Jackie – ~Both of them emphasize that cognitive changes takes place only when previous information is brought up in light of new information
Jackie ~Meaning that children learn through interactions with adults and more capable peers ~Cooperative projects where students experience their peers’ thinking processes and how they can differ
Julie – Lesson Square prior knowledge – use to figure out you are adding the six sides together Variation? – yes, you might get students that do A=B^2 six times, or four and two Same process can be used to find the area of other 3d objects.
Julie Already discussed numerous times. Key element in Const. View Theory as working below or too far above would be unproductive. http://withfriendship.com/images/e/24019/Zone-of-proximal-development-wallpaper.jpg
Julie Think about on the job training. At first your trainer is the expert, but over time you become the expert, and finally the trainer.
Jackie – ~Emphasizing the idea that students should be given complex, difficult, realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks ~Meaning giving them the whole knowledge instead of just giving them bits of the knowledge and hoping they eventually put it together ~Situated learning describes this kind of learning when it takes place in real-life, authentic tasks ~Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire, develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Learning, both outside and inside school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge
Julie – So, we just went through the four Key Principals to the Constructivist View theory (Social Nature of leaning; Zone of Proximal Development; Cognitive Apprenticeship and Mediated Learning). Now we are going to go over some different teaching approaches.
Jackie ~Normal process is bottom-up, for example we would teach student one digit times a two digit number (4x12=48), we teach them step by step how to solve the problem ~With this kind of process we would most closely relate it to on the job training where we have minimal if any training and have to perform and learn the job as we go. Give example about me and csr. ~This process work completely backwards from how things are normally taught, beginning with the problems and then helping the students figure out how to solve them, like figure 8.1 (p.234) ~Figure 8.1 gives the student the 4x12 problem however the teacher does not walk them through the teachers works with the students. Instead the teacher asks the students to come up with a story that’s comes up with this and they say 12 jars with 4 butterflies. The teacher goes through and has them talk through different groupings that can give the same answer.
Julie Cooperative Learning style will be in the next presentation Think about the cube exercise, how was CL used there?
Julie – Discovery learning is best done while staying to the edge of what students can and cannot do Scaffolding Quote from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/discovery.html The idea behind discovery learning is allowing the students to figure out the big problem first. So, in the cube exercise – they had some scaffolding prior knowledge, then they had to use that knowledge to discovery the solution to a bigger problem.
Jackie ~This theory is a vision of the ideal student as a self-regulated learner which is a student who has knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them. ~These kinds of students can break down complex problems into simple steps or test alternative solutions ~They are also interested in the actual learning itself and not grades or approvals and they are able to stick to a long term task until it is done ~When students actually have effect learning strategies and the motivation to actually learn and the persistence to do it makes them effective learners and have the desire to be lifelong learners ~Programs that teach these strategies have been found to have increased students’ achievements
Julie 1) We know what scaffolding is : Support, clues, encouragement, steps, example, or anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner. 2) Mediated Learning – allows students to see an example, master and adopt skills 3) Over time we remove the scaffolding so that the student is totally I charge of the learning
Jackie ~Table 8.1 (p.238) has the 14 principles of APA ~These principles shows that learners are actively seeking knowledge by reinterpreting information and experience for themselves, being self motivated by the quest of knowledge rather than being motivated by grades or other rewards, working with others to socially construct meaning, and being aware of their own learning strategies and capable of applying them to new problems or circumstances
Julie RR – a form of mediated learning- at first the teacher will ask questions about the reading which should lead to students asking the questions later on ?A – Adds more critical thinking to the reading process. What do you think the author meant by ~ fill in the blank? no singular answer WPM -
Julie – Think back to our math examples, in each one we provided a problem, gave the background knowledge, let the class work through the process on their own, and only once they have reached a conclusion did we provide the formal answer. This process will definitely include scaffolding.
Julie – Nothing screams constructivist approach more than a science class.
Ch 8 constructivist view
Constructivist V uelin e Sarta in iewJacq Whit e Julia
Definition0 Theories that state that learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules, and revising rules when they no longer work.
History0 Draws on the work of Piaget & Vygotsky but most heavily on Vygotsky0 Instructional methods emphasize cooperative learning, project-based learning, and discovery0 4 key principles derived from Vygotsky’s work
Social Nature of Learning0 First key principal 0 Learn with interactions 0 Cooperative projects
Math Project!0 Lets pretend you are in a 6th grade geometry class: 0 What you know: 0 A=b2 0 What we want to know: 0 How can we use this information to find the surface area of a cube? 0 What we learned: 0 Surface area of a cube is A=6b2
Zone of Proximal Development0Second key principal
Cognitive Apprenticeship0 Third key principal 0 “The learner gradually acquires expertise through interactions with an expert” (232). 0 Video
Mediated Learning0 Fourth key principal 0 The idea of giving students complex, realistic tasks 0 Situated learning
Top-down Learning0 Starts with the complex, complete tasks0 On-the-spot training0 Write a paper then learn the writing process0 Figure 8.1 (p.234)
Cooperative Learning0 Using the constructivist theory to teach is primarily done through Cooperative Learning. 0 Cooperative learning allows the students to work together to solve problems.
Discovery Learning0 Allow the students to make discoveries“You cant teach people everything they need to know. The best you can do is position them where they can find what they need to know when they need to know it.” - Seymour Papert
Self Regulated Learning0 Self-regulated learner 0 Interested in learning itself not the grades 0 Effective learning strategies + motivation + persistence = effective learners and lifelong motivation to learn
Scaffolding0 Mediated Learning 0 Be the tour guide 0 Provide structure in the beginning and then begin to move that structure into the hands of the students.
APA’s Learner-Centered Psychological Principles0 Reinterpreting information and experience0 Being self-motivated by knowledge0 Working with others to socially construct meaning0 Being aware of own learning strategies and of applying them to new problems
Approaches in Subject Areas: Reading0 Reciprocal Reading 0 Small Group with teacher 0 Guide with questions, then move that task to the students hands0 Question the Author 0 What would you ask the author?0 Writing Process Models 0 Small Groups 0 Work together through the entire writing process 0 Expand their awareness of the writing process
Approaches in Subject Areas: Mathematics0 Provide a real world problem0 Let students work together in groups to solve the problem 0 Reiterate what they know on the subject0 Provide scaffolding for struggling groups0 Once they have reached a consensus, provide the formal answer
Approaches in Subject Areas: Science0 Hands on discovery0 Group work0 Testing and revising until a solution has been found
Review0 Constructivist Learning puts the learning back into the hands of the students.0 Students use what they know to form a link to new information.0 Students learn best from working cooperatively.0 Lessons should be within the Zone of Proximal Development.0 Students should make the discoveries.