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Post Harvest Handling And Transportation

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post harvest handling for small farms in illinois

post harvest handling for small farms in illinois

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  • 1. Post-Harvest Handling andTransportation Methods thatAllow Small-Scale Growers ToDeliver Top-Quality ProduceJeff Kindhart, University ofIllinois
  • 2. Why are good post harvestpractices important?
  • 3. High-quality, disease free producewith a good shelf life is a result ofgood production practices, properhandling during harvest, andappropriate post harvest handlingand storage. ---- ATTRA, Postharvest handling of fruits andvegetables
  • 4. Maintain Quality Appearance Texture Flavor Nutritive value
  • 5. Protect Food Safety Maintain good sanitation Avoid introduction of pathogens Keep from spoilage
  • 6. Reduce Losses BetweenHarvest and Consumption Improves efficiency Improves profitability
  • 7. Process begins the momentproduce is harvested Avoid rough handling – Train workers – what and how Use appropriate harvesting container Try to avoid harvest in excessive heat Keep product as cool as possible while awaiting transport to the packing shed – Shade – Get to the shed
  • 8. Packing Methods None ???? Field packing Packing shed
  • 9. Field packing Picking into final package – Reduced handling and associated damage – Reduces labor cost – Strawberries and peaches Self propelled field packing systems – Peppers and snap beans
  • 10. Trip from field to packingshed Slow down ---- smooth ride Keep shaded if long trip or will sit out at shed before being packed
  • 11. Packing Shed
  • 12. Packing Shed Roof with or without sides Packing line Cold storage area Loading dock
  • 13. Packing line Should be appropriate for size of your operation Should be designed to work with commodity you grow Vary widely by producer
  • 14. Components Dump Receiving line Washer (waxer) Inspection table Sizer (label applicator) Sorting tables Boxing Conveyors
  • 15. Cold Storage Most important factor for maintaining quality – Removes field heat – Lowers respiration – Reduces water loss – Decreases sensitivity to ethylene
  • 16. Even after picking, strawberriesremain alive and produce heat as anatural consequence of respiration.The amount of heat they producedepends on the storagetemperature. At 32 F a ton ofstrawberries will produceapproximately 3,300 Btu per day,whereas at 80 F, a ton will produce41,800 Btu!
  • 17. Why cool? Suppress enzymatic degradation and respiratory activity (softening) Slow or inhibit water loss (wilting) Slow or inhibit the growth of decay- producing microorganisms (molds and bacteria) Reduce production of ethylene (a ripening agent) or minimize the products reaction to ethylene.
  • 18. Lowest safe temperature
  • 19. Cold storagecompatibility Ethylene – Producer – Sensative Similar temperature Similar relative humidity
  • 20. Cold storage methods Mechanical Refrigeration Evaporative Ice Underground High altitude
  • 21. Mechanical RefrigerationCooling Forced Air Room Cooling
  • 22. Introduction to Proper Postharvest Cooling and Handling Methods Prepared by M. D. Boyette, Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist L. G. Wilson, Extension Horticulture Specialist E. A. Estes, Extension Marketing Specialist Sponsored by the Energy Division, North Carolina Department of Commerce, with petroleum violationescrow funds, in cooperation with the Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina State University. Anyopinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of the Energy Division, North Carolina Department of Commerce.
  • 23. Room Cooling
  • 24. Forced Air Cooling
  • 25. COOL AND SHIP:A LOW-COST, PORTABLE FORCED-AIR COOLING UNIT
  • 26. Transportation Methods Open Vehicle Refrigerated Vehicle – Box Truck – Tractor Trailer
  • 27. Resources
  • 28. Postharvest Cooling and Handling of Strawberrieshttp://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/postharv/ag-413-2/index.html