Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Meats Edible flesh of animals – beef, veal, pork, lamb More beef consumed by 1.5 times of all protein foods Focal point of the meal – largest item in the food budget Definition of meats – color, flavor and tenderness vary with the age of the animal – meat is darker with age, flavor more intense Muscle – 75% water, 20% protein, 5% fat, carbohydrate, minerals Water content depends on: type of muscle, kind of meat, season, pH of the meat. – juiciness of meat
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Connective Tissue Collagen – sheaths throughout the muscle Elastin – concentrated deposits; yellow, rubbery mass; gristle – remains unchanged through any time of cooking Fat Between muscles and within muscles – marbling – juicy, flavorful and tender cut Overall flavor and juiciness of meats Nutritional Contributions Complete protein – used efficiently in the body, UNLESS extreme heat is used in preparing the meat.
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, FishPreparing Meat For Market Cost of getting livestock to the meat packers – electronic tag Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) – fatal brain disease – Creutzfeldt-Jakobs disease OR mad cow disease. Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) Free range Rigor – a calm and quick dispatch is very helpful; rigor mortis – stiffening of the muscles in the carcass Cold storage – high standards – cutting pieces large Kobe beef – Kobe, Japan
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Aging – top-grade prime beef ripened 15-40 days; aged 10-29 days – increasingly tender 20-40 day – flavor becomes increasingly distinctive/intense Pork can not be aged – rancid Curing – beef – corned beef; pork – ham Addition of salt, sodium nitrate and heat Carcinogens – nitrates, small risk in development of cancer Smoking – enhance flavors and promote shelf life; wood Freezing – sharp freezing – moving air -10 degrees F; quick freezing – extremely fast freezing Air-tight packaging – avoid freezer burn Freeze-dried meats – dehydrated soups with meat
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Inspection – mandatory; controlling meat contaminated with E. coli States can have own inspectors or federal inspectors Inspection of entire slaughtering and packaging operation Inspection stamp – safe for eating at time of inspection; inspected, passed and identifies packer by number Grading – federal grading, parker grading, no grading Beef – U.S. Choice, available to consumers; U.S. Prime – restaurants Pork – U.S. 1 to U.S. 4 – based on yield than quality Table 13.2
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Selection and Care Time available for preparation Amount of money Classification – location on the carcass, type of meat, grade Tender – little time preparation – little exercise; rib, short loin, sirloin Less tender cuts – shoulder, rump, belly Identification of cuts – type of meat – size of the cuts, color of muscles, character of fat Muscle color – beef, red; veal, pink; pork, grayish-pink; lamb, dark red
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Primal cuts – first cuts made on each half of carcass; butcher can handle - (Table 13.3) Retail cuts – cut for the market; bones help to identify; round bone – front or back leg; T-bone – backbone When you know the location of the cut and the type of meat, the classification of the cuts as tender or not is easy. Making the Selection – how much meat per person Look for small amount of bone in relation to meat; fat Boneless cuts – 1/4 lb. Small bones – 1/3 lb. Average bone – 1/2 lb. Large bone – 3/4 to 1 lb.
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Selecting an Appropriate Cookery Method Dry rub mixture of herbs and/or spices – marinating Wine, juice or other ingredients Marinades – may make meat more tender; short time or several days – done in the refrigerator Dry heat – tender cuts – roasting, broiling, pan broiling, pan frying, deep-fat frying Moist heat – less tender cuts – braising cooking in liquid (stewing) Medium rare – 145 F; Medium – 160 F; Well-done – 170 F Variations – amount of bone and fat and dimensions of cut
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Poultry Large increase in the consumption – reduced cholesterol levels, heart attacks, reduced fat, less costly Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese ( Ex.) U.S. Grade A – C; A common in markets Options – skinless, boneless, tenders Proper storage is essential as microorganisms grow readily, especially on the surface of the body cavity Cooking whole birds – check temp. in center of the thigh 165 degrees F.
Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish FISH Lower in fat, calories, and quick and easy to prepare 240 types of fish and shellfish Fish categorized according to oil content (Table 13.12) Shellfish – mollusks (with shells) – oysters, scallops, mussels and clams – crustaceans (horny outer coverings) – shrimp, lobsters, and crabs Freshwater or saltwater Grade A, B, or substandard Shiny and unfaded skin, red gills, clear eyes, mild odor Dressed, fillets, steaks, sticks canned