Rht 4400 ch 8 & 9 the brewery, lagers & ales(1)

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  • 1. Chapter 8 & 9: The Brewery, Lagers & Ales
  • 2. History Grain made into beer before used in bread baking Primitive peoples derived much of their calories from beer and bread Washington’s army received 1 qt/day
  • 3. History Continued Brewers art came from Pasteurs experiments with yeast.  Sterilizing through pasteurization.  Process used 22 years prior to being applied to milk Egyptians made beer from corn Pilgrims brought ale to America. Staple of the Puritan diet because it was safer than water
  • 4. Beer Defined Generic term for all fermented beverages made from malted grain.  Minimum Etoh content of 0.5% and no maximum
  • 5. Beer Facts Average operation carries up to 20 bottled brands and up to 5 tap beers. 45% of all beer sold in U.S. is in a restaurant or bar. Beer consumption in the U.S. in 2010- 220,958,853 gal.  Per capita consumption of 28.9 gal. (based on 21+ population)  OH- 31.3 gal. #20 in U.S. Compared to 2003 beer consumption in the U.S. has dropped 5.5%. Compared to 1990 dropped 16% (35.4 gal) What are the top 5 beer drinking states and bottom five?
  • 6. 2012 Top 5 Beer Drinking States New Hampshire- 43 gal/person North Dakota- 42.2 gal/person Montana- 40.6 gal/person South Dakota- 38 gal/person Nevada- 36.5 gal/person
  • 7. Bottom 5 Beer Drinking States (from Beer Institute) Utah- 19.4 gal/person Connecticut- 22.1 gal/person New York- 22.6 gal/person New Jersey- 23.1 gal/person Maryland- 24.1 gal/person
  • 8. How Beers Are Made Two major classes: Lagers and Ales  Lager- Bottom fermented 37-49 F. Stored (lagered) to mellow for several weeks or months  Ale- Top fermented 50-70 F. Aged for only a few days  First type of beer  Britain: Brewing done by female of house
  • 9. Lager/Ale Taste Profile Lagers are smoother and thought to be more elegant. Over 80% of market. Ales are more hearty, full bodied and robust. Bocks and double bocks are dark and malty beers that are more ale like. Wheat beers are light in color and dry.
  • 10. Beer Ingredients Barley Malt- flavor, head, body and color Water- Main ingredient Hops- bitter flavor
  • 11. Beer Ingredients Yeast- fermentation Most brewers use dried or roasted malt. Cheap beers use malt extract.  Roasting affects dryness and sweetness of beer as well as color
  • 12. Beer Ingredients Continued Adjuncts- Rice & Corn. Give beer lighter color and flavor  Premium beers use more barley malt.  In Germany adjuncts are prohibited  Bavarian Purity Order 1516- barley, water, yeast, hops Additives may be used to stabilize beer foam, prevent cloudiness, and increase shelf life
  • 13. Process of Making Beer Hot Water Tank Malt Mash Tun Hops Copper Brewing Kettle Hopback Heat Exch Bottling Add Yeast to Fermenter Cask/Ke g
  • 14. Process of Making Beer Mashing malt and hot water  Converts starches to sugars  Cooked 1-6 hours at 169 F  Remaining liquid called wort goes to brew kettle Brewing  Boil wort with hops for 1 to 2.5 hours  Cool wort to 50-70 F for ale, 37-49 F for lager
  • 15. Process of Making Beer Cont. Fermenting  1 week  Less for ales more for lagers  CO2 may be collected and stored Lagering  Makes beer more mellow  Near freezing temps. For weeks or months  Stainless steel or glass lined tanks
  • 16. Process of Making Beer Cont. Lagering  Some beers are given additional fermenting wort (krausening)  If not krausened add CO2 Filtered, kegged, bottled, or canned  Canned & bottled beers pasteurized  Bruised beer- warmed and cooled Unpasteurized beer must be refrigerated
  • 17. Video Clip: How Beer is Made http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FttkHVBu2IA
  • 18. Types of Beer- Lagers Pilsner- Most popular (Bud, Miller, Coors)  Original Pilsner- Pilsner Urquell Light beer- less calories
  • 19. Types of Beer- Lagers Malt liquor- higher alcohol content Bock- strong, heavy, dark lager. 4 types of bock Steam beer Dry beer Ice beer
  • 20. Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer  Traditional- Sweet relatively strong (6.3-7.2%), lightly hopped.  Light copper to brown. Good off white head  Aroma is malty and toasty. No detectable hops or fruitiness  Taste is rich and toasty with a bit of caramel  Maibock/Helles Bock  Lighter in color with more hop presence  Flavor is lest malty than traditional bock drier/hoppier
  • 21. Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer  Doppelbock- stronger version of traditional bock (7-12%)  Liquid bread- high in alcohol and sweet  Dark gold to dark brown  Aroma is intensely malty with toasty notes  Brewers add “-ator” to beer’s name  Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer.  Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content
  • 22. Types of Beer- Lagers Types of Bock beer  Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer. (9-13%)  Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content  Deep copper to dark brown  Smooth with significant alcohol but not hot or sharp  Rich, sweet flavor with hints of chocolate
  • 23. Types of Beer- Lagers Steam beer- higher fermenting temps due to shortage of ice Dry beer- Less sweet Ice beer  Name originated in Canada  Beer is pumped through tank of ice crystals before filtration.  Freezing allowed removal of compounds creating a smoother beer
  • 24. Types of Beer- Ales General characteristics of Ales- fruity flavor, more body and hops flavors. Cream ale- hop and malt flavor subdued  Light and refreshing- straw to pale golden color  Undergo extended period of lagering after primary fermentation leading to a cleaner flavor  Adjuncts used- corn and rice to lighten body and flavor Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored
  • 25. Types of Beer- Ales Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored  Yeastier and more hoppy than cream ale  Used pale malt. Color is translucent rather than light.  Term started in 1703. Beers made from malts dried with coke resulting in lighter color.
  • 26. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales  Amber ale- brewed with crystal malt to produce amber color  American Pale Ale (APA)- Uses significant amount of American hops, typically Cascade. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale.  Biere de Garde- “Keeping beer” brewed in Pas-de-Calais region of France
  • 27. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales  Burton Pale Ale- Burton upon Trent brewers made this. Bass Ale. Water influenced by Gypsum.  English bitter- Customers used the term to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeable hopped beers  Irish red ale- Smithwick’s. Can be used to describe a red beer such as Killian’s which is a lager.
  • 28. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales- Strong pale ales  American Strong Ale- 7% or higher alcohol  May be double India Pale Ale  Strong Ale- Brewed in England 5% or higher  Scotch Ale- Originated in Edinburgh. McEwan’s Scotch Ale 8%.
  • 29. Types of Beer- Ales India Pale Ale (IPA)- Hearty and hoppy. Super premium British ale.  American IPA and Belgian Style IPA- origin of hops  Double IPA- strong and very hoppy Bitter Ale- Copper colored high in flavor and low in alcohol
  • 30. Types of Beer- Ales Porter- Dark colored style of beer named after street and river porters of London.  Brewed with dark malts Stout- strongest porters 7-8%
  • 31. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout  Dry or Irish- toast or coffee like taste (Guinness)  Imperial Stout- Style brewed in 18th century by Thrale’s brewery in London. 9-10%  Milk Stout- contains lactose. Adds sweetness, body, and calories to the beer.  Oatmeal Stout- up to 30% oats. Too many oats make bitter beer
  • 32. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout  Chocolate Stout- dark chocolate flavor through use of darker, more aromatic malt. Sometimes have chocolate added to them.  Coffee Stout- Use black patent malt and sometimes coffee.  Oyster Stout- Made with a handful of oysters
  • 33. Types of Beer- Ales Wheat Beer (White beer)  60% wheat in malt  Fruity tartness and are often laced with fruit such as cherries or raspberries  Main varieties: weissbier, witbier, and lambic
  • 34. Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer)  Weissbier, short weisse- Used in southern German state of Bavaria. Weisse is German for white.  Weizenbier, short weizen- German for wheat  Hefeweissbier or hefeweizen- “Hefe” means yeast. Beer is unfiltered and might have sediment.
  • 35. Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer)  Kristallweissbier or kristalweizein- filtered weissbier  Dunkels weissbier or dunkles weizen- dark wheat beer.  Weizenbock is wheat beer made “Bock” style
  • 36. Non-Alcoholic Beer Must be labeled non-alcoholic malt beverage  Less than 0.5% alcohol  Sometimes called near beer  Sharps, O’Douls, Kaliber  ½ calories of regular beer
  • 37. Craft Breweries source: Brewers Association Growing while large breweries are shrinking  2010 sales volume up 11%, dollar volume up 12%  Overall US beer sales down 1%  First half 2011 craft brew sales up 15%  Import beer sales up 5%  2010 craft beer sales were 4,95 of all beer sales (9,951,956 barrels)  2010 there were 1,753 craft breweries
  • 38. Beer and Food Pairings Amber ale- vinaigrettes Fruity ales- spicy dishes Porters, brown ales- beef, game, other meats
  • 39. Beer and Food Pairings Lagers- seafood Stout- nutty, chocolaty desserts
  • 40. 2012 Ten best selling beers by market share source: saveonbrew.com 1 Bud light- 19.2% 2 Budweiser- 12% 3 Miller lite- 8.6% 4 Coors light- 7.8% 5 Natural light- 4.2% 6 Corona extra- 4.0%
  • 41. 2012 Ten best selling beers by market share source: saveonbrew.com 7 Busch- 2.8% 8 Busch light- 2.8% 9 Heineken- 2.4% 10 Miller high life- 2.3%
  • 42. 2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com 1 Corona Extra 2 Heineken 3 Corona Light 4 Modelo Especial 5 Stella Artois Lager 6 Tecate
  • 43. 2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com 7 Dos Equis XX Lager Especial 8 Newcastle Brown Ale 9 Heineken Premium Light Lager 10 Guinness
  • 44. 2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 Sierra Nevada Pale Ale 2 Sam Adams Boston Lager 3 New Belgium Fat Tire 4 Shiner Bock 5 Widmer Hefeweizen 6 Sierra Nevada Torpedo
  • 45. 2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 7 Sam Adams Light 8 Redhook IPA 9 Kona Longboard Lager 10 Deschutes Mirror Pond
  • 46. 2010 Best Selling American Craft Styles source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 IPA- 19.4% 2 Pale Ale- 18.0% 3 Amber Ale- 11.5% 4 Amber Lager- 9.9% 5 Wheat- 7.6% 6 Bock- 4.3% 7 Fruit beer- 3.6% 8 Pale lager- 3.4%
  • 47. 2010 Five Largest Microbreweries in America source: metafilter.com 1 Boston Brewing Company, Boston, MA 2 Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, Chico, CA 3 New Belgium Brewing Company, Fort Collins, CO 4 Spoetzl Brewery, Shiner, TX 5 Pyramid Breweries, Seattle, WA
  • 48. Storing and Caring for Beer Beer has shelf life  Canned and bottled 3-4 months  Rotate Storage  40-70 F Unpasteurized beer 36-38 F all times  Keep out of sun  Store beer upright  Untapped draft beer 30-45 days
  • 49. Quality of Beer Frozen beer will precipitate solids when frozen and thawed Proper CO2 pressure 12-15 PSI Don’t store beer with food Beer lines must be cleaned and sanitized Don’t let beer lines dry out
  • 50. Serving Beer Glass must be free from oil, lint How to pour a beer
  • 51. Video Clip: How to Pour a Beer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b88pSBIpL-M
  • 52. Video Clip: How to Tap a Keg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGAdw2tDWZY
  • 53. Questions?Rich Neumann (neumann@ohio.edu)