopia335 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem330 Construction begins on St. Peters Basilica in Rome325 Council of Nicaea; Arian Christianity condemned321 Sunday becomes the Sabbath in Roman Empire378 Visigoth cavalry destroys Roman army and kills emperor Valens at battle of Adrianople376 Visigoths permitted to settle in Balkans by Rome372 Spread of Buddhism in China and Korea362Roman emperor Julian decrees religious toleration in the empire and attempts toreestablish paganism360350 Huns invade Persia391 Roman emperor Theodosius orders all non-Christian books burned390Bishop Ambrose of Milan forces emperor Theodosius to do public penance for amassacre of 7,000 in Thessalonica380Theodosius I establishes Catholic Christianity as the official state religion of theRoman EmpirePage 12 of 57 pages
  13. 13. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Vandals invade Iberian Peninsula(2) Revolt in Britain marks the end of Roman rule430 St. Augustines Death396 Visigoths under Alaric invade Greece393 Olympic games forbidden by Emperor Theodosius411 Augustines The City of God409410 Visigoths under King Alaric sack Rome406 Vandals invade Gaul, sacking numerous Roman cities401 Visigoths under Alaric invade Italy397 Augustines Confessions473 King Euric of the Visigoths declares Gaul independent of Roman rule453 Attila dies; Huns expelled from Italy451Attila and Huns defeated in Gaul at battle of Chalons; Last great military campaign by WesternRoman Empire449 Saxons and Angles invade Britain438 Roman law since 312 published in Codex Theodosianus431 Council of Ephesus exiles Nestorius; Emergence of cult of the Virgin MaryPage 13 of 57 pages
  14. 14. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Cosmas IndicopleustesTopographica Christiana attempts to demonstrate thetruth of the biblical Creation story and posits a flat Earth(2) Christian chronology established by Dionysius Exiguus(1) Benedict of Nursia founds monastic order at Monte Casino(2) Byzantine Emperor Justinian I closes Platos Academy(1) Benedict of Nursia writes Regula monachorum to regulate daily life in themonastary(2) Roman statesman Cassiodorus retires and founds monastery at Viverium;Becomes major center for translation of ancient Greek texts537 Hagia Sophia completed and dedicated in Constantinople535 Belisarius conquers the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy for Byzantine Empire533 Belisarius conquers the Vandal kingdom in North Africa for the Byzantine Empire529525507 Clovis defeats Visigoths at Vouillé; Unites all Frankish lands on the left bank of the Rhine481561 Chlothar I dies; Frankish kingdoms are redivided558 Chlothar I temporarily reunites Clovis Frankish kingdoms553 Procopius Anecdota (Secret History) of the Byzantine Empire540541 Justinian I abandons plans to conquer Gaul and Britain after plague strikes ConstantinopleMIDDLE AGESPage 14 of 57 pages
  15. 15. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy628 Muslim army captures Mecca582 Cassiodorus History of the Goths579King Chosroes of Persia dies after 48 year reign; Reestablished Persian power from Red Sea toOxus River594 Empress Suiko of Japan converts to Buddhism593 Empress Suiko becomes first Japanese ruler to gain official recognition from China589 Sui emperor Wendi reunites China588 Lombards convert to Christianity587 First Buddhist monastery in Japan585 Soga clan adopts Buddhism in Japan622Muhammad forced to flee Mecca for Medina; Becomes basis for Islamic traditionof the hijra620Persian king Chosroes II conquers Rhodes; Persian Empire reaches extent of Darius 6th CenturyBCE empire610 Muhammad begins preaching in Mecca604Japanese crown prince issues the Shotoku Taishi, which requires veneration of theBuddha and Buddhist laws603 First St. Pauls Cathedral built in London601 The Vaghbata , a collection of Indian medical knowledge compiled630 Muhammad returns to Mecca with the KoranPage 15 of 57 pages
  16. 16. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy710 Islamic forces conquer Tangiers; Caliphate controls entire North African coast711 Islamic army invades Iberian Peninsula638 Islamic forces capture Jerusalem637 Islamic armies invade Mesopotamia636 Battle of Yarmuk; Islamic forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid conquer Syria and Palestine633 East Anglia converted to Christianity661 Sunni and Shia branches of Islam split over succession to the Caliphate659 c. 659; First Shinto shrines built in Japan645 Buddhism reaches Tibet643 Construction on the Dome of the Rock begins642 Islamic forces decisively defeat Persians at the battle of Nihawand639 Islamic armies conquer Egypt700 Dandins The Adventures of the Ten Princes , Sanskrit poetry692 Dome of the Rock is completed by Caliph Abdel-Malik690 Shinto Shrine of Ise first built in its current form in Japan680 Hussein killed at battle of Karbala; Battlefield will become site for Shiite holy city678Umayyad forces forced to lift siege of Constantinople after decisive naval defeat at the battle ofSyllaeumPage 16 of 57 pages
  17. 17. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Pope Gregory II excommunicates Leo III for iconoclasm(2) Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum by Bede796 Palatine Chapel built in Aix-la-Chapelle801 Charlemagne conquers Barcelona from the Moors804 Charlemagne completes conquest and conversion of Saxony730732 Frankish army under Charles Martel defeats Umayyad army at the battle of Tours726 Byzantine emperor Leo III initiates iconoclastic movement in Constantinople717 Second Siege of Constantinople; Byzantines decisively defeat Umayyad navy using Greek fire712 Muhammad ibn Kasim makes first Islamic conquests in India Ono Yasumaras Kojiki , the first written history of Japan790 Carolingian Renaissance begins787 Danes invade England774 Charlemagne visits Rome; Absorbs Lombardy into Frankish kingdom766 York becomes English center for learning756 Donation of Pepin creates Papal States and establishes temporal power of the papacy752 55 ft. statue of the Buddha, Rushanabutsu , completed in Japan814 Doges Palace built in Venice800 Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Emperor of the RomansAlcuin of York works on corrected version of the Bible and compiles Lives of theSaintsPage 17 of 57 pages
  18. 18. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy900 Laguna Copperplate Inscription930 Althing established in Iceland; Early representative assembly in Europe942 Edmund I of England conquers the Danelaw820 Islamic law school established in Medina850 Vikings seize Kiev; Origin of Varangian empire of the Rus845 Chinese government launches persecution of Buddhists843 Treaty of Verdun permanently splits Charlemagnes empire836 Vikings sack London830 Einhards Life of Charlemagne825King Egbert of Wessex conquers Kent, Sussex, and Essex; Wessex becomes dominant power inEngland909 Abbey of Cluny founded in eastern France895 Magyars raid Bulgaria; Settle in Central Europe886 Alfred the Great expels the Vikings from London; Establishes the Danelaw874 Christians defeat Moors at Orbedo; Beginning of theReconquista in the Iberian Peninsula862Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Cyril and Methodius to convert slavs; Origin ofCyrillic alphabet859 Arabs complete conquest of Sicily939 Ngo Quyen defeats Chinese army and establishes independent kingdom in northern VietnamPage 18 of 57 pages
  19. 19. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1050 Tughril Beg conquers Isfahan and establishes Seljuk capital there1051 Cathars executed in Germany969 Fatimids conquer Egypt and move capital to Cairo956 Oghuz Turks led by Seljuk move into Transoxiana955 Otto I of Germany defeats Magyar army at the battle of Lechfeld1018Council of Pavia; Pope Benedict VIII declares clerical marriage and concubinageillegal1010 Robert II proclaims the Peace of God in France to curb aristocratic violence993Pope John XV canonizes Ulric, bishop of Augsburg; First documented papalcanonization992 Venice gains independence from Byzantine Empire988Vladimir the Great of Kiev converts to Christianity; Foundation of Russian OrthodoxChurch982 Eric the Red begins viking invasion of Iceland Direct Chinese contact with the Philippines1048 Seljuk Turks sack Erzurum; Maintain presence in Anatolia Henry III appoints Pope Clement II1040 Seljuk Turks conquer territories in Persia1035 King Cnut dies; England, Denmark, and Norway redivided1031 Umayyad caliphate abolished in Spain; Rise of minor Moorish kingdoms1022 Bogomils burned in France1052 Construction on Westminster Abby beginsPage 19 of 57 pages
  20. 20. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1115 Peter Abelard becomes chair of theology at Notre Dame1065 Westminster Abby consecrated1061 The Norman conquest of Arab-controlled Sicily1055 Seljuk Turks conquer Baghdad; Tughril Beg becomes sultan1054Pope Leo IX and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicate each other; Finalstep in the Great Schism between the Catholic and Orthodox churches1080The Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the Norman conquest of England, iscommissioned1079 Peter Abelard born1078 Construction on the Tower of London begins1075Pope Gregory VII decrees papal supremacy inDictatus papae ; Beginning of InvestitureControversy between the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor1071Seljuk army decisively defeats Byzantine army at battle of Manzikert; Conquer parts of Anatoliaand Syria1066 William the Conqueror defeats Harold at the battle of Hastings; Normans conquer England1119 The Knights Templar founded in Jerusalem1100 Baptistery in Florence built1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem; First Crusade endsThe Order of the Knights Hospitaller chartered in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims tothe Holy Land1095 Pope Urban II proclaims First Crusade against Islamic conquests in the Middle East1091 Roger Guiscard completes the Norman conquest of SicilyPage 20 of 57 pages
  21. 21. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace of Constance confirms the autonomy of Italian cities from Holy Roman EmperorFrederick I (Barbarossa)(2) Saladin captures Aleppo; Moves his capital to Damascus(1) Pope Gregory VIII calls for Third Crusade to halt Saladins conquests in the Middle East(2) Saladin captures Jerusalem from the European crusaders1200 Lay order of the Beguines founded in Liège1175 Saladin recognized as sultan of Egypt and Syria1173 Thomas Becket canonized1170The Almohads move their capital to Seville; The Almohad Dynasty has conquered much of NorthAfrican and consolidated the smaller Islamic kingdoms in SpainThomas Becket murdered by nobles loyal to King Henry II of England1145Pope Eugene III proclaims Second Crusade to recapture Crusader Kingdom ofEdessa1123 The First Lateran Council condemns simony and clerical marriage in Europe1122Concordat of Worms ends the Investiture Controversy between the Pope and Holy RomanEmperor1192Richard I of England and Saladin sign truce which allows Christian access to Jerusalem; Richardleaves the Holy Land1191 Crusading army under Richard I of England captures Acre and defeats Saladins army at Arsuf1190Emperor Frederick I drowns while crossing the Saleph River; German crusader armydisintegrates1188 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) leads crusader army from Germany118711831179 Third Lateran Council declares crusade against Albigensian heresy1193 Saladin diesPage 21 of 57 pages
  22. 22. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Western façade of Notre Dame Cathedral completedSt. Thomas Aquinas birth(2) Francis of AssisisCanticle to Brother Sun1231 Gregory IX establishes the Papal Inquisition1210 Foundation of the Franciscan Order1209 Foundation of Cambridge University1208 Pope Innocent III declares crusade against Albigensian heresy in Languedoc1204Crusaders capture and sack Constantinople; Baldwin count of Flanders crowned Latin Emperorand Byzantine territory partitioned with Venice1222 Genghis Khan conquers Khwarezmid Empire (Afghanistan)1216 Foundation of the Dominican Order1215 Mongols under Genghis Khan sack Beijing1214Philip II of France decisively defeats Emperor Otto IV at battle of Bouvines; Confirms Frenchconquest of Normandy and other English territories1212Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VII of Navarre decisively defeat Almohad army at battle of LasNavas de TolosaFailed Childrens Crusade in Europe1211 Genghis Khan conquers Kara-Khitai empire in Turkestan and invades China1236 Ferdinand III of Castile conquers Muslim Cordoba1227 Genghis Khan dies; Mongol empire divided among his sons12251226The Golden Bull of Rimini authorizes the Teutonic Knights to conquer and convert paganPrussian tribes in the BalticPage 22 of 57 pages
  23. 23. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Mohammed ibn Nasr founds Nasrid Dynasty in Granada(2) Mongol leader Batu Khan sacks Vladimir; Establishes the Golden Horde1266 Thomas Aquinas begins work on his Summa theologica1274 Thomas Aquinas dies1290 Edward I expels the Jews from England1297 William Wallace leads uprising in Scotland; Defeats English army at Stirling Bridge1298 Edward I of England defeats William Wallace at Falkirk Marco Polos Travels to Tartary and China(1) Papal and Neapolitan armies destroyed by malaria; Truce ends the War of the SicilianVespers(2) Fleming militiamen defeat French army at Courtrai1259 Henry III of England renounces claims to Normandy and other Angevin territories in France12381279 Kublai Khan completes the Mongol conquest of China1277 Edward I of England conquers Wales1265 Dante born1260 Mamluks defeat Mongol army at Ain Jalut; Egypt avoids conquest Chartres Cathedral consecrated1296 Edward I of England defeats Scottish army at Dunbar; Scottish king John Balliol abdicates1295 France and Scotland form alliance against England; Origin of the "Auld Alliance" Marco Polo returns from China1291 Mamluks destroy Acre and end the existence of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem1282 Beginning of the War of the Sicilian Vespers1281Typhoon destroys Mongol invasion fleet off the coast of Japan; Japanese call itKamikaze (DivineWind)1302Boniface VIII asserts papal supremacy over secular power in the bull, UnamsanctumPage 23 of 57 pages
  24. 24. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Edward III of England lands in Antwerp with his army(2) Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV supports Edward IIIs claim to the French throne(1) Edward III declares himself King of France(2) Battle of Sluys1309 Pope Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, France1307 Dantes Divina Commedia (Divine Comedy )1305 William Wallace executed in London133813401337 Philip VI of France confiscates English territory in Gascony; Beginning of the Hundred Years War1328 Edward III recognizes Scottish independence1331 Ottoman Turks capture Nicaea, the last remaining Byzantine territory in Asia1315 Swiss militia defeat Habsburg army at Morgarten and secure Swiss autonomy1314 Robert the Bruce defeats English army at Bannockburn; English forces withdraw from Scotland1353 Boccaccios The Decameron1346 English defeat French at battle of Crécy; Emergence of the English longbow1342 Scottish troops take Roxburgh; English expelled from Scotland1341 English garrison expelled from Edinburgh, Scotland Petrarch crowned in RomePage 24 of 57 pages
  25. 25. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Emperor Charles IV issues Golden Bull establishing a system of seven Electors in the HolyRoman Empire(2) English longbowmen defeat French army at the Battle of Poiters; French King John IIcaptured and held for ransom1364 Papal Palace completed in Avignon, France1370 Hubert van Eyck born(1) End of Babylonian Captivity for Roman Catholic Church(2) Filippo Brunelleschi, early Renaissance architect and engineer born(1) Ghiberti born(2) The Great Schism & the election of Clement VII1380 Islam arrived in Sulo Archipelago and Jolo1382 Bible translated into English by Wycliffe1390 Jan Van Eyck born1360 Timur begins rise to military prominence; Conquers Transoxiana1356137713781371Ottoman army under Murad I defeats Byzantine army at battle of Chernomen; Ottomansconquer most of the Balkans1365Charles V recognizes John de Montfort as Duke of Brittany in the Treaty of Guérande; End of theBreton War of Succession1363 John II gives Burgundy to son Philip; Burgundy will emerge as independent rival to French throne1397 Treaty of Kalmar stipulates perpetual union of the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden & Norway1389Ottoman army under Murad I defeats Serbian army at the battle of Kosovo; Ottoman Empireconquers Serbia1386 Old Swiss Confederation defeats Habsburg army at the Battle of SempachLast pagan ruler in Europe, Jogalia of Lithuania, converts to Christianity;Foundation of Polish-Lithuanian dynastic unionPage 25 of 57 pages
  26. 26. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Frederick VI of the House of Hohenzollern recognized as Margrave and Prince-elector ofBrandenburg(2) English army under Henry V decisively defeats French army at the Battle of Agincourt(1) Vietnam gains independence from Ming China(2) English army begins siege of Orleans1450 Florence becomes center of Italian Renaissance(1) Leonardo da Vinci born(2) Ghibertis Gates of Paradise(1) Turks capture Constantinople and end the Byzantine Empire(2) French army defeats English at Castillon; End of English presence in Aquitaine(3) French forces enter Bordeaux; End of the Hundred Years War14531414 1414-1418; Council of Constance resolves the Western Schism of the Catholic Church1444 Botticelli born1438 Charles VII and the Pragmatic Sanction1436 Verrocchio born14281423 Venetian-Turkish Wars begin1415 John Huss burned at the stake1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy assassinated by servants of the Dauphin Charles14521447 Pope Nicholas V, the Builder Pope1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, early Renaissance architect and engineer diesPage 26 of 57 pages
  27. 27. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyMachiavellis Birth1492 Spanish forces conquer final Moorish stronghold in Granada1494 Savonarolas Reforms1498 Albrecht Durers Self Portrait1499 Michelangelos Pietà1455 Pope gives approval to the slave trade1454 The Treaty of Lodi establishes peace and a stable political framework in Italy1477Charles the Bold killed in Switzerland; Burgundian territories divided between French andHabsburgs1475 Michelangelo born1471 Albrecht Durer born1469 Florence at its cultural height1466 Donatello dies1465 Erasmus born1488 Verrocchio dies1484 Birth of Venus by Botticelli1483 Martin Luther born1482 Battle of Alhama de Granada1478 Pope Sixtus IV ratifies the Spanish InquisitionPage 27 of 57 pages
  28. 28. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1513 Machiavelli wrote "The Prince"(1) Portugal rules Bahrain 1521 - 1602(2) Battle of Tenochtitlan; Cortes completes conquest of Aztec EmpireFerdinand Magellan Arrived in the Cebu, Battle of Mactan w/ Lapu-lapu(1) Spanish army defeats French at Battle of Pavia; Spain becomes dominant power in Italy(2) Imperial-Spanish army commanded by Charles de Lannoy defeats a French army at the Battleof Pavia and takes French king Francis I captive(1) Battle of Panipat(2) Mogul-Afghan War1527 Imperial troops sack Rome Machiavellis Death1506 Charles of Ghent inherits the Burgundian possessions of his father Philip I Francis Xavier born1503 Leonardos Mona Lisa1500 Madonna and Child by Michelangelo15251521At the Imperial Diet of Worms, Martin Luther refuses to recant his critique of theCatholic Church and Charles V declares him a heretic1520Field of the Cloth of Gold; Fabulous meeting between Francis I of France and HenryVIII of England1519Charles of Ghent secures election as King of the Romans with financial support from the Fuggerbanking family1517 Martin Luthers 95 Theses begins the Reformation1516Charles of Ghent proclaimed king of Aragon and Castile after the death of his grandfatherFerdinand II1508 Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel152616TH CENTURY TIMELINEPage 28 of 57 pages
  29. 29. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Martin Luther publishes a full translation of the Old and New Testaments inGerman(2) England splits from Roman Catholic Church; Henry VIII confiscates churchproperty and establishes Church of England(1) Erasmus dies(2) John Calvins Protestant theological tractInstitutes of the Christian Religion1542 Roy Lopez de Villalobos arrived in the Visayas and Mindanao1549 Christianity reaches Japan1532 Battle of Cajamarca Machiavellis The Prince phosthumously published1531 Spanish Conquest of Peru begins1530 Pope Clement VII crowns Charles as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Augsburg Confessions1528 Albrecht Durer dies1546 Smalkaldic War1545 First Council of Trent meets in response to the Protestant Reformation1541 El Greco born1540 Order of the Jesuits founded153615341535 Sir Thomas More executed1552 Charles V loses power Francis Xavier diesPage 29 of 57 pages
  30. 30. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) St. Basil in Moscow completed(2) St Pauls in London burns(3) Francis Bacon born(1) Shakespeare born(2) Michelangelo dies(3) Calvin Hobbes diesMiguel Lopez de Leazpi arrived in the Philippines1584 William of Orange Assassinated15641559 John Knox15611558 Battle of St. Quentin1555 Peace of Augsburg1577 Peter Paul Rubens born1576 First theatre in England built1573 Caravaggio born1572St. Bartholomews Day Massacre begins in France; Thousands of CalvinistHuguenots killed throughout France1571 Combined Spanish, Venetian, and Papal fleet destroys Ottoman fleet at Battle of Lepanto1566 Netherlands revolt against Spain1587 Mary, Queen of Scots dies1581 Cossacks conquer SiberiaPage 30 of 57 pages
  31. 31. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1613(1) Sir Walter a Raleigh writes The History of the World(2) El Greco dies1621 12 Years Truce expires; Dutch and Spanish resume war1593 Henry IV of France converts to Catholicism to secure the French crown1592 Pompeii discovered1588Spanish Armada defeated by English fleet; Spanish invasion of England fails due to battle andweatherThomas Hobbes was born.1612 British to India1611 King James version of the Bible1606 Rembrandt born1602 Persia rules Bahrain 1602 - 17831601 Conversion of St. Paul by Carravaggio1600 Shakespeares Hamlet1620Imperial forces under Tilly defeat Bohemian rebels at White Mountain; Effective end ofBohemian Revolt1619 Dutch take over East Indies1618 Defenestration of Prague begins the Bohemian Revolt and Thirty Years War16141615 Inquisition questions Galileo17TH CENTURYPage 31 of 57 pages
  32. 32. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Jan Vermeer born(2) John Locke born1637(1) Educational reforms by Comenius(2) Anne Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts and moves to Rhode Island1647 Masaniellos Revolt in Naples1626 Francis Bacon dies1636 Harvard founded in Cambridge, Massachussets1635 France enters Thirty Years War as an active combatant; Franco-Spanish War begins1634 Catholic Imperial army defeats Swedish army at the Battle of Nördlingen Anne Hutchinson settles in Massachusetts1632 Gustavas Adolphus killed at Battle of Luetzen1631 Gustavus Adolphus destroys Imperial Army at Breitenfeld1630 Gustavus Adolphus invades Germany1648 Peace of Westphalia (ends Thirty Years War)1644 Ecstasy of St. Teresa by Bernini1642 The Night Watch by Rembrandt1643 Westminster Assembly1638Page 32 of 57 pages
  33. 33. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyThomas Hobbes Leviathan was published1672 English and French war against Dutch1675 King Philips War Jan Vermeer dies1660Louis XIV marries Maria Teresa, the daughter of Philip IV of Spain, as part of the Treaty of thePyrenees1659 Franco-Spanish War ends with Treaty of the Pyrenees Moliere and Comedy1658 Battle of the Dunes1653 Taj Mahal is completed1651 Nell Gwyn born1649 Religious toleration in Maryland1650 Rene Descartes dies1671 Morgan sacks Panama Rob Roy born1669 Rembrandt dies1666 London burns for five days1664 English take New York1661 Daniel Defoe born1663 Ottoman army defeated at ViennaPage 33 of 57 pages
  34. 34. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy1684(1) Bach born(2) Handel born(3) Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes and begins persecutions of Huguenots1689 John Lockes "Second Treatise" was published.(1) Salem witch trials(2) College of William and Mary, Virginia, founded(1) Charles II of Spain dies; Leaves inheritance to Dauphin of France(2) Great Northern War begins(1) Prussia becomes a kingdom(2) War of the Spanish Succession begins(1) 47 Ronin assassinate Kira Yoshinaka in Japan(2) The first regular English-language newspaper, The Daily Courant , published forfirst time1703 Sir Isaac Newton becomes chairman of the Royal Society1704 Battle of Blenheim John Locke dies.18TH CENTURY17001701169216851683 Turks lay siege to Vienna, Turks later defeated1679 Thomas Hobbes dies1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England creates Kingdom of Great Britain1702 William III dies; Netherlands regain status as true republicPage 34 of 57 pages
  35. 35. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& PhilosophyJohn Rosseau was born.1724 Immanuel Kant born1709 Battle of Poltava1708 J.S. Bach appointed as chamber musician at the court in Weimar1716 Edward Teach, or "Blackbeard," begins two years of piracy in the Caribbean1714 War of the Spanish Succession ends1713 Treaty of Utrecht; all states except Austria make peace with France1712 John Arbuthnot creates John Bull to represent Britain1711 David Hume born1710 English conquer French colony at Nova Scotia1722 Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe1721 Great Northern War ends1720 Emperor Kangxi restricts European traders to Guangzhou1719 Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe1718 Voltaire imprisoned for criticizing the French aristocracy1717 Prince Eugene and the Battle of Belgrade1723 St John Passion by BachPage 35 of 57 pages
  36. 36. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Bach dies(2) The Great Awakening ends in America17501729 Jonathan Swift publishesA Modest Proposal1727 American Philosophical Society established1726 Voltaire exiled from France1725 Cassanova born1738 John Wesley, George Whitefield & Methodism1737 Edward Gibbon born1735 Euler-Maclaurin formula developed1733 The Great Awakening begins in America1731 Treaty of Vienna1730 Glasite sect founded in Scotland1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends War of Austrian Succession1746 Goya born1743 Treaty of Worms between Great Britain, Austria, and Sardinia1740 First Silesian War; Frederick II of Prussia conquers Austrian province of Silesia The Messiah by Handel1739 Nadir Shah and the capture of New Delhi Moravians established in AmericaPage 36 of 57 pages
  37. 37. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Braddock defeated at Fort Duquesne (1) Voltaire in Geneva(2) Acadians exiled (2) Montesquieu bornHandel diesMary Wollstonecraft born(1) Pontiacs conspiracy(2) Seven Years War ends(3) French and Indian War ends1772 First Partition of Poland by Prussia, Russia, and Austria1773 Johann Pestalozzi(1) American Revolution begins(2) Battle of Lexington and Concord1759 Battle of Quebec1758 Noah Webster born1757 Edmund Blake born17551756 Seven Years War begins Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born1754 French and Indian War begins John Jacque Rosseaus "Second Discourse on Inequality" was written1752 Political Discourses by David Hume1770 Beethoven born1768 Philip Astley stages first modern circus17631764 Battle of Buxar establishes British East India Company as dominant force in India1761 Slave trade to and within Portugal forbidden1775 Jane Austen bornPage 37 of 57 pages
  38. 38. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon(2) David Hume dies1778 John Jacque Rosseau dies.The word Liberal was popularised with rise of the Age of Enlightenment(1) Treaty of Paris ends American Revolution(2) Sheikhs of Khalifa begin rule of Bahrain1791 Mozart dies1782 Americans and British discuss peaceGerman philosopher Immanuel Kants Critique of Pure Reason1780League of Armed Neutrality created by Russia, Sweden, and Denmark to protest British seizuresof neutral shipping1777 Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga1776 American Declaration of Independence1781 American and French forces trap British army of Cornwallis at Yorktown1789 German States, Wars of the begins James Fenimore Cooper born1788 Lord Byron born1786 The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart17831784 Treaty of ConstantinoplePage 38 of 57 pages
  39. 39. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) French Revolutionary Wars begins(2) Battle of Valmy(1) Napoleon Bonaparte is named Commander of the French Armies in Italy(2) Third Partition of Poland by Prussia, Russia, and Austria; Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthdestroyed(1) Napoleon assumes command of the Army of Italy; marries Josephine(2) British conquer Ceylon(3) Battle of Arcola; France takes control of Italy1797 Mary Wollstonecraft dies(1) Delacroix born(2) Rosetta Stone discovered1802 Treaty of Amiens19TH CENTURY17991798 Battle of the Nile; Napoleons army stranded in Egypt17961794 Edward Gibbon dies1795 John Keats born1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"1793 Second Partition of Poland by Prussia, Russia, and Austria France bans Catholicism1801Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland creates the United Kingdom of Great Britain andIreland1800Page 39 of 57 pages
  40. 40. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Battle of Austerlitz(2) Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar to maintain navalsupremacy(3) Treaty of Pressburg formally dissolves the Holy Roman Empire(1) French army destroys Prussian army at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt(2) British acquire Cape Colony(1) Bolivar in South America(2) Mexican War of Independence begins1811 Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen(1) Napoleon leads French invasion of Russia, resulting in catastrophic defeat for Franch(2) War of 1812 begins with U.S. declaration of war on the United Kingdom(1) Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to St. Elba according to the terms of the Treaty ofFontainebleau(2) Representatives from Austria, Russia, Prussia, Britain, and France meet at the Congress ofVienna to discuss future of Europe1804 Tripolitan War Immanuel Kant dies18051803Louisiana Purchase Treaty signed in Paris; The United States purchases rights to 828,800 squaremiles of territory from France1813The Sixth Coalition defeats Napoleons army at the Battle of Leipzig, forcing French withdrawalfrom German territory181218101808 French occupy Spain; Peninsular War begins1806 Joh Stuart Mill born1807 Treaty of Tilsit marks high-water mark of Napoleons empire Slave trade abolished in the British Empire1814Page 40 of 57 pages
  41. 41. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The War of 1812 ends with the Treaty of Ghent, reaffirming prewar status quo between theUnited States and United KingdomThe word Liberalism appeared first in English vocabulary(2) Napoleon escapes Elba in an attempt to reestablish his power. Coalition forces defeat him atthe battle of Waterloo.(1) John Keatss Romantic epic Endymion(2) Don Juan by Lord ByronKarl Marx was born1820 Friedrich Engels was born.(1) Maori civil wars begin(2) Greek War of Independence begins(3) Mexico gains independence under Treaty of Cordoba(1) Leo Tolstoi born(2) Goya dies(3) Catholics allowed to hold office in England1823The Monroe Doctrine declares that European powers must not colonize or interfere withindependent nations in the Americas18211822 Brazil gains independence from Portugal Jean-François Champollion announces the deciphering of the Rosetta stone18181819 Spain cedes Florida to United States1816 Emma by Jane Austen18151830Bourbon monarchy overthrown during the July Revolution in France. Louis-Philippe becomesconstitutional monarch of FranceEmily Dickinson born1829 Catholic Emancipation18281827 Beethoven dies1824 Battle of Ayacucho leads to Peruvian independencePage 41 of 57 pages
  42. 42. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Edouard Manet born(2) Lewis Carroll born(3) Louisa May Alcott born(1) Slave trade abolished(2) James Holtzclaw born(1) Edgar Degas born(2) Spanish Inquisition ends(1) Winslow Homer born(2) Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe(3) Ralph Waldo Emerson establishes the principles of American Transcendentalismin his essay "Nature"1837 The word Feminism started to flourish(1) First Opium War begins (1839-1842)(2) Afghan-British War, First begins(1) Britain claims Hong Kong (1) The Murders on the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe(2) Canada united (2) Oliver Wendell Holmes, Supreme Court Justice, born(1) Second Seminole War ends(2) First Afghan-British War ends(3) Treaty of Nanjing ends First Opium War; Britain gains Hong Kong1831 Belgium declares independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands Victor Hugos novel Notre-Dame de Paris (or The Hunchback of Notre Dame)1840 Britain annexes New Zealand Claude Monet born18391838 Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens1836 Texan War of Independence18341835 Second Seminole War begins Mark Twain born1832 Treaty of Constantinople grants Greek independence183318411842Page 42 of 57 pages
  43. 43. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) YMCA founded(2) Friedrich Nietzsche born(1) Revolution of 1848 begins in France resulting in the establishment of the Second FrenchRepublic and spread of revolutionary movements throughout Europe(1) Paul Gauguin born(2) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends U.S.-Mexican War; U.S. gains California and other Mexicanterritory(2) Mormons to Utah(3) Pius IX flees Rome(4) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto in LondonRealism started to flourishRobert Lewis Stevenson born1853 Gadsden Purchase Treaty Vincent van Gogh born1847 English novelist Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre1846 U.S.-Mexican War begins18441845 First publication of Edgar Allen Poes poem "The Raven"1843 Noah Webster dies1852 Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe18501851 Moby Dick by Herman Melville18481849 Feminist novelist George Sands La Petite FadettePage 43 of 57 pages
  44. 44. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The Charge of the Light Brigade by Lord Tennyson(2) Oscar Wilde Born(1) Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt publishes first suite ofAnnées dePèlerinage (Years of Pilgrimage)(2) Walt Whitman publishes first edition of his collection of poetry Leaves of Grass(1) Massacre of Potawatomie Creek(2) Declaration of Paris(3) Second Opium War begins (1856-1860)1857 The Indian Mutiny(1) A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens(2) Alexis de Tocqueville dies(3) Georges Seurat born(4) Liberal philosopher John Stuart Mills On Liberty1860 Anton Chekhov born(1) Federal garrison at Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces; Abraham Lincoln calls for75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellionGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens(2) Great Britain declares its neutrality in the American Civil War Jose Rizal was born(1) Lucien Pissarro born(2) Edvard Munch bornAndres Bonifacio was born1854 Crimean War begins1855 Crimean War ends18611862Union army under George B. McClellan inflicts strategic defeat on Confederate army led byRobert E. Lee at the Battle of Antietam; Approximately 23,000 casualties mark the bloodiest dayLes Miserables by Victor Hugo1859 The Battles of Magenta & Solferino1858 The Paulist Fathers founded1856 George Bernard Shaw born1865 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House; Effectively ends U.S. Civil War1863 Battle of Gettysburg1864Prussia and Austria invade Schleswig and Holstein after Denmark effectively annexes theterritoriesHenri Toulouse-Lautrec bornPage 44 of 57 pages
  45. 45. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace of Prague between Prussia and Austria; Austria excluded from German affairs(2) Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War) begins after disagreements over the administrationof Schleswig-Holstein(1) Fall of Maximilian das Kapital by Karl Marx(2) United States buys Alaska1868 Cincinnati Reds established; First Major League Baseball team(1) Siegfried Wagner born(2) Mahatma Ghandi born(3) Leo Tolstoys novelWar and PeaceJohn Stuart Mill wrote "On The Subjection of Women"(1) Battle of Sedan; Napoleon III captured along with 104,000 soldiers(2) Siege of Paris begins(3) Italian forces capture Rome; Kingdom of Italy annexes the Papal State completing theunification of Italy(4) Franco-Prussian War begins following Spanish Succession Crisis1872 Geneva Arbitration1873 John Stuart Mill dies(1) 1st Impressionist exhibit(2) Gertrude Stein born(1) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain(2) Impressionist Camille Pissarros The Garden of Pontoise(1) Jack London born(2) George Sand dies(1) Satsuma revolt(2) Crazy Horse surrenders to General George Crook in Nebraska1869 Suez Canal opens186618671876 Korea gains independence1877187418751870 Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne1871Treaty of Frankfurt ends Franco-Prussian War; German Empire recognized and France losesAlsace-LorraineStephen Crane bornPage 45 of 57 pages
  46. 46. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Greco-Turkish War(2) Afghan-British War, Second begins(1) Zulu-British War(2) Battle of Isandhlwana(3) Battle of Rorkes Drift(1) Sudan, War for the begins (1) Edgar Degass sculpture Little Dancer of Fourteen Years(2) British forces defeat rebel Egyptian army at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir, marking the beginningof British military occupation of Egypt(2) Booker T. Washington founds the Tuskegee Institute, a major center for African-American higher education(1) Edouard Manet dies(2) Karl Marx dies in LondonFriedrich Engels wrote The Origins of the Family …"(1) Franz Liszt dies(2) Statue of Liberty dedicated in New York(1) The Cardplayers by Cezanne(2) Publication of Oscar Wildes The Picture of Dorian Gray(1) The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes first published(2) Georges Seurat dies(3) Agatha Christie bornPope Leo XIII issued Rerum Novarum1885 Victor Hugo dies1883Mahdist Sudanese army besieges and defeats British-led Egyptian garrison at the Siege ofKhartoumFirst publication of Mark Twains novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn18811882 France takes Annam1880 Afghan-British War, Second ends18781879188418911890 Lakota Sioux defeated by U.S. Army at Wounded Knee18861888 Jack the Ripper active in London; Commits series of brutal murdersPage 46 of 57 pages
  47. 47. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) At the Moulin Rouge by Toulouse-Lautrec(2) The Nutcracker Suite by Tchaiovsky(3) Walt Whitman dies(4) Post-Impressionist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec paints At the Moulin Rouge(1) New Zealand grants womens suffrage(2) Publication of French novelist Émile Zolas Le Docteur Pascal , the finalinstallment of his 20-volume Les Rougon-Macquart(3) Post-Impressionist Paul Cézannes still life Rideau, Cruchon et CompotierMao Zedong born(1) The Time Machine by H. G. Wells(2) Publication of Stephen Cranes The Red Badge of CourageFriedrich Engels diedJose Rizal executedConstructivism is believed to flourishAndres Bonifacio executed at Mt. BuntisPost-Impressionist Paul Gauguins Where Do We Come From? What Are We?Where Are We Going?(1) British and French resolve the Fashoda Incident over colonial boundaries in Africa,confirming British control over Sudan; Seen as important precursor to the Entente Cordiale(1) Ernest Hemingway born(2) The United States defeats Spain in the Spanish-American War and annexes the Philippines,Guam, and Puerto Rico(2) H. G. Wells science fiction novel The War of the Worlds(3) President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution, officially annexing Hawaii to theUnited StatesPhilippine Independence declared by Emilio AguinaldoTheodore Herzl writes Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State )189518931894 Sino-Japanese War1892Ethiopia defeats Italy in the First Italo-Ethiopian War after decisive victory at the Battle of Adwa;Marks first victory of an African state over a European colonial power189618971898Page 47 of 57 pages
  48. 48. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Peace Conference at the Hague(2) Second Boer War begins(3) Boxer Rebellion against foreign influence in China First Philippine Commission(4) The Philippine-American War begins after a Filipino soldier is shot by an American in Manila.U.S. forces battle those of the First Philippine Republic in ManilaPicasso begins his Blue Period(1) President Theodore Roosevelt offers pardon and amnesty to all Filipinos who participated inthe Philippine-American War. Considered the official end of the conflict.Auguste Rodins sculptureThe Thinker(2) Second Boer War ends Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomenie born1908 Austria-Hungarys annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina leads to the Bosnian Crisis1904Japan defeats Russia in the Russo-Japanese War; First victory of an Asian state over a Europeanone in modern era19021903 Jack Londons novel The Call of the Wild190118991900 German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche dies20TH CENTURY1910 First Jewish kibbutz -- Kibbutz Degania -- is founded1909National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded inthe United States1907 Cubist Exhibition in Paris;Demoiselles dAvignon by Picasso19061905 The First Moroccan Crisis; Germany disputes status of French protectorate in MoroccoPage 48 of 57 pages
  49. 49. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The First World War (World War I) begins after Germany declares war on Russia(2) Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo, Serbia.(3) The German Schlieffen Plan fails when French forces defeat the German army at the FirstBattle of the Marne; Four years of trench warfare ensue on the Western Front(1) British forces invade Mesopotamia (Iraq)(2) British suffer over 50,000 casualties in first day of the Battle of the Somme(3) Battle of Verdun begins as German General Erich von Falkenhayn attempts to bleed theFrench Army white(1) Battle of Cambrai; First use of tanks in warfare(2) United States formally declares war against Germany.(3) The Balfour Declaration expresses official British support for the establishment of a Jewishhomeland in Palestine(1) Bolshevik government of Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, surrenders large territoriesto Germany, and formally withdraws from World War I.(2) Germany requests armistice; World War I ends(3) German Army begins the Great March Offensive and drives the Allied army back 40 milesbefore losing momentum(1) The Treaty of Versailles is signed, blaming Germany for World War I and creating a League ofNations(2) Turkish War of Independence begins19171918 Leonard Bernstein born1916 Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce19141915 The Ottoman government and military systematically deport and kill over 1 million Armenians1913Treaty of Bucharest confirms territorial acquisitions of Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria at theexpense of Ottoman Empire during the First and Second Balkan Wars1912 Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic19191920 Mesopotamia becomes a British mandated territory under Article 22 of the League of NationsPage 49 of 57 pages
  50. 50. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Three Musicians by Picasso(2) Wall Street bomb explodes(1) Turkish War of Independence ends(2) Charles G. Dawes presents a plan for restructuring Germanys war debtMichael Foucaults birth(1) First appearance of Walt Disneys Mickey Mouse in the silent cartoonPlaneCrazy(2) The Representation of the People Act grants British women electoral equalitywith men(1) A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway(2) Lateran Treaty(1) Surrealist Salvador Dalis The Persistence of Memory(2) Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali(3) John Le Carre bornGods Little Acre by Erskine Caldwell(1) Germany regains possession of the Saar(2) Italy invades Ethiopia(3) Anglo-German Naval Treaty signed 1935 Philippine Constitution1927 The Jazz Singer debuts as first talking filmClaude Monet dies1925John Scopes, a Tennessee high school teacher, is indicted for teaching the theoryof evolution to students of his science classes.192319211926 Germany is admitted to the League of Nations19351933 Hitler withdraws Germany from the League of Nations1932 Iraq becomes an independent country1931 Japan invades Manchuria19281929 Independent State of Vatican City comes into existence.Nuremburg Racial Laws limiting Jewish rights announced at Nazi Party RallyPage 50 of 57 pages
  51. 51. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Germany occupies the Rhineland(2) Spanish Civil War breaks out between Republican and Nationalist forces(3) 1936 - 1939 Arabs revolt across Palestine(1) Japan invades China; Sino-Japanese War begins(2) Nanking Massacre(3) Italy withdraws from the League of Nations(1) Germany invades and annexes Austria (Anschluss)(2) Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and Mussolini sign the Munich Agreement, which transfers theSudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany(1) Germany occupies Moravia and Bohemia(2) Britain and France declare war on Germany(3) Soviet Union invades Poland(4) Italian forces invade Albania(5) Signing of the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact(6) World War II begins when Germany invades Poland(1) German forces invade Denmark and Norway(2) Russo-Finnish war ends; Finland cedes land to the Soviet Union(3) Battle of Britain begins in earnest as the first large air offensive begins with almost 500bombing sorties by Germany(4) Italian Tenth Army commanded by Marshal Rodolpho Graziani invades Egypt(5) Italy declares war on Britain and France(6) France under Petain signs armistice with Germany at Rethondes(7) Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact(1) Germany invades Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa Orson Welles film Citizen Kane(2) United States declares war on Japan(3) Germany and Italy declare war on United States(4) The US Congress passes the Lend-Lease Bill which will provide billions of dollars of warmaterials to the Allied powers(5) Japanese launch surprise attack on U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor(6) Britain and US sign the Atlantic CharterFor Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway1937 Guernica by Picasso1938Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass); Jewish synagogues and businessesdestroyed throughout Germany193619411939 The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck1940Page 51 of 57 pages
  52. 52. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Battle of Stalingrad begins(2) Americans destroy 4 Japanese aircraft carriers at the battle of Midway(3) Allies sign the UN Declaration(4) American forces at Corregidor in the Philippines surrender(5) United States Marines land on Guadalcanal(6) The British 8th Army under General Bernard Montgomery defeats Axis army at the SecondBattle of El Alamein(7) Allied forces land in North Africa(1) Remnants of the German 6th Army surrender at Stalingrad(2) Allied forces launch amphibious invasion of Sicily(3) Italy surrenders to the Allies(4) Teheran Conference(5) The North African campaign of WWII ends as German forces surrender(6) The Combined Bomber Offensive launches Operation Pointblank, a strategic bombingcampaign against German industry and civilian morale(7) American forces defeat remaining Japanese forces on Guadalcanal(1) Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes) begins(2) D-Day, the Allied Invasion of Normandy, France(3) Allied armored and airborne forces fail to secure Rhine crossing in Operation Market-Garden(4) Dumbarton Oaks Conference(5) Allied forces launch amphibious invasion of the Philippines(1) U. S. Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima(2) Germany surrenders (V-E Day)(3) Potsdam Conference begins(4) Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan(5) Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan(6) Japanese sign surrender terms on board the USS Missouri1947UN takes over Palestinian issue from Britain. UN votes to divide Palestine into a Jewish state andan Arab state; Jerusalem is to be an international city.Dead Sea Scrolls found19451946Viet Minh forces launch rebellion against French authority in Vietnam; Beginning of the FirstIndochina WarPhilippine Independence from the US19431944 Lucien Pissarro dies1942Page 52 of 57 pages
  53. 53. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Abstract-Expressionist Jackson Pollocks Number 5(2) Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar named Desire debuts on BroadwayMahatma Gandhi dies(1) The Algerian War of Independence: French forces fight Algerian guerrilla forces for 8 yearsbefore granting independence to Algeria(1) William Goldings novelLord of the Flies(2) French forces of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps surrender to Viet Minh forces at theBattle of Dien Bien Phu(2) Henri Matisse dies(3) The Supreme Court unanimously outlaws racial segregation in public schools inBrown vs. BOE(1) Disneyland theme park opens in Anaheim, California(2) Rock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and His Comets becomes the first Rock &Roll song to top the U.S. record charts(1) Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Spontaneous revolt against Soviet-installed government inHungary; Soviets crush rebellion militarily(2) Sudan granted independence by Great Britain1958 Guggenheim Museum opens1960 Chad gains independence from France Harper Lees novel To Kill A MockingbirdErnest Hemingway diesElvis Presleys first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show195419551953 Korean War ends1952 Turkey becomes a member of NATO1950 Korean War begins when North Korean forces invade South Korea George Bernard Shaw dies1948 First Arab-Israeli Wars begins1949 Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Syria sign armistice agreement with Israel1961 East Germany begins construction of the Berlin Wall19561957The Treaty of Rome creates the European Economic Community; West Germany, Italy, France,and the Benelux nations are founding membersPage 53 of 57 pages
  54. 54. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) OAU formed(2) Kenya becomes independent from Great Britain; Jomo Kenyattas Kenya African NationalUnion (KANU) party forms the first independent government(1) Massive riot erupts in Detroit after confrontation between police officers andAfrican American bar patrons. In 5 days, 43 people dead, 467 injured, andthousands of buildings destroyed.(2) Montreal Expo(1) Indo-Pakistan War begins(2) Bahrain declares its independence from Britain1972 Ferdinand Marcos declares Martial Law in the Philippines(1) Iraq joins Arab coalition against Israel during the October War (1) Pablo Picasso dies(2) Yom Kippur War (2) Noel Coward dies1973 Philippine Constitution(1) All the Presidents Men by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein(2) Patty Hearst kidnapped19631962 Cuban Missile Crisis19711970 President Gamal Abdel-Nasser Dies, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt Postmodern Feminism started to flourish1969 Hurricane Camille19671968 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launch Tet Offensive throughout South Vietnam1965 First U.S. ground combat forces arrive in South Vietnam1966President Charles de Gaulle withdraws French military forces from NATOs integrated militarycommand19731974 Turkey starts occupying northern Cyprus to prevent Greek takeover of islandPage 54 of 57 pages
  55. 55. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) The last group of Americans are evacuated from Saigon, South Vietnam during NorthVietnamese invasion(1) Patty Hearst caught(2) Under the Alvor Agreement, Portugal grants independence to Angola; anti-CommunistUNITA, Communist MPLA, and other factions engage in civil war for control of Angola(2) Elizabeth Seton canonized(3) Civil war breaks out in Lebanon(1) Agatha Christie dies(2) Episcopal Church ordains womenMao Zedong dies(1) Elvis Presley dies(2) Philip of Macedons tomb found(3) Singer/actor Bing Crosby diesPope John Paul II shot(1) Israel invades Lebanon(2) Falklands War1983 Senator Ninoy Aquino of Philippines Assassinated1984 Michael Foucault dies(1) Cary Grant dies(2) Sultan Qaboos University foundedPhilippine EDSA I Revolution(1) Iraqi Exocet missile hits American Destroyer USS Stark; 37 crewmen are killed. Andy Warhol dies(2) Palestinian uprising Intifada breaks out in Gaza strip 1987 Philippine Constitution was enacted1981 Israeli troops bomb the PLO headquarters in Beirut19821979Soviet-Afghan War begins as Soviet forces invade and occupy important locations throughoutAfghanistan19771978Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin named winners ofthe Nobel Peace Prize.John Paul II becomes Pope1975197619871986Page 55 of 57 pages
  56. 56. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) U. S. actress Bette Davis dies.(2) Globe Theatre found(3) Salvador Dali dies(4) Laurence Olivier diesAyatollah Ruhollah Khomenie dies(1) The European Community establishes a unified European market by removing trade barriers (1) Steven Spielbergs filmSchindlers List(2) 19 American soldiers die during the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia(2) President Bill Clinton announces "dont ask, dont tell" policy concerning gaysserving in the U.S. military(1) O.J. Simpson acquitted(2) Timothy McVeigh bombs the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killing 168 andwounding 4501994 Hutu militias kill 500,000-1,000,000 Tutsis during Rwandan Genocide1991 U.S. led coalition defeats Iraqi military forces and liberates Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm USSR was disintegrated. End of Cold War19891990 Iraq invades Kuwait, beginning the Persian Gulf War Berlin Wall was destroyed. Reunification of Germany1988 The USS Vincennes shoots down Iranian Airbus Flight #655; 290 civilians are killed1999 NATO engages in 78-day bombing campaign against Serbia for occupation of Kosovo1998 U.S. singer Frank Sinatra dies1997 Mother Teresa dies1995 Dayton Agreement ends Bosnian War and confirms Bosnian independence.1996 George Burns dies1993Page 56 of 57 pages
  57. 57. Year Government, Politics and War Religion& Philosophy(1) Israel withdraws from southern Lebanon(2) USS Cole Attacked in Aden(1) U.S. actress Katharine Hepburn dies at age 96.(2) Former U. S. poet laureate Josephine Jacobsen dies.2005 Pope John Paul II dies2012 US Election Re-election of Barack Obama2013 Xavier University IS 11 Class21ST CENTURY2003 United States and allied forces invade Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom2009 US Election Barack Obama, first Black President of USA2002 U.N. Security Council passes resolution demanding that Iraq disarm20002001Terrorists destroy World Trade Center in New York City and damage the Pentagon inWashington, D.C.EDSA II Revolution in the PhilippinesPage 57 of 57 pages

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