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Meaning and nature of sped

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  • 1. Meaning and Nature of SPED Prepared by: Junarie Ramirez BSED-3 Japhet Banagudos BEED-3 Remo Cyril Estorco BSED-3 Leahbelle Solinap BSED-3 JesuAlabado BEED-3 Catherine Oracion BEED-3 Ruby Jenn Ombi-on BEED-3 Aiza Rodriguez BEED-3 Ma. Theresa Tawing BEED-3
  • 2. What is Special Education? • a classroom or private instruction involving techniques, exercises, and subject matter designed for students whose learning needs cannot be met by a standard school curriculum • an education modified for those with disabilities or exceptional needs as handicapped people or gifted children
  • 3. Specially Designed Instruction • it means that a student’s progress in learning is monitored frequently, often several times per week
  • 4. Specially Designed Instruction COMPONENTS: 1. Intensive instruction • translates into more teacher instructional time and more opportunities for students to respond to the instruction and more time to practice and review what they have learned
  • 5. Specially Designed Instruction COMPONENTS: 2. Relentless instruction • involves repeating on what is to be learned more often than is typically done with non-disabled students
  • 6. Specially Designed Instruction COMPONENTS: 3. Structured instruction • refers to teachers being more directive, instituting more directive, instituting more explicit rules, and providing more frequent consequences for appropriate or inappropriate behavior
  • 7. Specially Designed Instruction COMPONENTS: 4. Pace of the instruction • is tailored more to the needs of students and is often slower, with teachers waiting for a longer period of time for a response after querying the student
  • 8. Specially Designed Instruction COMPONENTS: 5. Instruction in small groups • facilitates the intensity, relentlessness, structured nature, and individualized pace of instruction
  • 9. Individualized Education Program (IEP) • describes the special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs of a student with a disability • the guiding document for a student's educational program • It includes all of the goals, objectives, present levels of performance and related services that are recommended for the student http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices/District75/Departments/IEP/default.htm
  • 10. What Is Inclusive Education? • inclusive education is provided by Lipsky & Gartner (1996, 1999), who described it as students with disabilities having full membership in ageappropriate classes in their neighborhood schools, with appropriate supplementary aids and support services • to Antia et al. (2002), inclusion denotes a student with a disability unconditionally belonging to and having full membership of a regular classroom in a regular school and its community
  • 11. What Is Inclusive Education? • inclusive education is a process where by the school systems, strategic plans, and policies adapt and change to include teaching strategies for a wider more diverse range of children http://www.seneseinclusiveedu.ws/index.php?option=com_cont ent&view=article&id=86:defin
  • 12. Inclusive Education in the Philippines POLICY: • Provides "all children and youth with special needs must receive an appropriate education and everything within the system and they should get education along with other children regardless of human differences“ This requires fundamental changes in philosophy, curriculum, teaching strategies and structural organization and above all changes in human attitudes and behaviors of all those involved in the education of the children with special needs
  • 13. SPED CENTER AS RESOURCE CENTER FOR INCLUSION: PHILIPPINE MODEL By Yolanda S. Quijano Chief, Special Education Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Dept. of Education Philippines http://www.acid2011korea.org/kaidd_abs/pds/20110600293_15 th_A_28.pdf
  • 14. SPED CENTER AS RESOURCE CENTER FOR INCLUSION: PHILIPPINE MODEL The Child with Special Needs: The Vision • The State, community and the family hold a common vision for the Filipino child with special needs • This education should fully realize his/her own potentials for development and productivity as well as being capable of self-expression of his/her rights in the society • It is envisioned that the child with special needs will get full parental and community support for his/her education without discrimination of any kind • This special child should also be provided with a healthy environment along with leisure and recreational and social security measures
  • 15. SPED Center • is a Philippine innovation in the delivery of educational services to children with special needs • this is a "school within a school" since it is established in a regular school, administered by a principal and operated according to the rules and regulations that govern a regular school • it provides a range of educational services, namely, resource room teaching, itinerant teaching, special and cooperative classes that promote mainstreaming or integration of children with special needs into regular classes
  • 16. SPED Center DECS Order No.26, s. 1997, "Institutionalization of SPED Programs in All Schools" has identified the SPED Center as the resource center for inclusion • it is expected to provide access to Basic Education among children with special needs in collaboration with the regular schools
  • 17. SPED Center DECS Order No.26, s. 1997, "Institutionalization of SPED Programs in All Schools" has identified the SPED Center as the resource center for inclusion • It is specifically tasked to do the following: conduct continuous assessment of children with special needs in the school division where it is located provide in-service training to school personnel on the "why" and "how" of creating inclusive school as well as other educational trends and practices relevant to children with special needs
  • 18. SPED Center DECS Order No.26, s. 1997, "Institutionalization of SPED Programs in All Schools" has identified the SPED Center as the resource center for inclusion • It is specifically tasked to do the following: provide these children with appropriate equipment and produce appropriate teaching materials support children with special needs included in the regular classroom in collaboration with the regular teachers provide educational services that promote inclusion
  • 19. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 1. Learning Disabilities • students with learning disabilities are by far the largest category of special education, comprising between 5 and 6 percent of the school-age population The federal definition of learning disabilities is as follows: • General—The term “specific learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
  • 20. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 1. Learning Disabilities • students with learning disabilities are by far the largest category of special education, comprising between 5 and 6 percent of the school-age population The federal definition of learning disabilities is as follows: • Disorders Included—Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia
  • 21. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 1. Learning Disabilities • students with learning disabilities are by far the largest category of special education, comprising between 5 and 6 percent of the school-age population The federal definition of learning disabilities is as follows: • Disorders Not Included—Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
  • 22. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 2. Speech or Language Impairments • Speech impairments include disorders of articulation, fluency, and/or voice
  • 23. Speech or Language Impairments • Articulation disorders often result from neuromuscular abnormalities resulting in omission, substitution, or distortion of speech sounds • Fluency refers to being able to produce smooth speech flow. Disorders of voice include such characteristics as abnormal pitch, loudness, or resonance • Phonology  rules govern how speech sounds are sequenced
  • 24. Speech or Language Impairments • Morphology refers to parts of words that indicate such factors as verb tense and plurals • Syntax involves word order that reflects proper grammar • Semantics refers to the meanings of words and sentences, and pragmatics involves using language for social purposes
  • 25. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 3.Mental Retardation • a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
  • 26. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 4. Emotional Disturbance • With respect to definition, many authorities agree on the following three features of emotional or behavioral disorders: • Behavior that goes to an extreme—that is not just slightly different from the usual; • A problem that is chronic—one that does not quickly disappear; and • Behavior that is unacceptable because of social or cultural expectations
  • 27. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 5. Other Health Impairments • According to the federal definition, other health impairments (OHIs) are medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, sickle cell anemia, which impair to such a degree that they adversely affect a student's educational performance • The key to the definition is that the condition must interfere with the student's educational performance • For example, not all students who have asthma have it to such a degree that it affects their ability to function in school
  • 28. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 6. Multiple Disabilities • consists of students who have two or more disabilities, “the combination of which causes such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments”
  • 29. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 7. Autism • Many authorities in the early 2000s consider autism to be one of several similar conditions that fall on a spectrum, hence the term autism spectrum disorders • The conditions on the spectrum share impairments in three areas: (1) communication skills, (2) social interactions, and (3) repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (Strock, 2004)
  • 30. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 7. Autism • Classic autism and Asperger syndrome are the most common conditions • Whereas students with autism have relatively severe deficits in all three areas plus severe cognitive deficits, those with Asperger syndrome generally have less severe deficits in all three areas, with their major problem lying in the area of social interactions and some having very high intelligence
  • 31. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 8. Orthopedic Impairments • include physical disabilities of the muscles and/or bones that negatively affect school learning • Two examples are muscular dystrophy (a hereditary condition resulting in muscle fiber degeneration) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  • 32. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 9. Hearing Impairments • Students with hearing impairments fall into two categories: those who are deaf and; those who are hard of hearing • How one differentiates between the two depends on whether one adopts a physiological or an educational orientation
  • 33. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 9. Hearing Impairments • A physiologically based definition relies on the measurable degree of hearing loss, with those having an impairment of 90 decibels or greater being deaf (0 dB is the level at which the average person can hear the faintest sound) • An educationally based definition focuses on the ability to process linguistic information, with deafness indicating that the person cannot process linguistic information through audition even with a hearing aid (Brill, MacNeil, & Newman, 1986).
  • 34. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 10. Developmental Delay • For many infants and preschoolers, it is often difficult to determine whether they have a true disability or have a temporary delay in maturation • In addition, it is sometimes difficult to determine the exact nature of very young children's disability • For these reasons, professionals are often reluctant to make a clinical diagnosis and, instead, refer to them as having a developmental delay
  • 35. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 11. Visual Impairments • visual impairments are divided into two groups based on severity: blindness and low vision • Additionally, like hearing impairments, these two groups are defined differently according to whether one uses a physiological versus an educational approach • A physiological orientation (also referred to as the legal definition because it is used to determine certain government benefits) relies on measurement of visual acuity and field of vision
  • 36. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 11. Visual Impairments • Like hearing impairments, visual impairments are divided into two groups based on severity: blindness and low vision • Visual acuity of 20/200 (normal acuity is 20/20, being able to see at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 20 feet) or less in the better eye, even with correction (e.g., eyeglasses), or visual field of less than 20 degrees qualifies an individual as legally blind • Those having visual acuity between 20/70 and 20/200 are referred to as having low vision or being partially sighted
  • 37. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 11. Visual Impairments • Like hearing impairments, visual impairments are divided into two groups based on severity: blindness and low vision • The educational definition focuses on mode of reading, with those needing to use Braille being considered blind, and those who can read print, even with magnifying devices or large-print books, being considered as having low vision or being partially sighted
  • 38. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 12. Traumatic Brain Injury • In 1990, the federal government added students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the list of those eligible for special education services • This decision was in recognition of the fact that TBI occurs much more frequently than was previously thought
  • 39. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 12. Traumatic Brain Injury • For example, estimates are that about one million children and adolescents receive head injuries each year, with 15,000 to 20,000 incurring lasting effects (Council for Exceptional Children, 2001) TBI refers to trauma to the brain caused by an external force that results in behavioral dysfunction • Such injuries can be open head injuries (i.e., penetrating head wounds) or closed head injuries (i.e., damage caused by internal compression or shearing motion inside the head) (Adelson&Kochanek, 1998)
  • 40. 13 Special Education Categories/Disability Categories 13. Deaf-Blindness • Basically, students with deaf-blindness meet the educational definitions of both deafness and blindness • The vast majority of students with deaf-blindness also have one or more other disabilities, such as mental retardation • Deaf-blindness can result from (a) prenatal causes, such as rubella, (b) postnatal causes, such as meningitis, or (c) genetic/chromosomal syndromes (Hallahan et al., 2009)
  • 41. CURRENT ISSUES IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
  • 42. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: 1. Professional title • Some professional in the field are prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor 2. Evaluation • A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation
  • 43. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: 3. Prevention versus remediation • A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus prevention instead of remediation • In the past it was not uncommon for counselor to have interaction with students only after some crisis had occurred
  • 44. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: 3. Prevention versus remediation • There is now a shift for school counselor to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting school wide prevention plans
  • 45. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: 3. Prevention versus remediation • The school, community and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involve in many difficulties, such as: Gangs Substance abused Child abused Dropouts School violence Terrorism Teen pregnancy Diversity Dropping out of school youth
  • 46. Thank You for Listening!

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