Reaction of Muslim World on Blasphemy Presented By: Muhammad Junaid Akbar Jurisprudence-IIFaculty of Shariah & Law (FSL), International Islamic University, Islamabad (IIUI)
The Outlines of Presentation These are the following outlines by which we will start our discussion on Blasphemy , Step wisely: Introduction: Creation of Man, Revealed Religion and Its Teachings. Issue: Definition Of Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemy in Different Religions, Protest by the Muslims on Blasphemous acts by the Western people and media, How to record a protest in the case of blasphemy, responsibility of the State. Rules: Rules defined in Shariah, Pakistani Law & Intentional Law. Applications (Implementation) of Laws on the Issue Enforcement of the rules of Shariah, Pakistani Law & International Law. Conclusion Bibliography
IntroductionWhen, Allah - The Almighty had created the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon Him) then He ordered His angels to bow their heads in the front of the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon Him), they obeyed the order and acted upon it without any hesitation.• "Whoso shall follow My Guidance, on them shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve. But those who will disbelieve and treat Our Signs as lies, they shall be the inmates of the fire and they shall abide therein." (2: 39, 40)• Unfortunately, they cheated one another and again disobeyed the divine laws and indulged themselves in idolatry and in other baseless religions such like that and skipped their real path of life. They were also started accusing the Prophets and started saying wrongs about their Creator too. From here, He has started sending His guided people for the betterment of His people and ordered them to stay away from wrong deeds as much as possible. Hence, Muslims believe that Islam will continue to fulfill the spiritual as well as worldly needs of people, transcending space and time.
What does Blasphemy meant for?• Literal Meaning: Literally, Blasphemy means saying or doing something that shows disrespect for God or a religion.• Religious Meaning: Religiously, Blasphemy in Islam is any irreverent behavior toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs that Muslims revere.• Legal Meaning: Legally, Blasphemy is irreverence toward holy personage, religious artifacts, customs and beliefs.• Visual Description: Here is the visual description of blasphemy in graphical order:
Who is Blasphemer and its conditions• Islamic legal authorities agree that a blasphemer can be Muslim or non-Muslim. Conditions• • Speaking ill of Almighty God. • Finding fault with Holy Prophet (PBUH). • Slighting a prophet who is mentioned in the Holy Quran, or slighting a member of Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) family • Claiming to be a prophet or a messenger. • Speculating about how Holy Prophet (PBUH) would behave if he were alive (Nigeria). • Drawing a picture to represent Holy Prophet (PBUH) or any other prophet, or making a film which features a prophet (Egypt). • Writing Holy Prophet (PBUH) name on the walls of a toilet (Pakistan). • Naming a teddy bear Holy Prophet (PBUH) (Sudan). • Sating facts such as: Holy Prophet (PBUH) parents were not Muslims (Pakistan). • Invoking Almighty God while committing a forbidden act.
Blasphemy in Different Religions• Every religion has many concepts about the blasphemy whether they are revealed or man- made because they always teach their followers to respect the founders or followers of the other religions because it is important to create peace and humbleness in a today’s society. • Islam• The Quran and the Hadith do not mention blasphemy. According to Pakistani religious scholar, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, nothing in Islam supports blasphemy law. Rather, Muslim jurists made the offense part of Sharia; the penalties for blasphemy can include fines, imprisonment, flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading. Muslim clerics may call for the punishment of an alleged blasphemer by issuing a fatwa. • Judaism• In the third book of the Torah, Leviticus 24:16 states that he that blasphemes the name of the LORD "shall surely be put to death". See also List of capital crimes in the Torah. The Seven laws of Noah, which Judaism sees as applicable to all people, prohibit blasphemy. • Christianity• Blasphemy has been condemned as a serious, or even the most serious, sin by the major creeds and Church theologians. The Heidelberg Catechism answers question 100 about blasphemy by stating that “no sin is greater or provokes Gods wrath more than the blaspheming of His Name”.
How to record a protest in the case of blasphemy?• Islam teaches us that if we are going for a strike or protest then we should record our protest in a positive manner because Islam never allows us to destroy someone’s property or create a situation that causes threat to someone’s life. Right to Protection of Life "And do not kill the soul Allah has forbidden, except for right". (Surah Bani lsrail, 17:33)• It is our responsibility that we should protest in a sense that it couldn’t hurt any single person of a society. Due to our serious negligence following numbers of individuals are killed in different brotherly Islamic states (33 (Afghanistan),23 (Pakistan),4 (Yemen),4 (Tunisia) ,4(Israeli border),3 (Sudan),3 (Lebanon),1 (Egypt)). Right to Property "The believers are such that if We give them authority in the land, they establish prayer and give zakaah, and enjoin good and forbid evil." (Suratu-l Hajj, 22:41)• We are well aware of the financial and economic damages occurred during the protest. So we have to be careful about the others property while protesting. Right of Protection against Persecution for Difference of Religion• The right to be protected against persecution for differences in faith or opinion is a clear corollary of the right of freedom of conviction. It has been expressly mentioned, because many sins have been committed by over enthusiastic well-meaning fanatics.
Right to Freedom of Expression • The believers are under an obligation to "speak out the truth without fear and without desire to show favour". Duty to the Obedience of what is Lawful and Disobedience of what is Unlawful• The clear implication of the idea of the Rule of Shariah is that a person is liable to obey only what is lawful and to dissociate from, disobey, and even to correct if he can, what is unlawful. Most of the relevant verses in this context have already been noticed above. The most comprehensive statement is contained in the following verse: "And help one another in righteousness and piety and abet not one another in sin and transgression." (Suratu-l Maaidah, 5:2).• By mentioning these basic fundamental rights and principles for a peaceful protest define in the Holy Quran, it is our responsibility that we should try our best to save the basic rights of ours while protesting. • Is this the way to protest?• IT was the responsibility of the government to provide high security and a well-organized protest itself.• Protests against the film and film-makers should have been made with unity. Peace should have been ensured at all costs.
Rules Rules defined in Pakistani Law, Shariah and International laws about blasphemy Pakistani Laws The Blasphemy Law was enacted by the British to protect the religious sentiments of the Muslim minorities in the Sub-Continent before partition against the Hindu majority & after the creation of Pakistan, these laws were enacted ensured following the decision of the Lahore High Court in the notorious Rangila Rasool’s Case.• Pakistan has the anti-blasphemy laws which are quite complicated. Offenders may be vigorously prosecuted. Chapter XV of Pakistan Penal Code deals with "offences relating to religion":• §295. Injuring or defiling place of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class.• §295-A. Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs.• §295-B. Defiling, etc., of Holy Quran.• §295-C. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of the Holy Prophet.• §296. Disturbing religious assembly.• §297. Trespassing on burial places, etc.• §298. Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings.• §298-A. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of holy personages.• §298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places.• §298-C. Person of Quadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith.
Shariah Law• Shariah laws are actually the divine laws of Allah and these laws are mentioned in the Holy Quran. Some examples are as under:• When our esteemed Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) revealed the guidance of Allah in the front of His family members; then His uncle Lahab used harsh words in honorable personality of our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).At this, Allah became angry and sent a chapter Lahab for his blasphemous act and destroyed him.• It is mentioned in the 33rd Chapter Ahzab of the Holy Quran that “Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment (33:58).• It is also mentioned in the 8th Chapter Al - Anfal of the Holy Quran that “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - indeed, Allah is severe in penalty. "That [is yours], so taste it." And indeed for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire (8:13, 14).• “Indeed it is your enemy who is bereft of all goodness.” – [Kausar 108:3]• So it is proved that Allah has sent His men the orders that they should follow these rules and don’t try to speak or act ill of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). It is also proved that the different schools of thoughts of Islam whether they are Sunnis, Shias, Sufists & Kharijites they are all agree on that the blasphemer must be punished for his this wrongful acts.
The International Laws & Implementation• 48. Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, Including blasphemy laws, are incompatible with the Covenant, except in the specific Circumstances envisaged in article 20, paragraph 2, of the Covenant. Such prohibitions must also comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3, as well as such articles as 2, 5, 17, 18 and 26. Thus, for instance, it would be impermissible for any such laws to discriminate in favor of or against one or certain religions or belief systems, or their adherents over another or religious believers over non-believers. Nor would it be permissible for such prohibitions to be used to prevent or punish criticism of religious leaders or commentary on religious doctrine and tenets of faith.• UN has no proper authority over the implementations of these laws and if the U.N. resolution became international law, the First Amendment would still protect opponents here, but think of the serious impact on "defamers" around the world.
Applications (Implementation) of Laws on the Issue Pakistani Laws• 295-B Defiling, etc, of copy of the Holy Quran. Whoever will fully defiles, damages or desecrates a copy of the Holy Quran or of an extract therefrom or uses it in any derogatory manner or for any unlawful purpose shall be punishable for imprisonment for life.• 295-C Use of derogatory remarks, etc; in respect of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Whoever by words, either spoken or written or by visible representation, or by any imputation, innuendo, or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.• 298-A Use of derogatory remarks, etc..., in respect of holy personages. Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, or by any imputation, innuendo or insinuation, directly or indirectly defiles a sacred name of any wife (Ummul Mumineen), or members of the family (Ahle-Bait), of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), or any of the righteous caliphs (Khulafa-i-Rashideen) or companions (Sahaba) of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with bot• 298-B Misuse of epithet, descriptions and titles, etc. Reserved for certain holy personages or places. 1. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written or by visible representation: a. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as "Ameerul Momneen", "Khalifat-ul-Momneen", "Khalifat- ul-Muslimeen", "Sahabi" or "Razi Allah Anho"; b. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as Ummul Mumineen; c. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle-Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or d. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle-Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or e. refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship as Masjid; shall be punished with imprisonment or either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine. 2. Any person of the Qadiani group or Lahori group, (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other names), who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, refers to the mode or of call to prayers followed by his faith as "Azan" or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.• 298-C Persons of Qadiani group, etc, calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis or any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.• There is a Death Penalty for blasphemy in Pakistan. Those prosecuted are usually minorities such as Ahmadiyya and Christians but it seems that they are also increasingly Muslims. Persons accused of blasphemy as well as police, lawyers, and judges have been subject to harassment, threats, attacks, and murders when blasphemy is the issue.
Conclusion• Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia took out peaceful protest rallies but we resorted to violence.• Protest should reflect reason.• Holiday a mistake.• Suspending cell phone services.• A Negative Message to the World.• Prophet’s Seerat• No Revenge. Bibliography• The Holy Quran.• Midarig-e-Nabooat.• Al Saram Al Maslool.• Wisayal-e-Shia.• Kitab-e-Shifa.• Dawn – The Newspaper.• Express Tribune – The Newspaper.• Tafseer-e-Rohu ul emani.• Muhammad (P.B.U.H) – Prophet & Man by M.A Salahi.• Cambridge Online Dictionary.• Think free Visual Thesaurus.• Wikipedia.
The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) When truth was lost and hearts frozen from You, Allah came a Prophet, chosen. Blessed Prophet Muhammad, obedient to You taught us the things we ought to do. He taught us for certain that You are One and that You have neither a daughter nor son. He taught us to be good to our mother and fatherand that Paradise lies under the feet of our mother. I love you my Prophet and sing your praise and follow your Sunnah, Prophetic Ways. One day I will come to visit your tomb InshAllah, that day will be very soon.