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Chapter%2011%20 proteins%20 %20milk%20and%20cheese

  1. 1. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESE• Composition of milk varies with the source.• Complex fluid containing: Protein Fat Carbohydrate (in the form of lactose)• High nutrient value• U.S. – cow’s milk unless product specifies• Goat’s milk – for children who are allergic to cow’s milk• Ewes, water buffalo, camels, llamas, yak, reindeer – fat content higher than in cow or goat’s milk
  2. 2. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESENutritional Value of Milk• Carbohydrate – lactose – sweet taste of milk – source of energy• Lactose can cause some people discomfort – deficiency of lactase, the enzyme needed to digest lactose• Complete protein• Casein protein– chief protein fraction in milk• Whey proteins – water-soluble; part of the whey formed in the production of cheese; body utilizes• Milk is of high significance in a diet.• Cardboard or tinted plastic or glass help to prevent loss of nutrients.
  3. 3. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEKeeping Milk Safe• On the Farm - Careful handling to avoid food-borne illnesses Microorganisms – tuberculosis, scarlet fever, typhoid fever Herd and handlers are all in good health Housing of cows and high sanitation standards, equipment• Pasteurization – heat treatment to inactivate disease-forming mic. High-temperature short-time (HTST) – heated to 161 F., held for 15 sec. and cooled to 50 F or below. Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) – rapid heating to 280 F for at least 2 seconds then packaged; 6 months• Storage of Milk and Cream – quite perishable
  4. 4. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEModifying Milk• Homogenization – Forcing heated milk through tiny apertures (holes) at pressures between 500 and 2500 psi Denatures some of the milk proteins (casein) which helps make homogenized milk more digestible Cream in milk – “cream-top” milk• Fortification – Addition of Vitamin D – reduce rickets in young children Vitamin D promotes absorption of the large amount of calcium in milk; concentrate added prior to pasteurization
  5. 5. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEMilk ProductsFluid Milks• Whole Milk - richness• Reduced-Fat Milk – 25 % of cream is removed• Low-Fat or Light Milk – fat content to 1%• Non-Fat or Fat-Free Milk - .01% fat content, half the calories• Flavored Milks – chocolate milk; syrup or cocoa powder• Cultured Milks – bacteria added – lactic acid - $$, but good for those with lactose intolerance; buttermilk and yogurt• Lactose-Reduced Milk – lactase is added• Milk Alternatives – soy or rice (Table 11.3)
  6. 6. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESE• Canned Milks – more than half the water is evaporated Evaporated Milks – undiluted or reconstituted with water Sweetened Condensed Milk – high % of sucrose/glucose• Dry Milks – non-fat dry milk solids; Vitamins A & D added• Creams – half-and-half; light cream (coffee or table cream); light or heavy whipping cream; sour cream (Table 11.4)• Crème Fraiche – heating whipping cream & adding buttermilk• Butter – 80% fat; made of sweet or sour cream, unsalted, whipped – table spread• Frozen Milk Products – ice cream, ice milk, sherbets, imitation• Imitation Milk and Whiteners – coffee whiteners or lighteners
  7. 7. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEInspection and Grading• Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture• Vary by state – clean, orderly, well-maintained facilities• Top grade of milk that reaches consumer is Grade A• Butter – U.S. Grade AA, A, B (made from sour cream, acidic)• Non-fat dry milk – U.S. Extra Grade or USDA Quality Approved• Cheddar cheese – Grade AA or A• Cottage cheese or Pasteurized Process - USDA Quality Approved
  8. 8. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEProblems in Milk Cookery• Scum Formation – milk is heated skin forms on surface especially when pan is not covered; keep to a minimum• Scorching – overheating – use a double boiler; keep heating time to a minimum and stir frequently, slow rate of heating• Curdling – acidic ingredients or ingredient high in salt; fruits; be sure milk is fresh – more acidic as it ages; short heating times• Clotting of Milk – (clabbered) – cheeses are clotted – casein to form a precipitate is used
  9. 9. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEDairy Foams• Whipped Cream – if slightly warm, soften, loses strength; oil in water emulsion - stop beating before emulsion reverses itself; if not, emulsion will break and clumps of butter (water-in-oil emulsion) is the result• Evaporated Milk Foams – less expensive but more unstable; chilling foam including bowl and beater blades• Non-Fat Dried Milk Foams – dilute with cold water; lower in calories but lacks rich flavor
  10. 10. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEIce Creams and Other Frozen DessertsIngredients and Their Influence• Sugar – sweeten the product; texture; freezing temperature drops thus much be chilled below normal freezing temp of water; the more the sugar the lower the freezing point – very sweet – melt quickly• Dairy ingredients – cream, homogenized creams are betterFreezing the Mixture• With Agitation – rapid cooling, ice and rock salt, stirring – too much or too little, needs to be perfect• Without Agitation – still-freezingEvaluating Ice Creams – smoothness, free of curds and grit
  11. 11. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESECheesesOrigins and Applications• Most US cheese is commercial cheese• Nutrient vary in cheese depends on the type; concentrated• Most are high in fat and caloriesTypes of CheesesNatural – classified on the basis of:• Means of clotting (lactic acid or rennin)• Amount of ripening (cured or uncured)• Firmness• Source of milk (cow, goat, or sheep)
  12. 12. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESE• Clotting milk to form a curd• Liquid (whey) separated from curd• Pressed into a compact mass• Coloring added• Inoculated with bacteria or mold to modify flavor and texture• Ripening – may be brief or several months• Textures are very soft to quite hard• Some are porous – Swiss• Firmness is a common way of differentiating
  13. 13. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESESoft Natural Cheeses• Cottage cheese – made from skim milk• Cream cheese – whole milk with some cream added• Neufchatel – less cream than cream cheese• Camembert – center is rather fluid when ripened, Brie – firmer Limburger and Liederkranz – dessert cheeses, aromas, flavors• Mascarpone – Milan, Italy - tiramisuSemisoft Natural Cheeses• Blue-green color; mold added – between 2 and 12 months• Gorgonzola – cow’s milk;• Roquefort – sheep’s milk; ripened in caves near Roquefort, Fr.• Bleu – cow’s milk;• Muenster Brick
  14. 14. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEHard Natural Cheeses• Cheddar cheese – named for a town in England; repeated cutting of the curd and draining of the whey is called cheddaring Mild to very sharp; extended storage, higher price• Edam and Gouda – hard dessert cheeses - Holland• Swiss cheese or Emmantaler - porous• Parmesan – Italy – 16 months to several years – exterior rubbed with oily mixture that turns dark green to black
  15. 15. CH. 11 PROTEINS: MILK & CHEESEProcess Cheeses – mixture of natural cheeses and an emulsifier blended together with controlled heating; slightly higher moisture content and a bit softer Process cheese spreads – pimiento, bacon bits Cold pack cheese (club cheese) – not a processed cheese, no heat is addedCheese Cookery – melt and blend readily with other ingredients• Emulsifier prevents oil from separating – non-greasy product• Natural cheeses become tough and rubbery held at serving temperatures for too long and when heated too high• Cheese pizza baked at too high of temp – endless strands and oily