Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsVersatileDish by themselves or part of a complex systemEggs are valued for their ability to: 1. Emulsify – salad dressings, cake batters 2. Thicken – custards and sauces 3. Clarify and Bind – soups, batter for deep-fat-frying 4. Foam – angel food cake, meringues
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsNutritional Value Most cost-efficient means of obtaining complete protein. Price per serving is quite low compared to beef and other proteins. Fat content entirely in the yolk; cholesterol Approximately 80 calories per egg. White or brown – determined by kind of chicken, but no impact on nutritional value of the egg.Structure Practical aspects of marketing and storage. Shell helps to protect the contents of the egg – has tiny holes Yolk color – diet of the hen; deeper, brighter orange – eye health
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsSelection Deteriorative Changes - Quality will vary as a result of storage conditions and deteriorative changes - Increased size of air cell - Loss of moisture and carbon dioxide from pores Safety Oversight - Have the potential for being contaminated before they are laid until they are eaten - When forming, potential for transovarian infection my transmit Salmonella into the egg - Good sanitary measures where egg are being laid - Storage temperatures; State and federal; USDA, FDA
Chapter 12 Proteins: Eggs Grading – Federal-State Program - U.S. Grade AA, A, B; grades are established in advance of marketing process. In the Shell – candling – grading shells 1. Size of air cell 2. Position and mobility of the yolk3. Presence of foreign substances – rots, mold, blood Out of the Shell – yolk index – size of the yolk Weight Classes – jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small, peewee General size of eggs within the container; may very; average Recipes based on large eggs Grade – quality at the time of candling Weight – size If the difference in price between sizes is less than 9 cents, buy lg.
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsDesigner Eggs Cage free or free range – nice for hens, but eggs laid by caged hens have a more sanitary environment Organic eggs – hens must meet federal regulations Omega-3 eggs – help reduce the risk of heart disease; hen’s diet includes flaxseed and fish oil; darker yellow yolk Reduced levels of cholesterol or saturated fat – higher prices for those eggs produced with special requirements
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsAlternatives to Fresh Eggs Frozen Eggs – valuable time saver (breaking eggs, separating) Dried Eggs – packaged mixes – angel food cake mix Egg Substitutes – -Egg white is retained and yolk replaced with vegetable oil products and carotenoids (color) -Frozen and fluid forms -Do not contain cholesterol -More expensive -Results are not identical to those with real eggs -cartons contain less than the equivalent of a dozen eggs
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsStorageAbility to store longer than 6 mo. if conditions are controlledEggs to market can be constant, thus keeping prices downCarbon dioxide, cool temperatures and low humidityBefore storage – washed, coated with mineral oilBeware when buying eggs in stores where there is a lg. displaySelect store with high standards for maintaining goodtemperature controls for eggs.
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsEgg Cookery Functional Roles Coloring and Flavoring Agent – lemon meringue Emulsifying Agent – hollandaise sauce Thickening Agent Clarifying Agent – soup stock – egg white; cup cold water Structural and Textural Agent – popovers; divinity (sea foam); fluffy omelets, souffles, foam cakes (angel food) Safety Measures – 0.005 percent of eggs are infected; cook eggs and items containing eggs properly and to the designated temperatures
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsIn the Shell – (if eggs are at room temperature) Soft cooked – simmering water; 3-5 minutes Hard cooked – simmering water; approx. 18 minutes; immersed immediately in cold water then peeled to cool rapidly To reduce cracking, dunk egg a couple times before setting in water to let the gas escape through pores Dark ring around yolk – ferrous sulfide – low-quality egg, control of simmering and cooling conditions, or both
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsOut of the Shell Fried Eggs Poached Eggs – only high quality eggs should be used; white vinegar used to keep whites together Baked Eggs Scrambled Eggs – lower grade eggs best; milk or cream French Omelets – avoid beating air; porous; hot skilletCustards Stirred Custard – Crème Anglaise Baked Custard – Crème Brulee Knife inserted halfway between the center and the edge and come out clean when done.
Chapter 12 Proteins: EggsCream Puddings and PiesMeringues – egg whites Stages of Beating – foamy, soft peak, stiff peak, dry stage Soft Meringues – Baked Alaska Hard Meringues – baked to dry out egg whitesFluffy Omelets – white and yolks are beaten separately and thenfolded togetherSoufflésFoam Cakes