Gizi kesmas

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Gizi kesmas

  1. 1. Ekologi,Pangan, dan Gizi Ignatius Hapsoro Wirandoko Email : ignatius_wirandoko@yahoo.co.id Hp : 08122801159
  2. 2. Masalah gizi • Gizi makro : - gizi kurang dan buruk - kegemukan
  3. 3. Masalah gizimikro • • • • Anemia GAKY Kurang vit A Lain : seng, folat, selenium dsb.
  4. 4. Isu-isu • Ruang lingkup dan Klasifikasi • Metabolisme / Patofisiologi : - Sifat - Teknik assessment - Spektrum gejala - Prevalensi • Penanggulangan
  5. 5. Ruang lingkup dan klasifikasi • Vitamin • Elemen / unsur (“mineral”) • Vitamin-like substance / marginal compounds - choline - taurine - carnitine - myo-inositol - bioflavonoids - Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) dsb.
  6. 6. Perkembangan pengetahuan tentang metabolisme • Semakin banyak fakta terungkap seiring dengan perkembangan pengetahuan tentang metabolisme dan patofisiologi • Sifat, teknik assessment, spektrum gejala dan upaya penanggulangan berkembang cepat.
  7. 7. Metabolisme besi
  8. 8. Metabolisme iodium
  9. 9. Metabolisme folat
  10. 10. Efek defisiensi folat di tingkat molekuler
  11. 11. Metabolisme seng
  12. 12. Sifat • • • • • Bioavailibility Amplification of action Specivity Homeostatis Interaction
  13. 13. Bioavalibility • Defined as the percent of the consumed mineral that enters via the intestinal absorptive cells and is used for its intended purpose. • Bioavailibility includes not only how much of a consumed minerals enters the body, but also how much is retained and available for use.
  14. 14. Requirement and Allowance Requirement The lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy RDA (recommended dietary allowance) The average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
  15. 15. Requirement and RDA
  16. 16. Nutrients and energy RDA
  17. 17. Nutrients and Risk of Death Increasing concentration or intake of nutrient Nutrient Function 100% 0% Death Deficiency Marginal Optimal Marginal Toxicity Death
  18. 18. DRI Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  19. 19. Ca Homeostatis
  20. 20. Zinc’s routes in the body
  21. 21. Interaction Interactions among the trace minerals are common and often lead to nutrient imbalances. An excess of one may cause a deficiency of another. A deficiency of one may open the way for another to cause a toxic reaction. A deficiency of one may exacerbate the problems associated with the deficiency of another. Interlocking gear system
  22. 22. Mineral antagonism
  23. 23. Vitamin antagonisms
  24. 24. Vitamin mineral antagonism
  25. 25. Specivity
  26. 26. Laboratory Assessment is used primarily to detect subclinical deficiency states is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on preventive medicine can be used to supplement other methods often affected by biological and technical factors Type : • Static biochemical test • Functional test
  27. 27. Spektrum gejala defisiensi besi
  28. 28. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR)
  29. 29. Spektrum gejala GAKY
  30. 30. Prevalensi
  31. 31. Upaya penanggulangan • Tidak Berbasis pangan - suplementasi • Berbasis pangan - fortifikasi - rekayasa - edukasi
  32. 32. Suplementasi • Petimbangkan interaksi • Kemungkinan excess • Menekan gizimikro lain • Petugas gizi kesehatan harus kenal wilayahnya
  33. 33. Barbara Underwood (2003) • Scientific progress and political commitment are key factors but ......... • Consumer and public acceptance is key to sustainable progress

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