Reaction of Muslim World on BlasphemyJurisprudence-ILegal report on the protest recorded by the Muslims from all over theworld, its impact, significance in the Holy Quran and Pakistani law,understanding between different Islamic schools of thoughts onblasphemy and calamitous incidents happened during the strikes.Presented By: M. Junaid AkbarFaculty of Shariah & Law (FSL), International Islamic University, Islamabad (IIUI).
Dedicated to all my esteemed Teachers, Parents, Siblings, and Batch-Mates those are praying for my success and guiding me with the best of their affection.
ContentsThere are the following contents of a topic related to the protests recorded by the Muslimsfrom all over the world on the blasphemous acts by the western countries. A. Introduction: I. Creation of Adam (Peace Be Upon Him) &Revealed Religion. II. Teachings of this Religion. III. Impact of this Religion on mankind. B. Issue: I. What is Blasphemy? II. Literal, Religious and Legal Meaning & Visual description. III. Who is blasphemer and conditions for it? IV. Cases of Blasphemy in past and present. V. Concept of blasphemy in different religions. VI. Protest by the Muslim world upon the disgraceful acts of western (Paper & Electronic) media against the Esteemed Personality of our Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and the Holy Quran. VII. Misuse of blasphemy and victims of blasphemy in Pakistan and in the world. VIII. Positive ways for recording a protest in Islam. C. Rules & Applications (Implementation) of Laws on issue: I. Principles in Pakistani Laws. II. Conceptions of different Islamic schools of thoughts on this issue. III. International Laws. D. Conclusion. E. Bibliography.
Introduction"We will show them our signs in the horizons and in their own souls, until it appears to themthat this is the truth ". (The Holy Quran)When, Allah - The Almighty had created the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon Him) thenHe ordered His angels to bow their heads in the front of the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace BeUpon Him), they obeyed the order and acted upon it without any hesitation. “O” angels! Fall down making obeisance to Adam" (15:29)But the Satan refused that order and fell apart. As a result of His this disobedience, He wasaccused as a cursed creation of Allah and was took out from heaven. Same incident washappened with the parents of mankind because of eating a fruit which was prohibited by theAllah they were sent to the Earth for their sin. But Allah had said to them that He will removeall of their sins and of their children if they will follow His guidance via His guided People(The Prophets). After that, Allah had sent His orders to a mankind for their success in boththis and up-coming world and strictly ordered them for the followings of these orders. Theylived for many years. Allah sent directions and guidance in the shape of Islam to the ProphetAdam (peace be upon him). He taught others about the religion of Allah. He advised hisfollowers to do well and avoid evils. He told the people to act upon the Commandments ofAllah and follow his guidance. It would serve the purpose of shield to do away with theattacks of the devil. Allah says: "Whoso shall follow My Guidance, on them shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve. Butthose who will disbelieve and treat Our Signs as lies, they shall be the inmates of the fire and they shall abide therein." (2: 39, 40) Unfortunately, they cheated one another and again disobeyed the divine laws and indulgedthemselves in idolatry and in other baseless religions such like that and skipped their realpath of life. They were also started accusing the Prophets and started saying wrongs abouttheir Creator too. From here, He has started sending His guided people for the bettermentof His people and ordered them to stay away from wrong deeds as much as possible. Hence,Muslims believe that Islam will continue to fulfill the spiritual as well as worldly needs ofpeople, transcending space and time.
Issue I. What is Blasphemy?Actually, before taking a healthy start for this assignment; we must define the term“Blasphemy” in its literal, religious and legal sense. A. Literal Meaning: Literally, Blasphemy means saying or doing something that shows disrespect for God or a religion. For Example: i. He was found guilty of blasphemy and sentenced to three years in jail. B. Religious Meaning: Religiously, Blasphemy in Islam is any irreverent behavior toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs that Muslims revere. C. Legal Meaning: Legally, Blasphemy is irreverence toward holy personage, religious artifacts, customs and beliefs. D. Visual Description: Here is the visual description of blasphemy in graphical order:
II. Who is Blasphemer and its conditionsIslamic legal authorities agree that a blasphemer can be Muslim or non-Muslim. To beconvicted of blasphemy, an individual must be an adult, of sound mind, and not underduress. Some jurisdictions do not punish individuals who commit blasphemy accidentally.The Maliki School of Jurisprudence permits the exoneration of accused individuals who areconverts to Islam. These are the following conditions for Individuals those have beenaccused of blasphemy or of insulting Islam for:• Speaking ill of Almighty God.• Finding fault with Holy Prophet (PBUH).• Slighting a prophet who is mentioned in the Holy Quran, or slighting a member of HolyProphet’s (PBUH) family• Claiming to be a prophet or a messenger.• Speculating about how Holy Prophet (PBUH) would behave if he were alive (Nigeria).• Drawing a picture to represent Holy Prophet (PBUH) or any other prophet, or making afilm which features a prophet (Egypt).• Writing Holy Prophet (PBUH) name on the walls of a toilet (Pakistan).• Naming a teddy bear Holy Prophet (PBUH) (Sudan).• Sating facts such as: Holy Prophet (PBUH) parents were not Muslims (Pakistan).• Invoking Almighty God while committing a forbidden act.
III. Acts of Blasphemy in past and presentBlasphemy is not just a matter of our present era because we know that people fromdifferent ethical groups were used to disgrace the religious rights, thoughts and principlesof other ethical groups. Especially, when they tried to change the religious believers of othergroup or condemn the religious views of that group because according to them it was theirreligious obligation to guide the infidels and to help them in acknowledgment ofrighteousness and falsehood. But it was not enough because it is always difficult to changesomeone’s religious theories on which one has a firm believe. These are the followingincidents in past happened in the Prophet Muhammad’s (P.B.U.H) life and in the Time ofCaliphs: 1. During Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) Life & Revelations mention in the Holy Quran I. When our esteemed Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) revealed the guidance of Allah in the front of His family members; then His uncle Lahab used harsh words in honorable personality of our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).At this, Allah became angry and sent a chapter Lahab for his blasphemous act and destroyed him. II. It is mentioned in the 33rd Chapter Ahzab of the Holy Quran that “Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment (33:58). III. It is also mentioned in the 8th Chapter Al - Anfal of the Holy Quran that “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - indeed, Allah is severe in penalty. "That [is yours], so taste it." And indeed for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire (8:13, 14). IV. A Jew named as Kaab-bin-Ashraf was one of the rivals of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and was used say rubbish in the Honorable Personality of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H); One of His companions Hazrat Omar-Bin-Dinar (R.A) had killed him on the orders of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) because of his this wrongful act. V. Once a man in Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) tribe used very strict words for Him and he was 1 killed by Hazrat Zubair (R.A). VI. Once a man in Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) life was also found guilty of blasphemy and the 2 Prophet (P.B.U.H) ordered Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed to kill him.VII. Wakadi has mentioned that once a man named as Abu Afaq was 120 years old and he was used to come to Makkah in order to abet the people of Makkah against the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). Hazrat Salam-Bin-Amaro (R.A) killed him because of his this blasphemous act.3
According to Shia Islam & Some Examples Here, we have also some important examples those are narrated and mentioned by the Shia scholars. These examples are also helpful in getting the information from one of the most dominant groups in Islam. I. It is narrated by the Imam Jaffar Sadiq (R.A) that once His father said that the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) ordered His men that “He who says wrongs in my Personality then you must killed him.” II. Muhammad Bin Muslim Bakir (R.A) has narrated that there was a man in Hazeel who was used to use abusive language against the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) Personality. When this news was came to the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) then He said “Who’s there for him?” then two companions of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) those were from Medina stood up and killed him.III. Imam Reza (R.A) has also mentioned that He has listened from His father that “One who act blasphemous against the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) then one must be killed and one who used abusive attitude toward His companions then one must be whipped”.IV. Muhammad Hussain Haikal has written in his book that Asood Ansi was a false prophet in Yemen. In the last days of a life of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), one of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)’s companions named Feroz Dalmi (R.A) had killed him and Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said that “He who killed him and his family members both are in safe”.V. Once the two ambassadors of Musalma Kazab – The False Prophet came to the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and Prophet (P.B.U.H) asked them that how you differentiate between Me and Musalma then both of them had said that we have a firm believe on Musalma and he is our prophet. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) asked that if you were not the ambassadors then I would order my men to kill you
Cases reported in Caliphs era I. Muaslma Kazab was a false prophet who appeared in the last days of the Prophet’s Muhammad (P.B.U.H) life and he was killed by the Hazrat Washie (R.A) in the era of Hazrat Abu Bakar’s regime. II. There was a so-called Muslim in Hazrat Umer’s regime who was actually Jew and he was killed by the caliph Himself because he had some doubt in Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)‘s judgment.III. Hazrat Ali (R.A) once killed a man who had some doubt on the division of bounty which was captured in a war against infidels.IV. Hazrat Abdullah –Bin-Umer (R.A) had issue an order on the behave of His self that one who uses malicious words against the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) then one will face the death penalty. V. Hazrat Amaro-Bin-Abdul Aziz (R.A) had ordered the governor of Kufa that one must be killed who abuses the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). Examples in Current EraLike the examples in the past days, there are also many incidents happened in these days bysome western countries and also by some personals. Here are the examples: I. Issues reported in Pakistan There are also some incidents happened in Pakistan causing different causalities and serious turmoiling administrative problems like those are occurred in the West: a) On January 4, Governor Salmaan Taseer was shot dead for wanting amendments to Pakistan’s blasphemy laws after Aasia Noreen was sentenced to death for allegedly committing blasphemy. b) On January 6, Muhammad Ishaq was sentenced to life imprisonment by a session’s court in Bahawalpur for ‘being a black magician’ and allegedly burning a copy of the Quran. c) On January 7, 2011 a Muslim prayer leader Mohammad Shafi and his son Mohammad Aslam were jailed for life after being arrested in April 2010 for allegedly removing poster advertising an Islamic event after it was over. d) On January 7, 2011 the Kot Addu police registered a blasphemy case against a mentally challenged Muslim at the request of a local mosque cleric allegedly in an attempt to settle a rivalry with the family of the accused.
e) On January 26, 2011, a woman named Amina accused her sister-in-law Zahira of blasphemy after an argument the night before. Zahira’s house was raided and she was beaten up. Zahira’s mother was also tortured. The leader of this torture squad, according to news sources, is said to be one named Muhammad Sameer, who belongs to the same religious group as that of Mumtaz Qadri, killer of Punjab’s ex-governor Salman Taseer early this month.f) On January 29, 2011 a teenage boy was arrested for allegedly writing blasphemous material on his examination answer sheets. Board of Intermediate Education Karachi (BIEK) Controller of Examinations Agha Akbar Mirza said “it was the boy’s neck or mine.”g) On January 30th, two brothers Shahnawaz and Ilyas were imprisoned over allegedly stealing copies of the Quran and burying them in the courtyard of their house.h) On February 2nd, 2011 in Bahawalpur, additional district and sessions judge Malik Riaz Ahmed Khokhar handed down a death sentence along with Rs. 0.2 million fine for Jalalpur Peerwala. His crime was reportedly wearing a wooden slab hanging around his neck inscribed with blasphemous remarks.i) On February 6. 2011 shopkeeper Shafique was arrested in Okara for tying a shoe to a flag bearing a holy symbol.j) Another case reported on February 7, 2011 rival Muslim sects registered cases against each other in Rawalpindi after clashes with each other.k) On February 8, 2011 in Multan pitted Dr Jalal against his brother Noor Khan. One followed a Deoband school of thought, and one followed Barelvi. Noor Khan’s sons were setting up a preaching centre opposite the house which apparently annoyed Dr. Jalal.l) On February 20, 2011 a schoolteacher was booked by the Bhakkar police and subsequently lunched by a mob for allegedly disrespecting the images of holy places and the footprint of the Holy Prophet.m) On February 21, 2011 in Faislabad the dispute on a residential plot among communities ended up in arrest of Christian woman under accusation of blasphemy charges by Muslims.n) On February 26 in Multan, Muhammad Javed was accused of blasphemy because his friend allegedly sent a blasphemous text from his phone. Shahnawaz, his friend, was rounded up for blasphemy too.o) On February 27 in Karachi, a mentally challenged person was accused of burning leaves of the Quran and accused of blasphemy.p) On February 27, Tehmina Durrani, wife of CM Shahbaz Sharif, was accused of blasphemy for a book she wrote a few years ago.
q) On March 2, Shahbaz Bhatti, Federal Minister for Minorities was gunned down in Islamabad for condemning Salmaan Taseer’s murder and wanting amendments in the blasphemy law. r) On March 4, a man accused in a blasphemy case was shot dead on the outskirts of Rawalpindi. Mohammad Imran was gunned down by three masked men near a bus stand in Danda village of Rawalpindi, a garrison city adjacent to the capital Islamabad, the Dawn newspaper reported. s) Rimsha Masih is a Pakistani girl from Mehrabadi, Islamabad, who was arrested by Pakistani police in August 2012 and who could face the death penalty for blasphemy under Pakistans blasphemy law for allegedly desecrating pages of the Quran (or a book containing verses from the Quran) by burning. She is a member of Pakistans Christian minority. On September 2, it was reported that a local imam, Hafiz Mohammed Khalid Chishti, had been arrested on suspicion of planting pages of religious texts in Rimshas bag. Internationally reported IssuesThere are also some international issues reported in date related to blasphemy and theseissues are mentioned here: Indonesia In January 2012, an Indonesian man who said on Facebook that God did not exist is facing jail, as atheism is reportedly "a violation of Indonesian law under the founding principles of the country". On 6 May 2010, a court sentenced Bakri Abdullah to one year in jail for blasphemy because the 70-year-old claimed to be a prophet and to have visited heaven in 1975 and 1997. On 9 December 2008, hundreds of Muslim rioters damaged sixty-seven houses, a church, and a community hall, and injured five people in Masohi, Central Maluku. The rioters were allegedly angry that a Christian school teacher, Welhelmina Holle, had allegedly said something blasphemous during an after-class tutorial at an elementary school. The police arrested Holle for blasphemy. The police arrested two Muslim men for inciting violence. In April 2008, a court sentenced Ahmad Moshaddeq, the leader of a sect called Al- Qiyadah al-Islamiyah, to four years in prison for committing blasphemous acts. On 2 May
2008, Padang District Court sentenced Dedi Priadi and Gerry Lufthi Yudistira, also members of the Al-Qiyadah al-Islamiyah sect, to three years in prison under Article 156(a). On 11 November 2007, the Supreme Court of Indonesia sentenced Abdul Rahman, a senior member of the Lia Eden sect, to three years in prison for blasphemy because he claimed to be a reincarnation of Prophet Mohammad. On 10 April 2007, police in the town of Pasuruan, East Java, arrested two men, Rochamim (or Rohim) and Toyib. Toyib was a follower of Rochamim who, according to local residents, said things such as Islam is an Arab religion; prayers five times a day are unnecessary; and the Quran is full of lies. The police charged Toyib under Article 156(a) because he was telling others what Rochamim said. In August 2005, East Javas Malang District Court sentenced Muhammad Yusman Roy to two years imprisonment for reciting Muslim prayers in Indonesian, which, according to the MUI, tarnished the purity of Arabic-based Islam. Roy was released from prison on 9 November 2006 after serving eighteen months of his sentence. Iran On 9 June 2009, the singer Mohsen Namjoo was sentenced in absentia to a five-year jail term for ridiculing the Quran in a song. In 2008, Namjoo had apologized for the song, which he claimed was never meant for public release. In March 2009, Iranian blogger Omid Mirsayafi died in prison while serving a 30- month sentence for propaganda against the state and criticism of religious leaders. The authorities said Mirsayafi committed suicide. In 1988, in the United Kingdom, Salman Rushdie published The Satanic Verses, a novel. Muslims in the United Kingdom accused Rushdie of blasphemy. Some Muslims called upon the Crown to prosecute Rushdie but it did not. On 14 February 1989, the Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwa which called for Muslims to kill Rushdie and all publishers of The Satanic Verses. In 1991, Hitoshi Igarashi, the novels Japanese translator was stabbed to death. Shortly afterward, the Italian translator was stabbed but survived. In 1993, the Norwegian publisher of the book was injured in a gun attack. In 1999, Iran put on trial for “insulting the Prophet, his descendants, and the Ayatollah Khomeini,” and for other charges, Abdollah Nouri, the former Minister of the Interior in the Rafsanjani and Khatami cabinets. In 1999, Nouri was the publisher of a daily newspaper that discussed the limits on the Supreme Leaders
powers, the rights of unorthodox clerics and groups to air their views, the right of women to divorce, and whether laughing and clapping were un-Islamic. On 27 November 1999, the Special Court for the Clergy found Nouri guilty, and sentenced him to five years imprisonment and a fine. Nouri was released on 5 November 2002. In October 2006, Ayatollah Hossein Kazemeyni Boroujerdi, a senior Shia cleric who advocates the separation of religion and state, and a number of his followers were arrested and imprisoned after clashes with riot police. He and seventeen of his followers were initially sentenced to death, but the death sentences were later withdrawn. In August 2007, he was sentenced to one year in prison in Tehran followed by another ten years in prison in another part of the country. Saudi Arabia In 2008 in Saudi Arabia, after Ra’if Badawi operated a website that criticized that country’s religious police and questioned Wahhabi interpretations of Islam, authorities charged him with “setting up an electronic site that insults Islam.” Faced with both the possibility of five years’ imprisonment and an $800,000 fine, as well as threats against his safety, he fled the country. In 1994, an Ismaili, Hadi Al-Mutaif (also Al-Mutif), a teenager, made a remark that a court deemed blasphemous. The court sentenced Al-Mutaif to death for apostasy. In May 2009, Al-Mutaif was still in prison. He has spent long periods of time in solitary confinement, and has made numerous suicide attempts On 3 September 1992, Sadiq Abdul-Karim Malallah was publicly beheaded by sabre in al-Qatif in Saudi Arabias Eastern Province after being convicted of apostasy and blasphemy. Malallah, a Shia Muslim from Saudi Arabia, was arrested in April 1988 and charged with throwing stones at a police patrol. He was reportedly held in solitary confinement for long periods during his first months in detention and tortured prior to his first appearance before a judge in July 1988. The judge reportedly asked him to convert from Shia Islam to Wahhabi Islam, and allegedly promised him a lighter sentence if he complied. After he refused to do so, he was taken to al-Mabahith al-Amma (General Intelligence) Prison in Dammam where he was held until April 1990. He was then transferred to al-Mabahith al-Amma Prison in Riyadh, where he remained until the date of his execution.
Malallah may have been involved in efforts to secure improved rights for Saudi Arabias Shia Muslim minority. In 2005, a court in Bukairia found Muhammad Al-Harbi, a high school chemistry teacher, guilty of blasphemy for talking to students and teachers about Christianity, Judaism, and the causes of terrorism. The court sentenced al-Harbi to 40 months in prison and 750 lashes. In 2005, a court in Bukairia found Muhammad Al-Harbi, a high school chemistry teacher, guilty of blasphemy for talking to students and teachers about Christianity, Judaism, and the causes of terrorism. The court sentenced al-Harbi to 40 months in prison and 750 lashes. United Arab Emirates In 1993, after an appeal, two of ten Indian expatriates convicted in 1992 of blasphemy for producing and performing in a play that was critical of Islam and Christianity had their sentences extended from six years to ten years. In 2008, three Filipino workers were jailed in the Emirate of Sharjah allegedly for ripping a page out of the Quran and scribbling on the page. The allegation arose during a dispute between the workers and their employer. The government revoked the workers permits to work. In 2012, a French businessman was arrested for defacing the Quran by spitting on it before he assaulted and threatened to kill a new British Muslim convert after she refused to marry him. The Frenchman spat on the Quran and insulted Islam and all its prophets. He also threw on the floor a separate book that contained collections of Hadith. He was arrested and jailed. Egypt In October 2008, the authorities arrested a blogger, Reda Abdel Rahman, who was affiliated with a religious group: the Quranist movement. Rahmans blog called for political and religious reform in Egypt. The authorities charged Rahman with "insulting Islam." Rahman spent nearly three months in detention. He complained about being physically abused. He was released in January 2009. In September 2008, six Christians in Port Said were arrested after local authorities raided their café because it remained open during the Muslim fasting period of Ramadan. The six were charged with resisting arrest and assaulting authorities, and were sentenced in January 2009 to three years in prison.
In February 2008, Muslims set fire to Christian-owned shops in the village of Armant in Upper Egypt after reports surfaced of a relationship between a Muslim woman and a Coptic Christian man. Security forces closed shops under a security decree and detained eight Muslims and one Copt, all of whom were subsequently released. In December 2007, in the Upper Egypt town of Esna, a number of Muslims attacked one church and twenty-six Christian-owned shops. This incident reportedly was sparked by rumors that a Coptic Christian shop-owner lifted the veil of a Muslim woman whom he suspected of shoplifting. In 2007, Egyptian police arrested Adel Fawzy Faltas and Peter Ezzat, who work for the Canada-based Middle East Christian Association, on the grounds that, in seeking to defend human rights, they had “insulted Islam. The United States A parson Terry Jones from Florida, he has arranged the Holy Quran burning day on April 28, 2012, Jones, and about 20 others, burned copies of the Quran. He was fined $271 by Gainesville Fire Rescue for burning books without authorization. In September 2012, it was reported by The Atlantic that Terry Jones was involved in the promotion of a movie vilifying Islam, titled Innocence of Muslims. The movie led to protests in Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia and Libya. In Cairo, protesters breached the wall of the U.S. Embassy and burned the flag. The U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya, was largely burnt and looted; killing Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and three other American citizens.] Jones screened the film for his followers on September 11, 2012, a day he dubbed, "International Judge Mohammad Day".After mentioning different cases those are reported in the different regions of the worldwhether they are related to past or present but it is cleared that the orders ordered by theProphet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) were not from Himself but these orders was from Allahbecause Prophet (P.B.U.H) had not even say a single word by Himself because HazratGabriel (A.S) bought these orders from Allah for the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H).
Concept of blasphemy in different religionsEvery religion has many concepts about the blasphemy whether they are revealed or man-made because they always teach their followers to respect the founders or followers of theother religions because it is important to create peace and humbleness in a today’s society.Nevertheless, some extremist don’t understand these teachings and used to hurt the fellingof the others. There are some general concepts of blasphemy in different religions of theworld: I. ChristianityChristian theology condemns blasphemy. It is spoken of in Mark 3:29, where blasphemingthe Holy Spirit is spoken of as unforgivable—the eternal sin. However, there is dispute overwhat form this blasphemy may take and whether it qualifies as blasphemy in theconventional sense; and over the meaning of "unforgivable". In 2 Kings 18, the Rabshakehgave the word from the king of Assyria, dissuading trust in the Lord, asserting that God is nomore able to deliver than all the gods of the land. In Matthew 9:2, Jesus spoke the words"Your sins are forgiven you"; He was accused of blasphemy, since only God can forgive sins,although Christians believe that Jesus is God and hence entitled to do so.Blasphemy has been condemned as a serious, or even the most serious, sin by the majorcreeds and Church theologians. Thomas Aquinas says that “it is clear that blasphemy, which is a sin committed directly against God, is graver than murder, which is a sin against ones neighbor. … it is called the most grievous sin, for as much as it makes every sin more grievous.” The Book of Concord calls blasphemy “the greatest sin that can be outwardly committed” The Baptist Confession of Faith says: “Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by the glorious and awesome name of God…is sinful, and to be regarded with disgust and detestation. …For by rash, false, and vain oaths, the Lord is provoked and because of them this land mourns.” The Heidelberg Catechism answers question 100 about blasphemy by stating that “no sin is greater or provokes Gods wrath more than the blaspheming of His Name”. The Westminster Larger Catechism explains that “The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the abuse of it in an ignorant, vain, irreverent, profane...mentioning...by blasphemy...to profane jests ...vain janglings ...to charms or sinful lusts and practices.” Calvin found it intolerable “when a person is accused of blasphemy, to lay the blame on the ebullition of passion, as if God were to endure the penalty whenever we are provoked.”
Catholic prayers and reparations for blasphemyIn the Catholic Church, there are specific prayers and devotions as Acts of Reparation forblasphemy. For instance, The Golden Arrow Holy Face Devotion (Prayer) first introduced bySister Marie of St Peter in 1844 is recited "in a spirit of reparation for blasphemy". Thisdevotion (started by Sister Marie and then promoted by the Venerable Leo Dupont) wasapproved by Pope Leo XIII in 1885. The Raccolta Catholic prayer book includes a number ofsuch prayers. The Five First Saturday’s devotions are done with the intention in the heart ofmaking reparation to the Blessed Mother for blasphemies against her, her name and herholy initiatives.The Holy See has specific "Pontifical organizations" for the purpose of the reparation ofblasphemy through Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ, e.g. the Pontifical Congregation ofthe Benedictine Sisters of the Reparation of the Holy Face.In Britains last blasphemy execution, 20-year-old Thomas Aikenhead was executed for thecrime in 1697. He was prosecuted for denying the veracity of the Old Testament and thelegitimacy of Christs miracles II. IslamThe Quran and the hadith do not mention blasphemy. According to Pakistani religiousscholar, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, nothing in Islam supports blasphemy law. Rather, Muslimjurists made the offense part of Sharia; the penalties for blasphemy can include fines,imprisonment, flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading. Muslim clerics may call for thepunishment of an alleged blasphemer by issuing a fatwa. III. Judaism In the third book of the Torah, Leviticus 24:16 states that he that blasphemes the name of the LORD "shall surely be put to death". See also List of capital crimes in the Torah. The Seven laws of Noah, which Judaism sees as applicable to all people, prohibit blasphemy.
Reaction of the Muslim world on Blasphemous actsEgyptIn Egypt, the protest was organized by Wesam Abdel-Wareth, a Salafist leader and presidentof Egypts Hekma television channel, who called for a gathering on September 11 at 5 pm infront of the United States Embassy, to protest against a film that he thought wasnamed Muhammads Trial. However, Eric Trager, an experts at the Washington Institute forNear East Policy, has said that the protest was in fact announced on August 30 by JamaaIslamiya, to release Sheikh Omar Abdel RahmanAfter the trailer for the film begancirculating, Nader Bakkar, the Egyptian Salafist Nour Partys spokesman, and Muhammad al-Zawahiri, the brother of al-Qaeda leader Ayman al Zawihiri, called for Egyptians to assembleoutside of the American embassy.About 3,000 demonstrators, many of them from the ultraconservative Salafist movement,responded to his call. A dozen men were then reported to have scaled the embassy walls,after which one of them tore down the flag of the United States of America and replaced itwith a black Islamist flag with the inscription of the shahada: "There is no god but God andMuhammad is the messenger of God". Some of the protesters also wrote "There is no Godbut Allah" on the compound walls. According to Sherine Tadros of Al Jazeera, the protestorsdemanded that the film be taken "out of circulation" and that some of the protestors wouldstay at the site until that happens. Thousands of Egyptian riot police were at the embassyfollowing the breach of the walls; they eventually persuaded the trespassers to leave thecompound without the use of force. After that, only a few hundred protesters remainedoutside the compound.Egypts prime minister Hesham Kandil said "a number" of protesters later confessed togetting paid to participate. He did not say whether the government knew or suspected whopaid the protesters.On September 14, in the town of Sheikh Zuwayed in the Sinai Peninsula, protesters stormeda compound of the Multinational Force and Observers, designed to monitor the peacetreaty between Egypt and Israel. The peacekeeping force opened fire on the protesters.Two members of the peacekeeping force were wounded.Ahmad Fouad Ashoush, a Salafist Muslim cleric, issued a fatwa saying: "I issue a fatwa andcall on the Muslim youth in America and Europe to do this duty, which is to kill the director,the producer and the actors and everyone who helped and promoted the film."AnotherMuslim cleric, Ahmed Abdullah (aka Abu Islam) tore up the Bible and threw the torn pageson the ground during the September 11 embassy attack.YemenIn Yemen, the protests started on September 13, after Abdul Majid al-Zindani, a cleric andformer mentor to Osama bin Laden, called on followers to emulate the attacks in Egypt andLibya.Hours later, protesters had stormed the grounds of the U.S. embassy in Sanaa. Police firedinto the air in an attempt to hold back the crowds, but failed to prevent them from gaining
access to the compound and setting fire to vehicles. Guards in Sanaa used tear gas and awater cannon to drive back the crowd. At least 4 protesters were killed and 11 others injured;24 guards were also injured.The U.S. responded by sending a Marine FAST unit to Yemen.GreeceAbout 600 Muslim protestors in Athens tried to march on the U. S. Embassy, but werestopped by Greek police. No injuries were reported, although three cars were damaged andthree storefronts were smashed. The protestors chanted "we are all with Osama" and calledon the US to hang the filmmaker.SudanIn anticipation of protests, Sudanese authorities deployed "many, many riot police" near theAmerican embassy. Nevertheless, on September 14, protesters breached the outside wall ofthe compound and clashed with guards; three people were killed.Also after Friday prayers on September 14, protesters started fires and tore down the flag inthe German embassy. Demonstrators hoisted a black Islamic flag at the German embassy,saying in white letters "there is no God but God and Mohammed is his Prophet". Although itwas initially assumed that the attacks were to a target of opportunity related to the protestsagainst the film Innocence of Muslims, the incident is now reported as a long-planneddeliberate attack against Germany; preachers encouraged the riots by referring toGermanys defending Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard in 2012 during the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. Referring to a demonstration in August 2012 byright-winged German protesters during which pictures of Mohammed were shown, theSudanese foreign minister justified the attacks by saying that German chancellor AngelaMerkel had allowed these demonstrations to proceed and had thereby encouraged "aninsult to Islam and clearly violated all rules of religious coexistence and tolerance."TunisiaIn Tunis, on September 14, protesters entered the compound of the U.S. embassy afterclimbing the embassy walls and set trees inside the compound ablaze. The protestersattacked the American Cooperative School of Tunis and set it on fire. At least 4 were killedand 46 injured during protests near the embassy on September 15. The U.S. governmentpulled out all non-essential personnel and urged its citizens to leave the city.IndiaOn September 14, the U.S. consulate in Chennai, India, was attacked, with protestorsthrowing stones and footwear at the consulate. Police dispersed the crowd, causing minorinjuries to 25 protesters. The Consulate asked American citizens to enroll in the STEPprogram, asked American citizens to follow the local news and media and ceased theconsulates operation temporarily. Additional Police protection for the consulate was alsogranted by the Tamilnadu Government.On September 21, protesters marched towards the Tirunelvelis railway station, a city 700 kmsouthwest of Chennai blocking trains and shouting anti-US slogans. The protesters also
broke 7 to 8 buses. Polices attempts to disperse the crowd resulted in many injuries whichare to be estimated.IndonesiaOn September 17, up to 500 protesters, many of whom were part of the Islamic DefendersFront and Majelis Mujahideen Indonesia attacked the United States embassy in Jakarta bythrowing stones and loose pavement, some reports also state that petrol bombs were usedin the attacks. In addition to attacking the embassy, protesters attacked the local policeforce and embassy guards.PakistanPakistan has witnessed widespread protests all across the country. On September 14,security forces clashed with demonstrators outside the U.S. embassy in Islamabad over theanti-Islam film. Protesters called for the execution of the filmmaker and urged Islamabad toclose the US Embassy and expel its diplomats. In the eastern city of Lahore, demonstratorsburned the US flag outside the U.S. consulate and shouted slogans against the United Statesand Israel. On September 16, Voice of America News reported that police fired tear gas andwater cannon at hundreds of demonstrators as they approached the heavily guardedconsulate in the southern city of Karachi. On September 19, a businessman who wasunwilling to participate in the protests was charged for blasphemy. On September 20, CNNreported that protests continued in Karachi, where according to a police official about "100small children" repeated anti-American slogans during a protest. Video showed childrenrepeating an adult voice, "Death to America" and "Any friend of America is a traitor." Thechildren, between the ages of 6 and 8, demonstrated across from the Karachi Press Club, ledby "at least four teachers." In Islamabad, police used tear gas and fired warning shots intothe air to disperse the crowd. Islamabad Police Chief Bin Yamin said eight police wereinjured.On September 21, a public holiday was held in Pakistan as protests under the bannerof "Love our prophet" were held across the country. The newspaper Dawn reported that atleast 23 people were killed during the day. In Karachi, a crowd of 15,000 torched "sixcinemas, two banks, a KFC and 5 police vehicles" whilst some fired on police, killing twopolice officers. It was further reported that 10 of the protesters were shot dead afterwards.Meanwhile in Peshawar, four protesters and a policeman were killed. Ghulam Ahmed Bilour,a Pakistani cabinet minister has announced a $100,000 bounty for killing Nakoula BasseleyNakoula. The Pakistani government has sought to distance itself from this award. SomeBritish MPs have called for a ban on Bilours visits to Britain. On September 23, a rampagingmob of protesters in Mardan reportedly "set on fire the church, St Pauls high school, alibrary, a computer laboratory and houses of four clergymen, including Bishop PeterMajeed." and went on to rough up Zeeshan Chand, the pastors son.
Positive ways for recording a protest in IslamIslam teaches us that if we are going for a strike or protest then we should record ourprotest in a positive manner because Islam never allows us to destroy someone’s propertyor create a situation that causes threat to someone’s life. Allah says in the Holy Quran that:1: Right to Protection of Life:According to the Quran, human life is sacrosanct. Of the several verses which affirm theinviolability of human life except for just cause, the following may be noted:"And do not kill the soul Allah has forbidden, except for right". (Surah Bani lsrail, 17:33)"... whoso killed a soul not for retaliation for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land,shall be as if he had slain mankind altogether; and whoso gave life to it, shall be as if he hadgiven life to mankind altogether." (Suratu-l Ma’idah, 5:32).It is our responsibility that we should protest in a sense that it couldn’t hurt any singleperson of a society. Due to our serious negligence following numbers of individuals are killedin different brotherly Islamic states.33 (Afghanistan)23 (Pakistan)4 (Yemen)4 (Tunisia)4 (Israeli border)3 (Sudan)3 (Lebanon)1 (Egypt)2: Right to Property: We are well aware of the financial and economic damages occurredduring the protest. The Holy Quran says:"The believers are such that if We give them authority in the land, they establish prayer andgive zakaah, and enjoin good and forbid evil." (Suratu-l Hajj, 22:41).So we have to be careful about the others property while protesting.
3: Right of Protection against Persecution for Difference of Religion:The right to be protected against persecution for differences in faith or opinion is a clearcorollary of the right of freedom of conviction. It has been expressly mentioned, becausemany sins have been committed by over enthusiastic well-meaning fanatics:"And revile not those whom they call upon beside Allah, lest they, out of spite, revile Allah intheir ignorance. Thus unto every people have We caused their doing to seem fair. Then untotheir Lord is their return; and He will inform them of what they used to do." (Suratu-lAnaam, 6:108).4: Right to Freedom of Expression:The believers are under an obligation to "speak out the truth without fear and withoutdesire to show favour". Amongst other verses, the following is a comprehensive mandate tothis:"0 ye who believe, be strict in observing justice, and be witnesses for Allah, even though itbe against yourselves or against parents and kindred. Whether be he rich or poor, Allah ismore regardful of them both.Therefore follow not low desires so that you may be able toact equitably.And if you conceal the truth or evade it, then remember that Allah is wellaware of what you do." (Suratu-n Nisaa, 4:135).5: Duty to the Obedience of what is Lawful and Disobedience of what is Unlawful:The clear implication of the idea of the Rule of Shariah is that a person is liable to obey onlywhat is lawful and to dissociate from, disobey, and even to correct if he can, what isunlawful. Most of the relevant verses in this context have already been noticed above. Themost comprehensive statement is contained in the following verse:"And help one another in righteousness and piety and abet not one another in sin andtransgression." (Suratu-l Maaidah, 5:2).By mentioning these basic fundamental rights and principles for a peaceful protest define inthe Holy Quran, it is our responsibility that we should try our best to save the basic rights ofours while protesting.
RulesThere are the different rules defined in Pakistani, Shariah and International laws aboutblasphemy. Pakistani Laws:Pakistan has the anti-blasphemy laws that are quite complicated. Offenders may bevigorously prosecuted. Chapter XV of Pakistan Penal Code deals with "offences relating toreligion": §295. Injuring or defiling place of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class. §295-A. Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs. §295-B. Defiling, etc., of Holy Quran. §295-C. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of the Holy Prophet. §296. Disturbing religious assembly. §297. Trespassing on burial places, etc. §298. Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings. §298-A. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of holy personages. §298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places. §298-C. Person of Quadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith. Implementations of these laws 295-B Defiling, etc, of copy of the Holy Quran. Whoever will fully defiles, damages or desecrates a copy of the Holy Quran or of an extract therefrom or uses it in any derogatory manner or for any unlawful purpose shall be punishable for imprisonment for life.
295-C Use of derogatory remarks, etc; in respect of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Whoever by words, either spoken or written or by visible representation, or by any imputation, innuendo, or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine. 298-A Use of derogatory remarks, etc..., in respect of holy personages. Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, or by any imputation, innuendo or insinuation, directly or indirectly defiles a sacred name of any wife (Ummul Mumineen), or members of the family (Ahle-Bait), of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), or any of the righteous caliphs (Khulafa-i-Rashideen) or companions (Sahaba) of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with bot 298-B Misuse of epithet, descriptions and titles, etc. Reserved for certain holy personages or places. 1. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written or by visible representation: a. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as "Ameerul Momneen", "Khalifat-ul-Momneen", "Khalifat- ul-Muslimeen", "Sahabi" or "Razi Allah Anho"; b. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as Ummul Mumineen; c. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle- Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or d. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle- Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or e. refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship as Masjid; shall be punished with imprisonment or either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.
2. Any person of the Qadiani group or Lahori group, (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other names), who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, refers to the mode or of call to prayers followed by his faith as "Azan" or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine. 298-C Persons of Qadiani group, etc, calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis or any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.There is a Death Penalty for blasphemy in Pakistan. Those prosecuted are usually minoritiessuch as Ahmadiyya and Christians but it seems that they are also increasinglyMuslims. Persons accused of blasphemy as well as police, lawyers, and judges have beensubject to harassment, threats, attacks, and murders when blasphemy is the issue. Shariah Law Shariah laws are actually the divine laws of Allah and these laws are mentioned in the Holy Quran. Some examples are as under: When our esteemed Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) revealed the guidance of Allah in the front of His family members; then His uncle Lahab used harsh words in honorable personality of our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).At this, Allah became angry and sent a chapter Lahab for his blasphemous act and destroyed him. It is mentioned in the 33rd Chapter Ahzab of the Holy Quran that “Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment (33:58).
It is also mentioned in the 8th Chapter Al - Anfal of the Holy Quran that “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - indeed, Allah is severe in penalty. "That [is yours], so taste it." And indeed for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire (8:13, 14). “Indeed it is your enemy who is bereft of all goodness.” – [Kausar 108:3]So it is proved that Allah has sent His men the orders that they should follow these rules anddon’t try to speak or act ill of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). It is also proved that thedifferent schools of thoughts of Islam whether they are Sunnis, Shias, Sufists & Kharijitesthey are all agree on that the blasphemer must be punished for his this wrongful acts. The International Laws & Implementation: There are some laws made by the United Nation and defined in different sections of it. 2. Freedom of opinion and freedom of expression are indispensable conditions for the full development of the person. They are essential for any society. They constitute the foundation stone for every free and democratic society. The two freedoms are closely related, with freedom of expression providing the vehicle for the exchange and development of opinions. 48. Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, Including blasphemy laws, are incompatible with the Covenant, except in the specific Circumstances envisaged in article 20, paragraph 2, of the Covenant. Such prohibitions must also comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3, as well as such articles as 2, 5, 17, 18 and 26. Thus, for instance, it would be impermissible for any such laws to discriminate in favor of or against one or certain religions or belief systems, or their adherents over another or religious believers over non-believers. Nor would it be permissible for such prohibitions to be used to prevent or punish criticism of religious leaders or commentary on religious doctrine and tenets of faith. 17. Issues concerning the media are discussed further in the section of this general comment that addresses restrictions on freedom of expression.Laws restricting the rights enumerated in article 19, paragraph 2, including the laws referred to in paragraph 24, must not only comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3 of the Covenant but must also themselves be compatible with the provisions, aims and objectives of the Covenant.55Laws must not violate the non-discrimination provisions of the Covenant. Laws must not provide for penalties that are incompatible with the Covenant, such as corporal punishment.
Laws those are made by the United Nation are not implemented with their full forcebecause there are some states those are not in the favor of these laws that is why theUN has no proper authority our the implementations of these laws and if the U.N.resolution became international law, the First Amendment would still protectopponents here, but think of the bloody impact on "defamers" around the world. Conclusion Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia took out peaceful protest rallies but we resorted to violence. The effective way is for all Muslim countries to put up a united front of the Muslim Ummah through the OIC. A UN resolution should try to persuade the US and European governments to make legislation not to hurt religious sentiments of not only Muslims but all other religions as well. Protest should reflect reason FOR a true, disciplined Muslim, this was a real test of patience to see the protesters getting out of control and damaging private property, banks, restaurants, commercial plazas and gasoline stations. Rightly said by columnist Shada Islam in her article ‘Power of passion’ (Sept 22): “The stubbornness of those who won’t stop ranting against Islam is matched only by the fury of those (I would say, Pakistanis) who think defense of their religion means killing and dying …” Who are these people creating anarchy, violence and harassing people in the name of such protests? They must be brought to task immediately, without any discrimination. Our way of protesting against such issues must reflect sense and reason. We must show the sagacious, more sensible way of depicting the true Islam by spreading the word of Allah, His last Prophet and his predecessors (prophets). There must be increased frequency in inter-religious dialogues of harmony and faith. It seems to be a very right demand by all and sundry Muslims that there must be a global law prohibiting anyone from doing blasphemous acts of ridiculing prophets.
Holiday a mistakeBY announcing a public holiday the government should not have expectedthese religious and political parties to protest peacefully. It was a big mistake.The crowd should have rather protested in a peaceful manner by praying infront of the US embassy and consulates and shown hatred against the film ina civilized manner.Our violent behavior has portrayed a wrong image of our religion and our lovefor Islam and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Suspending cell phone servicesON Sept 21, cell phone connections were again suspended to thwart anypotential terrorist attack.The authorities concerned need to understand that cell phone has become amajor mode of communication. Moreover, this mode of communication isfrequently used for disaster management.The government should have come up with other favorable preventivemeasures. A negative messageTHE hooligans who turned to violence have negated the message of Islamthat it is a religion of peace.While every Muslim is hurt by the blasphemy, I wonder if killing fellowMuslims while expressing your hurt is an Islamic conduct. It is time sanityprevailed and we followed the rule that the pen is mightier than the sword.We need to redefine our intellectual capabilities and bring it in accordancewith Islamic spirit.
Prophet’s SeeratIt is usually the responsibility of the man in charge of a gathering to wind up aprotest and ensure it is concluded logically. On the contrary, what happenedon Sept 21 was illogical.The leaders arrived once the crowds had gathered, gave fiery speeches andthen walked away with their guards. People were emotionally roused and sothey vented their anger in the wrong way.Why don’t leaders take responsibility to stay till the end and make sureeveryone has returned and the rally has concluded peacefully? Ideally themost prominent personality should be the last one to leave.Moreover, in their speeches these leaders should tell people to follow theHoly Prophet’s way of life.They should ask people to improve themselves. Why not put stalls to givecharity, food, clothes, etc, to the deserving to make our ummah strong?Let us remember that the penalty for doing a wrong is to feed the hungry: thisis a simple guideline to understand how to improve society.There is a lot of literature on the character, the greatness and kindness of theHoly Prophet and his companions. What about our own character? No revengeTHERE is no denying the fact that the movie is profoundly offensive bothreligiously and aesthetically. It is the nature of the Internet that any individualcan easily post any kind of hateful and offensive material.We as humans should not hold the stick of revenge in the existing worldbecause there is God Who knows much better. Is this the way to protest?IT was the responsibility of the government to provide high security and awell-organized protest itself.Protests against the film and film-makers should have been made with unity.Peace should have been ensured at all costs.
Bibliography1. The Holy Quran.2. Midarig-e-Nabooat.3. Al Saram Al Maslool.4. Wisayal-e-Shia.5. Kitab-e-Shifa.6. Dawn – The Newspaper.7. Express Tribune – The Newspaper.8. Tafseer-e-Rohu ul emani.9. Muhammad (P.B.U.H) – Prophet & Man by M.A Salahi.10. Cambridge Online Dictionary.11. Think free Visual Thesaurus.12. Wikipedia.