Impression
Management

Junaid Ashraf
13

Impression Management
 Impression management is an attempt to
control the perceptions or impressions of others.
 Tar...
Impression Management
 An attempt to manipulate or control
the impressions that others form
about the person.
 Non verba...
Impression Motivation
 The degree to which an individual actually
manages the impression that he or she
makes.
 Sometime...
Impression Construction
 It refers to an individual’s consciously
choosing
 (1) an image to convey &
 (2) how to go abo...
Impression Motivation:
How much do I care
about the impression
that I am making?

Impression Construction:

What image do ...
Primacy Effect
 Most of the perceptions are strongly
affected by the first impression.
 How a person perceives other per...
The Person Perceived on basis of
voice quality
Voice Quality:
High in

Male Voice

Female Voice

Breathiness

Younger , Ar...
15

Salience
 Salience is the extent to which a target of
perception stands out in a group of people
or things.
 Consequ...
15

Causes of salience
 Being novel: Anything that makes a
target unique in a situation (e.g., being
the only young perso...
17

Biases and Problems in Perception
Primacy
Effects

The initial pieces of information
that a perceiver has about a targ...
18

Biases and Problems in Perception
Similar-tome Effect

People perceive others who are
similar to themselves more
posit...
Errors in Attribution
Beliefs that all
members of
specific groups
share similar
traits and are
prone to behave
the same wa...
Errors in Attribution
The tendency to
attribute others’
actions to internal
causes (for example,
their traits) while
large...
Errors in Attribution
The tendency for
our overall
impressions of
others to affect
objective
evaluations of their
specific...
Errors in Attribution
The tendency for
people to perceive
in a positive light
others who are
believed to be
similar to
the...
Errors in Attribution
The tendency to
focus on some
aspects of the
environment
while ignoring
others.
First Impression Error
The tendency to base our judgments of others
on our earlier impressions of them.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The tendency for someone’s
Prophecy
expectations about another to cause...
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Overcoming Biases
 Do not overlook the
external cases of
others’ behaviors.
 Identify your
stereotypes.
 Evaluate peopl...
Organizational Applications
 Performance Appraisal: The process of
Appraisal
evaluating employees on various workrelated ...
Applicant Impression Management
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Impression management

  1. 1. Impression Management Junaid Ashraf
  2. 2. 13 Impression Management  Impression management is an attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others.  Targets are especially likely to use impression management tactics when interacting with perceivers who have power over them and on whom they are dependent for evaluations, raises, and promotions.  Individuals who are high in self-monitoring are more likely than individuals who are low in selfmonitoring to engage in impression management tactics.
  3. 3. Impression Management  An attempt to manipulate or control the impressions that others form about the person.  Non verbal communication, clothes, hair cut, style, etc.  Feigning interest in a boring lecture  Behaving nicely when grandparents come to visit
  4. 4. Impression Motivation  The degree to which an individual actually manages the impression that he or she makes.  Sometimes people are strongly motivated for impression management, such as going for an interview  Sometimes people are not as strongly motivated for impression management, such as going to meet old friends
  5. 5. Impression Construction  It refers to an individual’s consciously choosing  (1) an image to convey &  (2) how to go about doing that.  For a job interview one may be dressed in conventional suiting.  Rewriting the resume, etc.
  6. 6. Impression Motivation: How much do I care about the impression that I am making? Impression Construction: What image do I want to convey? How do I go about it? Impression Management
  7. 7. Primacy Effect  Most of the perceptions are strongly affected by the first impression.  How a person perceives other person is influenced by:  Characteristics of the person being perceived  Characteristics of the perceiver, and  The situation or context within which the perception takes place
  8. 8. The Person Perceived on basis of voice quality Voice Quality: High in Male Voice Female Voice Breathiness Younger , Artistic Feminine, pretty, petite, shallow Flatness Similar for both sexes Masculine, cold, withdrawn Nasality Similar for both sexes Having many socially undesirable characteristics Tenseness Old, Unyielding Young, emotional, high strung, not very intelligent
  9. 9. 15 Salience  Salience is the extent to which a target of perception stands out in a group of people or things.  Consequences of salience  Extreme evaluations (positive or negative)  Stereotyping
  10. 10. 15 Causes of salience  Being novel: Anything that makes a target unique in a situation (e.g., being the only young person).  Being figural: Standing out from the background (e.g., by wearing bright clothes).  Being inconsistent with other people’s expectations: Behaving or looking in a way that is out of the ordinary.
  11. 11. 17 Biases and Problems in Perception Primacy Effects The initial pieces of information that a perceiver has about a target have an inordinately large effect on the perceiver’s perception and evaluation of the target. Interviewers decide in the first few minutes of an interview whether or not a job candidate is a good prospect. Contrast Effect The perceiver’s perceptions of others influence the perceiver’s perception of a target. A manager’s perception of an average subordinate is likely to be lower if that subordinate is in a group with very high performers rather than in a group with very low performers. Halo Effect The perceiver’s general impression of a target influences his or her perception of the target on specific dimensions. A subordinate who has made a good overall impression on a supervisor is rated as performing high-quality work and always meeting deadlines regardless of work that is full of mistakes and late.
  12. 12. 18 Biases and Problems in Perception Similar-tome Effect People perceive others who are similar to themselves more positively than they perceive those who are dissimilar. Supervisors rate subordinates who are similar to them more positively than they deserve. Harshness, Leniency, and Average Tendency Some perceivers tend to be overly harsh in their perceptions, some overly lenient. Others view most targets as being about average. When rating subordinates’ performances, some supervisors give almost everyone a poor rating, some give almost everyone a good rating, and others rate almost everyone as being about average. Knowledge of Predictor Knowing how a target stands on a predictor of performance influences perceptions of the target. A professor perceives a student more positively than she deserves because the professor knows the student had a high score on the SAT.
  13. 13. Errors in Attribution Beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way.
  14. 14. Errors in Attribution The tendency to attribute others’ actions to internal causes (for example, their traits) while largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced behavior.
  15. 15. Errors in Attribution The tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated.
  16. 16. Errors in Attribution The tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways.
  17. 17. Errors in Attribution The tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others.
  18. 18. First Impression Error The tendency to base our judgments of others on our earlier impressions of them.
  19. 19. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The tendency for someone’s Prophecy expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. Pygmalion Effect: A positive instance of the selfEffect fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individual’s performance. Golem Effect: A negative instance of the selfEffect fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual’s performance.
  20. 20. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  21. 21. Overcoming Biases  Do not overlook the external cases of others’ behaviors.  Identify your stereotypes.  Evaluate people based on objective factors.  Avoid making rash judgments.
  22. 22. Organizational Applications  Performance Appraisal: The process of Appraisal evaluating employees on various workrelated dimensions.  An inherently biased process  Impresssion Management: Efforts by Management individuals (esp. in employment interviews) to improve how they appear to others.  Corporate Image: The impressions that Image people have of an organization.
  23. 23. Applicant Impression Management
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