CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALSSTARCH• Sources Cereals – corn, wheat, waxy corn, rice Tapioca, potato, arrowroot – roots or tubers of plants Cereal, root or tree – each behaves differently• Starch in Food Preparation Thickening agent in sauces, soups, gravies, pudding, fillings
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Dextrinization – when subjected to dry heat – chemical change; less thickening ability – brown flower• Gelatinization – water is gradually absorbed into starch granules in the presence of adequate heat 3 procedures for thoroughly distributing starch 1. Mixing starch with cold water – thin paste 2. Mixing starch with oil or melted fat – smooth paste 3. Combining starch with large quantity of another dry ingredient before adding liquid.
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Factors Influencing Properties Different amounts of water or liquid When you add the liquid How long it sits in the liquid before adding Temperature• More starch then liquid – thicker, less starch – thinner• Difference in thickening ability – flour and cornstarch• Sugar has an effect – competes with starch for water• Changes – temperature, viscosity, disintegration
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Starch Gels Lose their ability to flow when cooled – cream pie fillings, puddings; should hold their shape and not flow Too much starch – stiff texture Too little starch, too much sugar, lumping – too thin Syneresis – draining of liquid from gel – Jell-O Retrogradation – solidifies in refrigerator – gravies; adding heat reverses the process
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Starch Products Waxy Starches – commercial fruit pie fillings, salad dressings and instant puddings Pregelatinized Starches – Minute rice, instant puddings and mashed potatoes Frozen Products – frozen cream pies
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALSSTARCH COOKERY• White Sauces – appropriate viscosity Thin sauce: Cream soups; Medium sauce: cheese sauce, gravy; Thick sauce: soufflés; Very thick sauce: binding agent - Butter, margarine, shortening, or salad oil Evaluation – consistency, texture, flavor, surface appearance• Gravies• Cream Soups• Cornstarch Puddings
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALSCEREALS• Cereals in the Diet Corn, wheat, rice, oats, rye, millet• Wheat Durum – macaroni, spaghetti, pastes or pastas Couscous; Bulgur, Pastas - semolina
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Corn – sweet corn – field corn – popcorn Hominy, Grits, Cornmeal, Cornstarch, Corn syrup, Barley - (whiskey)• Rice – short, medium, long grain; wild rice is not a rice – seed Brown rice – twice as long to cook as white rice Polished, Parboiled, Basmati, Arborio
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Nutritional Contribution – good source of fiber; some protein• Commercial Processing – varying degrees of processing Fractionation (refining) Hulling – popcorn Milling – making flour Polishing – rice Facilitate cooking and/or enhance storage life
CH. 10 CARBS: STARCHES AND CEREALS• Storage – possible hatching of larvae – uptake of moisture and off-flavors• Preparation of Cereals Hot Breakfast Cereals Rice Cookery – 2-2 ¼ cups water per cup of rice = 3 cups; 20 minutes for white, 40 for brown, 60 for wild rice Pasta – 6 cups of water to boil to ½ pound of pasta; 1 tsp of salt and oil; al dente (“to the tooth”); drain
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