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French revolution

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4th ESO, Ciencias Sociales

4th ESO, Ciencias Sociales

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  • 1. LOUIS XVI execution
  • 2.  THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION  Deficit crisis  French soldiers who helped came inspired Signing of the Declaration of Independence
  • 3.  Enlightenment:  Liberty  Equality  Reason  Progress John Locke (1632-1704)
  • 4.  DEFICIT CRISIS AND BAD HARVESTS ◦ Seven Years´s War ◦ Squandering ◦ Bad harvests since 1878 ◦ Tax exemptions
  • 5. BANCKRUPTCY LUOIS XVI required moneyasked the privilegeds for pay taxes refused
  • 6.  LOUIS XVI was forced to call the Estates General (1st time since 1614):
  • 7.  Representatives from the third estate demanded that voting by the population. Representatives of the privilegeds demanded each estate had one vote: majority.
  • 8. The third estate left the Estates General They met at a tennis court The Third Estate declared itself to be NATIONAL ASSEMBLYThe members of this meet swore not to separate until France had a CONSTITUTION
  • 9. National assembly was threatened by the Armythe people of Paris supporting the AssemblySTORMING OF THE BASTILLE: 14 July 1789
  • 10. Colours of ParisColours of theBourbon family
  • 11.  1791: CONSTITUTION:  France became a constitional monarch  Separation of powers:  Executive: KING  Legislative: LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY  National sovereignty  Equal justicie under law  Limited suffrage
  • 12.  ELECTIONS: limited suffrage: political parties:  ROYALIST  LA PLAINE: moderate majority  REPUBLICANS:  Moderates: misnamed GIRONDINS  Radical: JACOBINS supported by Sans Culottes  Extremist: MONTAGNARDS
  • 13. LOUIS XVI attemped to escape.He and his family were stopped. First time: THE REPUBLIC is possible.
  • 14.  Monarchies of Europe considered intervene:  EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA (Marie Antoinette´s brother) Legislative Assembly preemptively declared war on Austria: april 1792 AUSTRIA vs FRANCE PRUSSIA
  • 15.  Initial battles of the war: DISASTERSANS COLOTTESLA COMMUNE RIOTS IN PARISPEOPLE OF PARIS 10 august 1792 assaulted the Tuileries Palace The King took refuge in the Legislative Assembly
  • 16. Suspend the KingLEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY just 1/3 of the deputies were Decreed the convocation of present, most of the a NATIONAL Jacobins. CONVENTION elected by universal male suffrage
  • 17. SEPTEMBER MASSACRES 2 september 1792: Prussian army invaded France Mob Killed 1500 (Sans Culottessupported by Jacobins prisioners and Montagnards)
  • 18. 1ST ERUPEAN ELECTIONS WITH UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE NATIONAL CONVENTION: legislative power
  • 19. The National Convention proclaimed: FRENCH FIRST REPUBLIC
  • 20.  January 1793: LOUIS XVI was executed by guillotine European monarchies declared war on France
  • 21.  War went badly Price increase Sans culottes riots Counter-revolutionary activities
  • 22. Mop and La Commune sorrounded the National Convention Demanded the arrest of the “Girondins”The National Convention surrendered to the threat
  • 23. Canons aim to the National Convention
  • 24.  Jacobins controlled the Convention They created: COMMITEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY  led by ROBBESPIERRE  de facto executive goverment  no power to the Legislative assembly  really: DICTATORSHIP
  • 25.  Levée en masse Law of the Maximus: price controls Cult of reason: closed the churchs
  • 26.  Levée en masse ◦ obligatory military service. ◦ 300.000 men from all the departments of France. ◦ some departments refused to the Levée:  WAR IN THE VENDÉE  REVOLT IN LYON
  • 27.  Law of the Maximum:  setting price limit  trying to establishing a managed economy  consequences:  killing those hid food: TERROR  shortage
  • 28. CULT OF REASON was replaced byCULT OF THE SUPREME BEING became a state religion by Robbespierre
  • 29.  Almost 200.000 people were killed: ◦ 1st: counter- revolutionary ◦ 2nd: counter-jacobins ◦ 3rd: counter- Robbespierre
  • 30. July 1794 COUP D´ETAT (moderates) Jacobins and Robespierre were guillotined
  • 31. European absolutism Frenchconservative French absolutismbourgeoisie French extremism
  • 32.  Limited suffrage Separation of powers  Executive: THE DIRECTORY COUNCIL OF FIVE HUNDRED  Legislative: bicameral COUNCIL OF ANCIENTS
  • 33. European kingdomsWAR Absolutist threats POWER TO THE ARMY Radical threats
  • 34. The most famous militar was a young officer from Corsica NAPOLEON BONAPARTEVictories in Italy (1797) and Egypt (1798) Napoleon crossing the Alps, David
  • 35. Bonaparte with the support of moderate group: End of DIRECTORYCOUP D´ETAT Start of CONSULATE