Research Paper E 436 01 N G 2009

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Literary Criticism/Creative Writing

Literary Criticism/Creative Writing

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  • 1. I UNIVERSITY OF INDIANAPOLIS – ATHENS CAMPUS RESEARSCH PAPER Xanthi Blani ENGL-436-01 PROFESSOR HARRISON SEMESTER II 2009 05-22-2009 i
  • 2. Topic: Discuss fully Jamaica Kincaid’s novel Annie John A. Chapters 1-8 Overview and Critical Analysis (with exclusive personal contribution): In the first chapter of the novel we are introduced to its main character Annie John a ten-year old girl which in this incident becomes obsessed with the issue of death. At first, her obsession is intrigued from the fear she feels towards death, while on the other hand its simple curiosity. At the same time, Annie’s description of her fear of death is an indication of the powerful spiritual beliefs that exist among the native population concerning the fact that death or dead people generally could harm the living. Even though Annie is afraid of death simultaneously she also feels attracted to it and her curiosity on this subject leads her to participate in humorous conversations at school that include morbid details about this subject. Meanwhile, her relationship with her mother starts slowly to develop in this chapter and she’s portrayed as a strong courageous woman who holds enough strength even to prepare a dead girl for the grave. Annie’s attraction to the concept of death shows her unconscious, yet still undeveloped need for freedom and individuality, whereas her mother’s preparation of the dead girl could be interpreted as a symbolic “ burial “ of Annie’s childhood and the beginning of her adolescence. Also, Annie’s failure to bring home the fish as she was supposed to clearly depicts her future disobedience and conflict with her mother. In the process, Annie pictures
  • 3. her early life as a small scale paradise in which she and her mother share special moments during her summer vacation. The element of water here is used as a symbol of purification as well as revitalization and signifies Annie’s inseparable bond with her mother which can be noticed on their common baths together, in which Annie’s body almost becomes identical with that of her mother’s. In addition, her mother’s trunk also serves as a symbolic unification between mother and daughter and in this case Annie enjoys to hear stories about the trunk over and over again mostly because she’s able to define herself through them. At this point, in the same way she feels connected with her mother’s body as they bathe together so does the same with her mother’s stories because she lacks a separate identity with its own stories therefore she adopts those of her mother’s who constitutes her primary role model. Initially, Annie will be able to realize her mother’s separateness after coming face to face with her sexuality something that will make her realize that the special relationship that both once shared is no longer there. The second chapter’s title “ The Circling Hand “ is a direct reference to Mrs. John’s hand which was involved in the sex scene and something that eventually forces Annie to reject her mother’s hands for a second time. In this case, the author deliberately uses the maternal hands in two acts which are not connected to the role of the mother but to that of the adult-woman in order to signify the beginning of the process of Annie’s adulthood which is a process entirely connected and implemented by the mother. This can be clearly seen on Mrs. John’s behavior who doesn’t bother to hide her actions from Annie but actually wants her to to have a realistic view of how things stand in the society of adults. Mrs. John is treating her daughter as an adult with the purpose of transforming her into a mature responsible individual. The mother’s hands which stereotypically are connected
  • 4. with protection are here rejected because they failed to perform that task, to protect. Thus, we are dealing with a redefinition of standardized beliefs concerning the maternal protection. On the other hand, another important factor to be considered is Annie’s attendance at school, which represents the social order been constructed by the British Colonial Power that still governs Antigua. The protagonist is highly critical towards this particular English reality by making sharp remarks on the appearance of the British people something that reveals her disapproval and lack of respect to it as well as her independent native spirit which although it remains hided underneath it cannot be placed into boundaries. Moreover, Annie’s fear of separation from her mother can be also traced on her autobiographical essay on the first day at school. For one more time water holds a symbolic role and it can be viewed both as a transformer and a purifier, and this joint swimming movement with Annie’s mother holding her shows Annie’s tendency to cling on her mother, to imitate her because as it was mentioned before she’s her role model in this early stage of her life. Simultaneously, the salty water of the ocean resembles the amniotic fluid of the womb, while Annie’s movement coming up and down is a clear suggestion of a pre-birth state. And then, when Annie’s mother separates herself into a rock the same salty water will now divide them, just as the dropping of the amniotic fluid that brought Annie to life. As a result, the element of water perceives a multiple ability of being a messenger of life, isolation, exile, and death as it can also be seen in the previous case of the child which stopped sucking his finger in water being touched by a dead person. Furthermore, the imagery depicts Annie’s future decisions as well for as a youth Annie feels pain being separated by water from her mother while as she grows older she will be the one who will separate herself from her by this time placing
  • 5. the Atlantic Ocean between them and going to England. Finally, Annie will completely embrace the idea of separation that she initially feared so much thus her essay serves both as a commentary for the upcoming separation with her mother as well as a prediction of her future choices. After that, Annie’s new friendship with Gwen serves as a substitute to replace the lost love and attention of her mother and as Jamaica Kincaid characteristically points out most of the girls in Annie’s age at school were engaged in this kind of behavior which suggests that probably she wasn’t the only girl with problematic communication with her mother but this was rather a natural evolution of reaching to a mature state of being. Also, her resistance over her menstruation process clearly reflects her desire not to be separated from her mother because menstruation is an indication of adulthood hence a separate self. Although she tries everything she can not to be pushed into adulthood she eventually realizes that it’s a process impossible to escape exactly like the separation with her mother that so desperately is trying to avoid, and for that reason she feels bitterness. Yet, when Annie meets the Red Girl her rebellion against her mother reaches its peak. She admires and adores this girl because she possesses abilities that she doesn’t have. The Red Girl is a symbol of freedom therefore her name is mentioned with capital letters, she’s free from every obligation towards the society as well as herself, she doesn’t have to wash herself everyday or to comb her hair, or finally attend school or church. The Red Girl is used here by the author not necessarily as a person although she physically exists but more as a mythical creature or a fairy because even her sudden departure later indicates something like that, so her presence is used as a tool to help Annie to understand her inner self and find her way towards freedom and independence. In addition, Annie’s decision to start spending time
  • 6. with her ultimately cancels all the rules that she’s supposed to follow primarily implemented by her mother. She becomes a thief and a liar as well as an expert in playing marbles, a game that her mother forbids and despises. These acts serve as an extension of Annie’s anger towards her mother and ultimately as a revenge to a person who without any further notice stopped showing her attention and love to her ( according to Annie’s perspective). It’s also worth mentioning that Annie’s decision on befriending the Red Girl acts as a demonstration of her desire to denounce the colonial authority, it’s influence as well as their expectations and at his point her rebellion expresses extensively the desire of the Antiguan population for freedom and self expression inside a dominant colonial reality. In contrast, while Annie’s mother is representing the dominant colonial order, her story with the fig and the snake clearly depicts the magical effect of the Antiguan folklore and serves as a reminder to Annie of her native connection to her mother and instantly reinforces her desire to permanently stay united with her against enemies and danger. Nevertheless, the story also leaves hints of complaint from the mother’s side towards Annie that imply ungratefulness from her part but is also used as an example from the mother as well in order to demonstrate to her daughter her ability to manipulate the obeah witchcraft and as a result intrigue Annie’s respect and awe for her again. But when Annie hears the warning in her mother’s voice she starts being defensive again and she refuses to reveal the truth about the marbles because she instantly recalls that both she her mother are fighting an undeclared war which she’s determined to win. Next, the story moves on dealing with issues of colonialism and post-colonial culture and Annie starts a conversation about Ruth, a newcomer from England that recently
  • 7. moved there. Annie thinks that Ruth probably feels ashamed that once her ancestors enslaved the island’s black population and she feels bad for her because Ruth obviously knows less about West Indies than the other kids in class. And then Annie discovers a picture of Columbus in chains which gives her enough satisfaction to dare writing under the picture the words: “ The great Man Can No Longer Just Get Up and Go”, an action which is interpreted as blasphemy by her teacher Miss Edwards because Annie not only criticized Columbus but the entire dominant colonial order through him, therefore she has to be punished. As a consequence, in order to re-inscribe English values to Annie the principal orders her to copy books one and two of Milton’s Paradise Lost a book deliberately used by Jamaica Kincaid that holds direct connection both to the colonization of Antigua as well as to Annie’s personal life. On this occasion, before the arrival of the British forces Antigua was a paradise but it turned out to be a lost paradise after the establishment of the colonial forces while in terms of Annie’s personal life the plot of the book resembles her own life which ended up being a lost paradise after her mother’s unexpected change of behavior towards her. Annie herself just like Lucifer in Milton’s Paradise is in a state of challenging the dominant authority (in Annie’s case her mother) something that causes her fear of being cast out into exile. Thus, the use of the certain book provides a commentary on both levels. Finally, in chapter six Annie’s relationship with her mother has completely declined and she now starts feeling the effects physically by fantasizing having a heavy black ball inside her body which comes everywhere with her and make her miserable. At the same time, Annie’s relationships at school have also diminished while even her relationship with Gwen seems lifeless and boring and as a result her psychological
  • 8. misery leads her to the world of fiction. At this point, just as in her favorite book Jane Eyre the protagonist wants to go to Belgium she desires the same thing for herself simply because her anger and frustration at her differences with her mother drives her to completely hide in some unknown Belgian town. She identifies herself with the heroine of the book mostly to be able to achieve an inner consolation, to attach herself in someone even if it’s a fictional character because she feels lost. In this case, Jane Eyre’s character was an orphan who always felt separated and cast out from the world and Annie’s tendency to identify with the specific character despite the fact that she was not an orphan demonstrates the degree of isolation and alienation from her mother. Moreover, Annie’s later visit to the town as well as her reflection at the window of a shop shows fully the extend of her psychological turmoil and when she faces herself at the window she feels ugly and rugged. Annie always completely identified herself with her mother and always strived to be similar to her both in matters of appearance and behavior. However, the fact that she no longer feels beautiful or well-dressed is an indication that she already feels a separate human being, but this time a human being cast out in the cold, in isolation and in exile and concurrently a creature with no structure or form, an unidentified soul and for that reason she compares herself to Lucifer. A comparison which is similar with last chapter’s reference to Milton’s Paradise Lost in that it again marks her as a person. Yet, Annie’s resentment at her physical appearance is an indication of her illness that follows in chapter seven but most importantly is the denial of her old self and personality which was entirely formed under the influence of a person who’s no longer “present”. Furthermore, Annie’s interaction with the boys in the street is another indication of her ongoing process of maturity which she’s not yet
  • 9. aware of, obviously because she doesn’t even understand that the boys are flirting with her and especially one of them Mineu who used to be her friend in the past. The only thing she can recall though from the whole incident was that her mother in the past defended her against that boy, a defense which is no longer there. But when later her mother abruptly confronts her and calls her a slut, for one more time Annie feels deeply hurt but at the same time socked because her mother again like before treats her as an adult and obviously expects from her to act back like one. Instead, Annie is totally caught by surprise from her mother’s unexpected and unexplained behavior and the only thing she can do is to defend herself by answering through a proverb which again reflects her hidden but failed desire eventually, to be united with her again. In addition, Annie’s intention by using the specific phrase is to insult her mother by answering back to her in an equal way which slightly resembles an adult behavior because this kind of answer would never be given by a child. Annie feels sick after the confrontation but she notices that her mother is looking stronger and vigorous than ever, a fact that makes her realize that initially she and her are two separate identities, two different people, and also to understand that all those years she was “borrowing” her mother’s personality with her consent because she was little and not yet ready to have her own. Also, by feeling sick and weak Annie is undergoing a serious transformation that is taking place primarily inside of her, a state of re-birth which is ultimately going to reveal a brand new Annie John. On the other hand, the mother’s strength and vigor shows her autonomy and her individuality, characteristics that her daughter only recently began to engage herself to. Finally, another very important aspect of Annie’s interaction with her
  • 10. mother is that every time a conflict emerges between them the mother always walks away instead of giving her consolation, a fact that shows clearly her effort on transforming her daughter’s personality from a girl to a woman. According to Mrs. John’s point of view Annie should be capable enough to effectively deal with difficulties without being constantly pampered by her and to be self dependent in order to survive in her future life when she’s no longer going to be around. On the whole, Annie’s ultimate consideration of having her own trunk suggests the full rejection of her mother and simultaneously points out her desire to willfully separate herself from her. The trunk which once defined her as a person turned out to be a source of pain and oppression which the protagonist now wants to leave behind forever, whereas her desire to possess a trunk of her own clearly portrays for one more time her desire to stand as a separate personality. Meanwhile, water continues to play a symbolic purifying role and in this chapter as the author associates it with Annie’s breakdown through a three-month cataclysmic rain which completely transforms the island’s view as well as the protagonist herself who will emerge as a different person after that experience. She will physically grew larger and emotionally more secure and prepared to accept her separation from her family and especially from her mother. Moreover, water continues to be portrayed as a factor of unity as well as of division with purifying and transforming abilities which can also be noticed in Annie’s destruction of her family photographs. But what is most interesting about this incident is that she chooses to wash over the photos and not for example torn them or smudge them with a pen, a sign of the importance of the element of water which is above all connected with the identity of the island and operates as an extend of self for its citizens.
  • 11. The island of Antigua is surrounded by water therefore it constitutes an element that directly influences the islanders life in a daily basis and which can also be characterized as an extension of themselves too, for they are born, live, and die with it thus it implements and affects all their actions like an inner motivating force. At the same time, the destruction of the photographs holds another symbolic meaning also in which Annie takes revenge against the images of her parents for faults owned to her. In her parents photo for example the lower part of their bodies disappears which metaphorically indicated that they will no longer be able to perform the sexual act that excludes her, in the wedding photo only Annie’s face remains as a sign of her identity’s prevalence and reality towards the others and finally in her confirmation photo only the shoes that she forced her mother to buy her remain as an act of defiance towards her who tried to limit Annie’s means of self expression. The destruction of the images at the photos can be seen as an intense expression of Annie’s subconscious fears and desires. At last, Annie’s sense of new self has finally emerged. She’s completely healed and changed after her illness, she’s taller and more self dependent than before. The fact that Annie grew taller is a reference to Annie’s independence because she’s no longer overshadowed by her parents presence while her sudden desire for detachment from familiar surroundings shows the maturity she finally achieved. In the final chapter of the book Annie is completely changed and has finally accepted the idea of being a separate person. She considers her independence very important for the further development of her character so she can’t to be far away from home to explore new possibilities. Everything inside her parents house characterizes them and not her and what she
  • 12. needs is to find a new place of her own in order to be free to explore every aspect of her personality. Nevertheless, Annie’s desire for separation is combined with a feeling of nostalgia which can be clearly seen at the breakfast table when she eats her final breakfast with her parents, as well as in her final walk before departure into town. Everywhere she looks recognizes her past which she can’t wait to leave behind her while her desire is to re-write her history but this time according to her own terms, an emotion shared by many colonial people whose identities and history were often defined by those who colonized them. Initially, Annie leaves the island wearing jewelry and clothing blessed by a local obeah woman although being a person trained under a colonial education system a suggestion that tradition still holds a very important role in the island society and people’s lives are unconsciously influenced by it. At this point, the sea still continues to hold symbolic and purifying role and for one more time water appears to be a transforming liquid that will change Annie’s life forever since it will carry her to England. The used imagery suggests the boat as another means of childbirth, for in the same way Annie left the salty amniotic fluid of her mother’s womb so too the salty water of the ocean will carry her far away to a new life separate from her mother’s body. Through that voyage Annie will be re-born and she will start leaving her own mark in this world.
  • 13. Works Cited Jera Barrier, Jennifer Washington. 2002. Jamaica Kincaid’s Annie John: Interdisciplinary Approach. 2002. NCSU. < http://www.unc.edu/~dcderosa/studentpapers/childrenbattles/anniejohn.Jera&Jen .html>. Zafian, Amanda. Spark note on Annie John. 19 May. 2009.< http://sparknotes.com/lit/anniejohn/>. “ Annie John: Introduction. “ Literature of Developing Nations for Students.” Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol.3 Detroit : Gale, 1998. e Notes.com. January 2006. 19 May 2009. < http://www.enotes.com/annie-john/introduction>.