Chapter 5 VegetablesClassification• The debate is still on over classifications of what a fruit and what a vegetable is. (Tomatoes and pumpkins)• Definition of a vegetable: “A plant, usually herbaceous (with little or no woody tissue), containing an edible portion that is suitably served with the main course of a meal.”• Plants that wither after the growing season; limited sweetness• Table 5.1
Chapter 5 VegetablesSurvey of Vegetables• Anise – sweet fennel; licorice-flavored celery• Artichoke – globe (French); flower of a thistle-like plant; limited amount of edible pulp compared to fibrous petals and choke; hearts; Jerusalem or sunchokes• Asparagus – green or highly prized white• Fresh beans – green or snap, wax, lima and fava• Dried beans – red, kidney, navy, pinto, black, pink, white, garbanzo and lima
Chapter 5 VegetablesSurvey of Vegetables cont.• Beets – dye; usually boil• Broccoli – used to raise nutrient content of meals; deep bluish-green; yellowing indicates aging• Brussels sprouts – little cabbages• Cabbage – high in Vitamin C; red, savoy and Chinese (Napa)• Carrots – parsley family; celery and parsnips• Cauliflower – related to cabbage• Celery – Pascal; less stringy and mild flavor
Chapter 5 VegetablesSurvey of Vegetables cont.• Celeriac – celery root; bulb-like• Sweet corn – rapid reduction in sugar content happens after picking• Diakon – Japanese radish• Eggplant – Middle Eastern meals• Greens – cooked – kale, turnip greens, beet greens, mustard greens, collards; raw – butterhead (Boston or Bibb), endive, escarole, arugula, radicchio• Jicama – mostly served raw with chili powder
Chapter 5 VegetablesSurvey of Vegetables cont.• Mushrooms – complement to steaks, sauces, gravies; cup and button, cremini, shiitake, morel, chantrelles, enoki, portobello*, oyster• Okra – Creole cookery; gumbo• Onions – dry Spanish, red, shallots, boiling, green, scallions, chives, leeks• Peas – sweetest from vine to pot; Chinese or snow pea; sugar; split pea• Peppers – sweet peppers (red, yellow, orange, green); paprika is dried sweet red peppers
Chapter 5 VegetablesSurvey of Vegetables cont.• Potatoes – round white, russet, round red, long white; sweet potatoes – yams (true ones are not available in the U.S.)• Red radishes – white radishes• Rutabagas – mashed; good substitute for mashed potatoes• Summer squash – zucchini; yellow crookneck, pattypan or scallop, cocozelle• Winter squash – Hubbard, table queen (acorn), buttercup, butternut, Turk’s turban, spaghetti, banana• Tomatoes – versatility; elongated – canners; cherry – salad lovers; Roma – color and cooking• Turnips – increasing in popularity
Chapter 5 VegetablesAspects of Palatability• Texture and structure• Flavor• Color (Table 5.2)• Chlorophylls (a b)– green; broccoli, lettuce, spinach pheophytin (a b)• Carotenoids Alpha-carotene Beta-carotene – red-orange• Lycopene – red; tomatoes and watermelon• Xanthophylls• Flavonoids
Chapter 5 VegetablesNutrient Content (Table 5.3)• Five or more servings of fruits and vegetables• Green beans, cabbage, broccoli, asparagus ++ more than 90 percent water; diets• Protein and fat levels are very low – low energy; legumes are high and at a low cost
Chapter 5 VegetablesHarvesting and Marketing• Quality is expected• Use of fertilizers and pesticides help quality and quantity• Temperature and moisture controls• Market orders – USDA; regulate quality, quantity, standardization of packs, research and development projects, specification of unfair trade practices, required filing of selling prices, and collection of marketing information for the producers of the commodity specific to the marketing order.
Chapter 5 VegetablesSelection (Table 5.5)• Fresh, frozen, canned or dried• Individual preference, price, availability• Convenience items (frozen/canned) may be high quality• Season of the year – peak harvest period – highest quality• Grade standards – not visible to consumers• Organic seal• WE rely on: own knowledge and experience, standards• 3 areas WE look at: crispness, color & free of blemishes• Variety - which is best for what I want to do with it??
Chapter 5 VegetablesSelection cont.Canned• Convenient; quick and easy; fully cooked during canning• Stored – long shelf life• Some negatives – soft texture, color – from heatFrozen• Pleasing quality; shorter cooking time• Long shelf life• Negative – freezer space
Chapter 5 VegetablesSelection cont.Grades• U.S. Grade A or Fancy – top quality, appropriate color, high degree of tenderness, free of blemishes• U.S. Grade B or Extra Standard – slightly more mature, less carefully selected for color or tenderness• U.S. Grade C or Standard – lacking uniformity, poorer color and flavor• Some use the brand name as the guide to quality
Chapter 5 VegetablesStorage• Stored in the refrigerator• Cool air will slow respiration, but dryness of the air causes loss of moisture – closed hydrator drawers or sealed plastic bags• Most vegetables should be refrigerated with exceptions – potatoes, winter squash, Spanish or other dry onions, dry legumes and other dried foods
Chapter 5 VegetablesFactors in Cooking• The way in which they are prepared has influence on their nutritive value• Palatability and general appeal are more important• Length of time and the method of cooking are key• Microwave cooking keeps vitamin loses to a minimum, as does steaming and stir-frying• Texture is very important• Color is key• Flavor (aroma) contribute to the perceived flavor• 1. Lid or not, 2. How much water, 3. Cooking duration
Chapter 5 VegetablesPreparing Vegetables (Table 5.9 & 5.10)• Careful washing, cold running water, brush• Careful inspection – remove blemishes; trimming• Paring – skins of potatoes or carrots; right before cooking• Boiling• Steaming• Simmering• Broiling• Baking or Oven Roasting• Frying• Stir-frying or Panning