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Chapter%2013%20 proteins%20 %20meat%2c%20poultry%2c%20fish


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  • 1. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Meats  Edible flesh of animals – beef, veal, pork, lamb  More beef consumed by 1.5 times of all protein foods  Focal point of the meal – largest item in the food budget Definition of meats – color, flavor and tenderness vary with the age of the animal – meat is darker with age, flavor more intense Muscle – 75% water, 20% protein, 5% fat, carbohydrate, minerals  Water content depends on: type of muscle, kind of meat, season, pH of the meat. – juiciness of meat
  • 2. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Connective Tissue  Collagen – sheaths throughout the muscle  Elastin – concentrated deposits; yellow, rubbery mass; gristle – remains unchanged through any time of cooking Fat  Between muscles and within muscles – marbling – juicy, flavorful and tender cut  Overall flavor and juiciness of meats Nutritional Contributions  Complete protein – used efficiently in the body, UNLESS extreme heat is used in preparing the meat.
  • 3. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, FishPreparing Meat For Market Cost of getting livestock to the meat packers – electronic tag Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) – fatal brain disease – Creutzfeldt-Jakobs disease OR mad cow disease. Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) Free range Rigor – a calm and quick dispatch is very helpful; rigor mortis – stiffening of the muscles in the carcass Cold storage – high standards – cutting pieces large Kobe beef – Kobe, Japan
  • 4. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish  Aging – top-grade prime beef ripened 15-40 days; aged  10-29 days – increasingly tender  20-40 day – flavor becomes increasingly distinctive/intense  Pork can not be aged – rancid  Curing – beef – corned beef; pork – ham  Addition of salt, sodium nitrate and heat  Carcinogens – nitrates, small risk in development of cancer  Smoking – enhance flavors and promote shelf life; wood  Freezing – sharp freezing – moving air -10 degrees F; quick freezing – extremely fast freezing  Air-tight packaging – avoid freezer burn  Freeze-dried meats – dehydrated soups with meat
  • 5. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Inspection – mandatory; controlling meat contaminated with E. coli  States can have own inspectors or federal inspectors  Inspection of entire slaughtering and packaging operation  Inspection stamp – safe for eating at time of inspection; inspected, passed and identifies packer by number Grading – federal grading, parker grading, no grading  Beef – U.S. Choice, available to consumers; U.S. Prime – restaurants  Pork – U.S. 1 to U.S. 4 – based on yield than quality  Table 13.2
  • 6. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Selection and Care  Time available for preparation  Amount of money Classification – location on the carcass, type of meat, grade  Tender – little time preparation – little exercise; rib, short loin, sirloin  Less tender cuts – shoulder, rump, belly Identification of cuts – type of meat – size of the cuts, color of muscles, character of fat  Muscle color – beef, red; veal, pink; pork, grayish-pink; lamb, dark red
  • 7. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish  Primal cuts – first cuts made on each half of carcass; butcher can handle - (Table 13.3)  Retail cuts – cut for the market; bones help to identify; round bone – front or back leg; T-bone – backbone  When you know the location of the cut and the type of meat, the classification of the cuts as tender or not is easy. Making the Selection – how much meat per person  Look for small amount of bone in relation to meat; fat  Boneless cuts – 1/4 lb.  Small bones – 1/3 lb.  Average bone – 1/2 lb.  Large bone – 3/4 to 1 lb.
  • 8. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Selecting an Appropriate Cookery Method  Dry rub mixture of herbs and/or spices – marinating  Wine, juice or other ingredients  Marinades – may make meat more tender; short time or several days – done in the refrigerator  Dry heat – tender cuts – roasting, broiling, pan broiling, pan frying, deep-fat frying  Moist heat – less tender cuts – braising cooking in liquid (stewing)  Medium rare – 145 F; Medium – 160 F; Well-done – 170 F  Variations – amount of bone and fat and dimensions of cut
  • 9. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish Poultry  Large increase in the consumption – reduced cholesterol levels, heart attacks, reduced fat, less costly  Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese ( Ex.)  U.S. Grade A – C; A common in markets  Options – skinless, boneless, tenders  Proper storage is essential as microorganisms grow readily, especially on the surface of the body cavity  Cooking whole birds – check temp. in center of the thigh  165 degrees F.
  • 10. Ch. 13 Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Fish FISH  Lower in fat, calories, and quick and easy to prepare  240 types of fish and shellfish  Fish categorized according to oil content (Table 13.12)  Shellfish – mollusks (with shells) – oysters, scallops, mussels and clams – crustaceans (horny outer coverings) – shrimp, lobsters, and crabs  Freshwater or saltwater  Grade A, B, or substandard  Shiny and unfaded skin, red gills, clear eyes, mild odor  Dressed, fillets, steaks, sticks canned