Central nervous-system

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Central nervous-system

  1. 1. JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER Central Nervous System
  2. 2. Neuron: Nerve Cell <ul><li>Basic structural unit nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve fibers /dentrites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axon </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nerves <ul><li>Sensory Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry messages to brain and spinal cord from body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry messages from brain and spinal cord to body </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Connecting or Mixed Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry both sensory and motor messages </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Divisions of CNS <ul><li>CNS - central nervous system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. any nerves outside the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary body functions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Central Nervous System <ul><li>1. Brain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mass of nerve tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Protected by membranes & the cranium or skull </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. C. Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest section of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning, thought, memory, speaking, sensstion, sight, hearing, voluntary body movement </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. D. Cerebellum <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination of muscles, balance, posture, & muscle tone </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. E. Midbrain <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting impulses between brain parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>certain eye reflexes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pons <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting messages to other parts of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex actions such as chewing, production of saliva </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. G. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Lowest part of brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulating heart beat, respirations, swallowing, coughing, b/p </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 2. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Goes down back of body from Medulla Oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded and protected by vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for reflex actions </li></ul><ul><li>Carries sensory and motor messages </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Meninges <ul><li>Consists of 3 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Covers and protects the brain and spinal cord </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Membranes <ul><li>C. Dura mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick, tough outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Arachnoid membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle delicate weblike layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Pia mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner most layer with blood vessels to nourish the nerves </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Ventricles <ul><li>Four hallow spaces located in the middle of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with fluid called cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Circulates continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Carries nurients to parts of brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>helps remove metabolic products & wastes </li></ul><ul><li>after circulation, absorbed into the blood vessels of the dura mater. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Made of all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of cranial and spinal nerves </li></ul>
  20. 20. A. Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 pairs & their branches </li></ul><ul><li>Some responsible for special senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell </li></ul><ul><li>Others receive sensations: touch, pressure, pain, temperature </li></ul>
  21. 21. B. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>31 pairs & their branches </li></ul><ul><li>carries messages to & from the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Both sensory and motor nerves </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>31 spinal nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 cervical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sacral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 coccygeal </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 3. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Helps maintain a balance in involuntary functions of the body. But allows the body to react in times of emergency. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2 divisions of ANS <ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acts in emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>counter acts the sympathetic ns after the emergency </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>SNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase resp. rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase b/p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease digestive system activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease resp. rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease b/p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase digestive system activity </li></ul></ul>

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