Original Art
Definition
 "Art," wrote the English poet and art critic Sir
Herbert Read, "is most simply and most usually
defined as an...
Unique Characteristics
 Art is a direct communication between artist and viewer.
 Art communicates the highest aesthetic...
Advantages
 Original works of art are unique, which means that each
institution will own the only copy of each piece it a...
 Many "outside" activities (traveling exhibits, craft
demonstrations, exhibits by local artists, classroom tours,
etc.) c...
Disadvantages
 Because each work of art is one of a kind, each is
irreplaceable if lost or destroyed. If a work of art
is...
 Because of the nature of original art works, not all
items can be lent to users.
 Original works of art are not availab...
SELECTION
Special Criteria
 Select work from a reputable artist. This does not
necessarily mean a nationally recognized a...
 At least at first, limit the selection of art to specific
media (original prints, local crafts, oil paintings,
sculpture...
 Select quality pieces that are characteristic of each
artist's best known period and style. It's better to
collect a few...
 Make gifts a basic part of the selection policy.
Encourage donations, both cash and art works, from
organizations and in...
 Visit places where original works of art are sold,
created, and exhibited (including artists' studios),
to learn about t...
Evaluative Review Sources
 Each original work of art is one of a kind, which
means that only the more expensive works,
cr...
 The selector's aesthetic appreciation of original art
works
 The reputation of the artist and his works
 Advice from e...
Storage and Care
 Designate a special area of the institution,
preferably a separate room, as the art
storage/work area.
...
 Keep storage, ivory, and display areas clean, well
ventilated, and free of clutter.
 Handle art works as little as poss...
 Store all art objects at least 1 1/2 inches off the floor,
on shelves, or in bins, cabinets, or trays.
 If damage occur...
 Guard against air pollution. Sulphur dioxide is particularly
dangerous, especially to works of art on paper. The best
pr...
 Keep accurate, up-to-date records on all pieces --
if possible, photographic records.
 Know where each art work is at a...
Observe these special guidelines
for paintings:
 Do not carry paintings on one side or by the frame.
Instead, carry with ...
 Avoid touching the surface (or even the backs) of
paintings. It's a good idea to protect the back of
each painting with ...
 When displaying pictures, place rubber or cork
bumpers at the bottom corners of the back of
each frame. This prevents du...
Observe these special guidelines for
sculpture, crafts, and other three-
dimensional works:
 Never carry sculpture, ceram...
 Do not overcrowd storage boxes or shelving.
Separate each item in a box or tray with thick,
absorbent materials, making ...
Observe these special guidelines
for textiles:
 Keep rugs, costumes, wall hangings, and other
textiles away from direct s...
 Develop a periodic cleaning program for fabrics.
Even with careful handling and proper storage,
textiles accumulate dust...
Observe these special guidelines
for prints and other works of art
on paper:
 Most of the caring techniques are the same....
 Store framed prints by hanging them on pegboard
panels, walls, or screens; or stand them vertically in
plywood bins. Do ...
 Frame all prints that are to be displayed or
circulated. You can buy ready made frames, or
pay for custom framing, or do...
Mediums
 painting
 drawing
 film
 digital art
 textile
 performance art
 video
 installation
 printmaking
 (wood...
 Painting can be defined as the art of reproducing
scenes, real, imaginary, or abstract on two-
dimensional surfaces by m...
 Sculpture is three-dimensional art (or art in
relief), created by either carving out a material
such as stone or wood (i...
 Photography uses light passed through a
camera lens to form an image on film. Light is
then passed through a negative to...
 Digital art may be created on a computer or exist
on a computer.
 An installation is a site specific art piece that is
...
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Original art

  1. 1. Original Art
  2. 2. Definition  "Art," wrote the English poet and art critic Sir Herbert Read, "is most simply and most usually defined as an attempt to create pleasing forms. Such forms satisfy our sense of beauty and the sense of beauty is satisfied when we are able to appreciate a unity or harmony of formal relations among our sense perceptions.“  "Art today is a new kind of instrument, an instrument for modifying consciousness and organizing new modes of sensibility . Artists have had to become self-conscious aestheticians: continually challenging their means, their materials and methods."
  3. 3. Unique Characteristics  Art is a direct communication between artist and viewer.  Art communicates the highest aesthetic values of our culture.  Art reflects the history of man and his environment through the eyes of the artist in an aesthetically and uniquely personal way.  Art, the oldest means of communication, is still available today for us to experience; it is centuries older than the written word.  Art Communicates through a wide variety of visual elements: line, color, form, tone, texture, space.  Art can be appreciated on many levels, and appreciated on a different level each time it is viewed.  The monetary as well as the aesthetic value of quality works of art increases with time.  Each art object is unique and can only be reproduced,
  4. 4. Advantages  Original works of art are unique, which means that each institution will own the only copy of each piece it acquires.  Benefits received from viewing original art works are immediate. Yet art is something that one can return to, over and over, for renewed enjoyment and appreciation.  The study of original works of art is the best way to learn about art and art appreciation.  Quality works of art increase in value and are, therefore, an excellent institutional investment.  When works of art are put on display, they can greatly enhance an institution's appearance and image.  With proper handling, art works last indefinitely, even when lent to users.  If the institution lends works of art, users can have original art in their homes without incurring the expense of ownership. Original works of art complement other institutional holdings and programs, such as books about art, art lectures, AV presentations, and institutional tours.
  5. 5.  Many "outside" activities (traveling exhibits, craft demonstrations, exhibits by local artists, classroom tours, etc.) can be easily incorporated into the institution's original art program at little or no cost.  The library can provide a place for showing and viewing artwork in towns that have no gallery or museum. It can also provide opportunities for local artists.  Original works of art can be used to reach users not easily reached through books and other materials. For example, mobile art exhibits can be sent to community centers, nursing homes, day-care centers, hospitals, and even to the homes of shut-ins. Also, minorities who understand little or no English and preschoolers who have not yet learned to read can appreciate original works of art. Everyone, though they won't relate to every art piece, can relate to the language art speaks.
  6. 6. Disadvantages  Because each work of art is one of a kind, each is irreplaceable if lost or destroyed. If a work of art is mishandled or damaged, besides the monetary loss it is also disrespectful to the artist, who put so much time into the creation of the piece.  Because each work of art is unique, it is difficult to know the value of any particular piece at any given time.  The institution must often absorb extra expenses for storage and display facilities, insurance and security measures, and the framing and handling of art works.
  7. 7.  Because of the nature of original art works, not all items can be lent to users.  Original works of art are not available through traditional book and non-book sources.  Staff members must have special knowledge and appreciation to select and properly care for original works of art and to interpret the institution's collection to users.
  8. 8. SELECTION Special Criteria  Select work from a reputable artist. This does not necessarily mean a nationally recognized artist. There are ways to determine local reputable artists, such as their exhibition record, positive local art reviews, galleries or collections that have collected their work, etc.  Select works that are convenient for framing, storage, display, circulating, and handling.  Select pieces that are in top condition. Always check for abuse, misuse, damage, wear and tear.
  9. 9.  At least at first, limit the selection of art to specific media (original prints, local crafts, oil paintings, sculpture) and/or to specific artists, periods, styles, subject matter, or combinations of these for example: 20th century original prints by local artists on Western subjects.  Don't try to build a complete collection in any area. Instead, strive for a balanced collection within each specialty.  Emphasize the works of local artists. Local artists (and local users) should be the first consideration when planning and developing an institution's art program.
  10. 10.  Select quality pieces that are characteristic of each artist's best known period and style. It's better to collect a few recognizable, quality works than many idiosyncratic works of doubtful quality.  Don't buy specifically with investment in mind. Although original works of art are an excellent long- term investment, concentrate mainly on artistic value.  Consider user needs, including the needs of various segments of the community (minority groups, children, senior citizens, artists, students, etc.).  Buy only from reputable dealers and trustworthy sources. If there are no art dealers in the area, order through dealers' catalogs. Other sources include art fairs and shows, art associations, antique shops, auction houses, and of course the artists themselves.
  11. 11.  Make gifts a basic part of the selection policy. Encourage donations, both cash and art works, from organizations and individuals, including the artists themselves. Be cautious, however, about accepting "vanity" gifts from "Sunday painters."  Establish a special line-item budget allocation for original art. If this is impractical, the book, AV, or other budget can be used, perhaps with loan and overdue fees as a supplement.  In writing, establish an art selection policy for the institution. Include in the policy any restrictions on media, styles, subjects, and periods of art to be collected and state the emphasis the collection is to take.  Know the art market, including availability of works, prices, and popular artists and styles.
  12. 12.  Visit places where original works of art are sold, created, and exhibited (including artists' studios), to learn about the art world.  Consult experts in the field (museum curators, art critics, local artists, art teachers, dealers) whenever questions arise about selection criteria.  Consider establishing a committee to help in the selection of art works. The committee could include staff members as well as community artists, teachers, curators, and other art experts.
  13. 13. Evaluative Review Sources  Each original work of art is one of a kind, which means that only the more expensive works, created by well known artists, will be evaluated in journals and other sources, and then only indirectly. In short, review sources for individual works of art do not exist.  The value of a work of art, both monetary and aesthetic, is based- more than anything else-on the latest recorded offering or sale by a dealer, auction house, or artist of a similar work by the same artist or by an artist of similar reputation and creative abilities. The chief selection authority for original works of art is, therefore, “comparison shopping”, based upon:
  14. 14.  The selector's aesthetic appreciation of original art works  The reputation of the artist and his works  Advice from experts in the art community  Past purchases of works of similar quality, size, and subject matter, created by the same artist or by an artist of similar reputation and abilities  Continual perusal of art books, exhibition catalogs, magazine articles, and dealers' catalogs about the artist and his works (or similar artists and works) and about the art world in general.
  15. 15. Storage and Care  Designate a special area of the institution, preferably a separate room, as the art storage/work area.  Include in this area the following furnishings: desk and chairs; typewriter and office supplies; one or more work tables; filing, tool, and supply cabinets; storage facilities for frames, mats, and similar materials; shelving for reference materials; equipment and facilities for cleaning, framing, matting, and repairing art materials (including running water); storage facilities for original art. 2  Store like objects together. For ease of storage, identification, and handling, try to arrange paintings, sculptures, prints, pottery, and other art
  16. 16.  Keep storage, ivory, and display areas clean, well ventilated, and free of clutter.  Handle art works as little as possible. The more you move a piece, the more you risk damage.  Handle art works with clean hands. Dirt and perspiration can cause permanent damage.  Plan what you're going to do before you touch a work of art. Know the nature of the work, and where and how you're going to move, store, or display it.  At least once a year, inspect each work of art for deterioration and damage. Also inspect every piece each time it is moved.  Consider all works of art as irreplaceable. Treat each piece as if it were the most valuable object in the institution.
  17. 17.  Store all art objects at least 1 1/2 inches off the floor, on shelves, or in bins, cabinets, or trays.  If damage occurs, collect and save for restoration all detached fragments, including paint chips, torn comers, broken pieces, and fabric strands.  Leave major cleaning and restoration to the experts.  Don't subject art to extreme temperature change. A uniform 70 F is ideal, and good air conditioning is essential, especially for works of art on paper.  Never allow the humidity to go above 70% (50% is best). High humidity can cause mildew.  Keep art objects away from direct sunlight. Even indirect sunlight and strong fluorescent or other artificial light can fade colors and accelerate the degeneration of art works.
  18. 18.  Guard against air pollution. Sulphur dioxide is particularly dangerous, especially to works of art on paper. The best prevention is a good air conditioning system.  Watch out for insects. Bookworms, cockroaches, silver fish, and termites are just as destructive to art works as they are to books and other non-book media. The best precaution is a dry, air conditioned, well ventilated, properly lighted, and soundly constructed building.  Know local laws and ordinances concerning the destruction and theft of art works.  Make sure that the institution's insurance policy covers all original art works in the collection.  Install (if necessary) window and door locks, electric alarm systems, fire extinguishers, and other security and safety measures.
  19. 19.  Keep accurate, up-to-date records on all pieces -- if possible, photographic records.  Know where each art work is at all times -- on loan, in storage, on display, wherever.  Never display or circulate a damaged or soiled art work; this can encourage even more damage.  Inventory art holdings periodically, and at least daily for items on display.
  20. 20. Observe these special guidelines for paintings:  Do not carry paintings on one side or by the frame. Instead, carry with one hand beneath and one hand on the side of the frame.  The best way to store paintings is on sliding screens. The units can be hung from tracks attached either to the ceiling or to a free-standing structure.  Otherwise, store paintings in plywood bins in an upright position. You can construct the bins yourself a foot or so wide and tall enough to accommodate standard size pictures.4  Avoid stacking paintings on top of each other. If stacking is unavoidable, be sure to separate paintings by corrugated cardboard or another protective material.
  21. 21.  Avoid touching the surface (or even the backs) of paintings. It's a good idea to protect the back of each painting with cardboard or other backing. This will keep moisture from attacking the back of the painting. Hang it by the solid construction of the frame. Avoid eye hooks, use mirror hangers or d-rings.5  Store paintings framed. This avoids moving paintings into and out of frames.  Cover stored paintings with canvas, cardboard, or other material to protect the surfaces. Pad bins and other storage areas to protect the frames.
  22. 22.  When displaying pictures, place rubber or cork bumpers at the bottom corners of the back of each frame. This prevents dust streaks and allows air to circulate behind the pictures, and also helps to keep pictures straight. The pressure of the frame against the wall will hold the bumpers in place.  Dust the surface of paintings periodically with soft bristled brushes. Keep the brushes for this purpose only. Store them in a bag. NEVER use polishes, waxes, oils, or sprays! These will destroy your valuable art.
  23. 23. Observe these special guidelines for sculpture, crafts, and other three- dimensional works:  Never carry sculpture, ceramics, and other objects by their projecting parts, such as handles, arms, edges, or rims. Support each piece by the bottom, with one hand, and by the side with the other.  Do not handle or carry more than one object at a time. Also, know exactly what you're going to do with a piece before you touch it.  Do not allow any part of a work of art to protrude beyond the edge of its tray, box, shelving, drawer, or other storage area or container.  Line storage boxes, shelves, and cabinets that contain fragile objects with padding.
  24. 24.  Do not overcrowd storage boxes or shelving. Separate each item in a box or tray with thick, absorbent materials, making sure that the pieces do not touch each other.  Handle pottery and other fragile items on cushioned surfaces: soft cloth, velvet, cotton padding.  Avoid opening containers or removing objects from shelves to identify individual pieces. Instead, identify the outside of each container, drawer, and shelving area that holds an art object.
  25. 25. Observe these special guidelines for textiles:  Keep rugs, costumes, wall hangings, and other textiles away from direct sunlight. Even prolonged exposure to natural light can weaken fibers and fade colors.  Keep storage and display areas clean and fumigated. Wool, silks, and other animal fabrics are especially susceptible to attack by insects.  Clean stains and restore damaged fibers as soon as possible. The longer you let a stain remain on a fabric, the more difficult it is to remove; the longer you allow broken threads to remain broken, the more difficult they will be to restore.  Keep sharp objects away from textiles, whether in storage, on display, or in transit. Remove metal pins, rings, wooden dowels, and other objects from textiles when they are stored.
  26. 26.  Develop a periodic cleaning program for fabrics. Even with careful handling and proper storage, textiles accumulate dust.  Avoid folding textiles, which can weaken the fibers. Roll, hang, or keep fabrics in a flat position in storage. If you must fold, use crumpled, acid- free tissue paper in the folds, fold lightly, and never fold in the same creases.
  27. 27. Observe these special guidelines for prints and other works of art on paper:  Most of the caring techniques are the same. Avoid sunlight, use acid-free paper for storage, and insure close control of heat and humidity. Some art, like charcoal drawings, are powdery. Be especially careful not to touch the work, as it might smudge. Fingerprints are easily left on posters.  Never stack original prints on top of each other, unless they are protected by guard sheets or placed in plastic envelopes.  Store unframed prints in standard print containers (solander boxes), portfolios, map cabinets, or other flat files.
  28. 28.  Store framed prints by hanging them on pegboard panels, walls, or screens; or stand them vertically in plywood bins. Do not store original prints in their frames for extended periods.  Never pick up or carry a print by the frame or by the edge of the mat. Use both hands.  Do not scrape anything across the surface of a print or drawing. Be especially careful when stacking works of art on paper.  Mat all prints and other works of art on paper, both to enhance their looks and to protect against damage. Do the matting yourself or have it done professionally.
  29. 29.  Frame all prints that are to be displayed or circulated. You can buy ready made frames, or pay for custom framing, or do the framing yourself.  Don't "overframe" original prints. Commercial quick-change frames work well for temporary framing, made either of natural wood or metal, in basic colors of black, gold, or silver.
  30. 30. Mediums  painting  drawing  film  digital art  textile  performance art  video  installation  printmaking  (woodblock, etching, etc.)  photography  artist's book  sculpture
  31. 31.  Painting can be defined as the art of reproducing scenes, real, imaginary, or abstract on two- dimensional surfaces by means of lines and colors.  Drawing is the tracing and shading of a picture on paper by making black marks with a charred willow twig (called vine charcoal), compressed charcoal (with a binder added), charcoal pencils, graphite pencils, conte crayons, oil pastels, paint sticks, or basically anything that makes a mark when applied to paper. Collage and mixed media may be used.
  32. 32.  Sculpture is three-dimensional art (or art in relief), created by either carving out a material such as stone or wood (i.e., removing waste material until the form is created); modeling (or building up) materials from a lump of material, such as clay, wax, or plaster; or assembling (or joining together) prefabricated materials, as in welded metal construction.  Printmaking is the technique of creating an image with a knife or other instrument on a wood block, metal plate, stone, or other material; then inking the surface; and, finally, transferring the image onto a paper, cloth, or other material
  33. 33.  Photography uses light passed through a camera lens to form an image on film. Light is then passed through a negative to form an image on sensitized paper.  Craft making is the making of articles that are artistic and that also serve a practical purpose. The various skills involved in craft making include woodwork, metalwork, pottery, weaving, and the manipulation of metals, plastics, and other materials. Crafts that are popular today include the making of tapestries, rugs, macramé, clothing, furniture, pots and other kitchen ware.
  34. 34.  Digital art may be created on a computer or exist on a computer.  An installation is a site specific art piece that is usually mixed media and may fill an entire room.  In performance art the performance of the artist is the art piece.

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