.
Copyright © 2014 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin
CHAPTER
4
ANALYZING
W
O
RK
AND...
Need to Know
1. Elements of work flow analysis and how work
flow is related to an organization’s structure.
2. How to obta...
Work Flow In Organizations
4-3
Figure 4.1: Developing a Work Flow
Analysis
4-4
Work Flow Design and Organization’s
Structure
Within an organization, units and individuals must
cooperate to create outpu...
Firefighters work as a team.
They and their equipment
are the inputs and the output
is an extinguished fire and
the resc...
Job Analysis
Process of getting
detailed information
about jobs.
Process of getting
detailed information
about jobs.
4-7
Job Descriptions
 Jo b De scriptio n: a list of tasks, duties, and
responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job
entails....
Figure 4.2: Sample Job Description
4-9
Job Specifications
Job Specification: list of knowledge, skills,
abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO needed
to perf...
Figure 4.3: Sample Job Specifications
4-11
Sources of Job Information
4-12
4-13
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
A standardized job
analysis questionnaire
containing 194
questions about work
behav...
Fleishman Job Analysis System
Job analysis technique
that asks subject-matter
experts to evaluate a job
in terms of the a...
Figure 4.4: Example of an Ability from Fleishman
Job Analysis System
4-16
Importance of Job Analysis
Job analysis is so
important to HR managers
that it has been called the
building block of all ...
Table 4.1: competency model
Project Manager
Competencies
Proficiency Ratings
Organizational & Planning Skills
Ability to e...
Trends in Job Analysis
Organizations are being viewed as a field of work
needing to be done, rather than as a set series o...
Job Design
 Jo b De sig n: the process of defining how work
will be performed and what tasks will be
required in a given ...
Figure 4.5: Approaches to Job Design
4-21
Designing Efficient Jobs
 IndustrialEng ine e ring : study of jobs to find
simplest way to structure work to maximize
eff...
Designing Jobs That Motivate: The Job
Characteristics Model
1. Skill variety – extent to which a job requires a
variety of...
Designing Jobs that Motivate: Job
Characteristics Model
4. Autonomy – degree to which the job allows an
individual to make...
Figure 4.6: Characteristics of a Motivating
Job
4-25
Designing Jobs That Motivate
Job Enlargement
4-26
Designing Jobs That Motivate
• Empowering workers
by adding more
decision-making
authority to jobs.
• Based on Herzberg’s
...
Test Your Knowledge
 Adding more tasks to an existing job is called
____________, while adding more decision-
making auth...
Designing Jobs That Motivate Flexible
Work Schedules
•A scheduling policy in
which full-time employees
may choose starting...
Figure 4.7:
Alternatives to
8-to-5 Job
4-30
Designing Jobs That Motivate Telework
Telework – the broad term for doing one’s work away
from a centrally located office....
Designing Ergonomic Jobs
Ergonomics – study of interface between
individuals’ physiology and characteristics of
physical w...
Although employers in all
industries are supposed to
protect workers under the
OSHA “general duty” clause,
nursing homes,...
Designing Jobs That Meet Mental
Capabilities and Limitations
• Work is designed to reduce information-
processing requirem...
Ways to Simplify a Job’s Mental
Demands
 Limit amount of information and memorization
that the job requires.
 Organizati...
Summary
Work flow analysis identifies:
 amount and quality of a work unit’s outputs
 work processes required to produce ...
Summary
 Job analysis includes preparation of
 Job descriptions
 Job specifications
 Information for analyzing an exis...
Summary
 The nature of work and job design is changing.
 Viewing organizations in terms of a field of work
needing to be...
Summary
 According to the Job Characteristics Model, jobs are
more motivating if they have greater skill variety, task
id...
Summary
 Goal of ergonomics is to minimize physical
strain on the worker by structuring the physical
work environment aro...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 4 powerpoint

947
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
947
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Chapter 4, The Analysis and Design of Work, discusses the analysis and design of work and, in doing so, lays out some considerations that go into making informed decisions about how to create and link jobs. The chapter is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with “big picture” issues related to work-flow analysis and organizational structure. The remaining two sections deal with more specific, issues related to job analysis and job design.
  • After reading and discussing this chapter, you need to know the elements of work flow analysis and the following definitions: Work Flow Design, job and position as shown in next slide :
  • Informed decisions about jobs take place in the context of the organization ’s overall work flow. Work Flow Design - The process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service. Job - A set of related duties. Position - The set of duties (job) performed by a particular person. Basing these decisions on work flow design can lead to better results than the more traditional practice of looking at jobs individually.
  • As shown in Figure 4.1, inputs fall into three categories: raw inputs (materials and information), equipment, and human resources (knowledge, skills, and abilities). Work flow analysis next considers the work processes used to generate the outputs identified. Work processes are the activities that a work unit’s members engage in to produce a given output. They are described in terms of operating procedures for every task performed by each employee at each stage of the process. Specifying the processes helps HRM professionals design efficient work systems by clarifying which tasks are necessary. Knowledge of work processes also can guide staffing changes when work is automated, outsourced, or restructured. Work flow analysis identifies the inputs required to carry out the work processes. Work flow takes place in the context of an organization’s structure. It requires the cooperation of individuals and groups. Ideally, the organization’s structure brings together the people who must collaborate to create the desired outputs efficiently.
  • Besides looking at the work flow of each process, it is important to see how the work fits within the context of the organization ’s structure. The structure may do this in a way that is highly centralized (that is, with authority concentrated in a few people at the top of the organization) or decentralized (with authority spread among many people). The organization may group jobs according to functions (for example, welding, painting, packaging), or it may set up divisions to focus on products or customer groups.
  • If these firefighters are trained to do any part of of the job, the chief can deploy them rapidly as needed.
  • To achieve high-quality performance, organizations have to understand and match job requirements and people. Analyzing jobs and understanding what is required to carry out a job provide essential knowledge for staffing, training, performance appraisal, and many other HR activities. Job Description - A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails. Job analysis: the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Preparation of a job description begins with gathering information about the job from people already performing the task, the position’s supervisor, or the managers creating the position. Based on that information, the writer of the job description identifies the essential duties of the job, including mental and physical tasks and any methods and resources required. The output of a job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications. whereas the job description focuses on the activities involved in carrying out a job, a job specification looks at the qualities or requirements the person performing the job must possess. It is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteritics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform the job. Knowledge refers to factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task.
  • Whenever the organization creates a new job, it needs to prepare a job description. Job descriptions should be reviewed periodically: Once per year Performance appraisals are a good opportunity to review the job description. Preparation of a job description begins with gathering information about the job from people already performing the task, the position’s supervisor, or the managers creating the position. Based on that information, the writer of the job description identifies the essential duties of the job, including mental and physical tasks and any methods and resources required.
  • A job description typically has the format shown in Figure 4.2 . It includes: Job title Brief description of the TDRs List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty
  • Whereas the job description focuses on the activities involved in carrying out a job, a job specification looks at the qualities of the person performing the job. KSAOs are characteristics of people and are not directly observable. They are observable only when individuals are carrying out the TDRs of the job—and afterward, if they can show the product of their labor. Thus, if someone applied for a job as a news photographer, you could not simply look at the individual to determine whether he or she can spot and take effective photographs. However, you could draw conclusions later about the person’s skills by looking at examples of his or her photographs
  • Figure 4.3 is a set of sample job specifications for the job description in Figure 4.2
  • There are several sources of job information. The incumbents, or people who currently perform the job are a good source. This source should be supplemented by observations, when applicable, or supervisor input. Supervisors may have a clearer vision of what is expected from that job. Two other sources are provided by the Department of Labor. The dictionary of occupational titles and the Occupational information network which is an online job description database.
  • ManpowerGroup,, is a staffing services agency that uses O*NET’s information on skills to match individuals more precisely to jobs it has been hired to fill. As an employment services company it uses O*Net to classify its jobs and track demand nationwide.,
  • After gathering information, the job analyst uses the information to analyze the job. One instruments for analyzing jobs is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) .- The person analyzing a job determines whether each item on the questionnaire applies to the job being analyzed, and then rates each item based on six scales. Using the PAQ provides an organization with information that helps in comparing jobs, even when they are dissimilar
  • . To gather information about worker requirements, the Fleishman Job Analysis System asks subject-matter experts (typically job incumbents) to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job. When the survey has been completed in all 52 categories, the results provide a picture of the ability requirements of a job. Such information is especially useful for employee selection, training, and career development.
  • As in the example in Figure 4.4 , the survey items are arranged into a scale for each ability. When the survey has been completed in all 52 categories, the results provide a picture of the ability requirements of a job. Such information is especially useful for employee selection, training, and career development.
  • Job analysis is also important from a legal standpoint. It helps determines essential job requirements and job-related duties as required by the EEO laws and regulations. Job analysis also helps supervisors and other managers carry out their duties. Identify types of work in their units Information about work flow process Information that supports hiring decisions, performance review, and compensation
  • When HRM is actively engaged in talent management as a way to support strategy, organizations need to think beyond skills for particular jobs. They must identify the capabilities they need to acquire and develop in order to promote the organization’s success. For this purpose, organizations develop competency models . A competency model identifies and describes all the competencies required for success in a particular occupation or set of jobs. Organizations may create competency models for occupational groups, levels of the organization, or even the entire organization. A competency is an area of personal capability that enables employees to perform their work successfully. Table 4.1 shows an example of a competency model for a project manager. The left side of the table lists competencies required for a project manager (organizational & planning skills; communications; and financial & quantitative skills). The right side of the table shows behaviors that might be used to determine a project manager’s level of proficiency for each competency. As in these examples, competency models focus more on how people work, whereas job analysis focuses more on work tasks and outcomes. Competency models help HR professionals ensure that all aspects of talent management are aligned with the organization’s strategy. As the chart illustrates, Organizational & Planning Skills- proficiency ratings refer to 1 — Below Expectations: Unable to perform basic tasks. 2 — Meets Expectations: Understands basic principles and performs routine tasks with reliable results; works with minimal supervision or assistance. 3 — Exceeds Expectations: Performs complex and multiple tasks; can coach, teach, or lead others. Communications- 1 — Below Expectations: Unable to perform basic tasks. 2 — Meets Expectations: Understands basic principles and performs routine tasks with reliable results; works with minimal supervision or assistance. 3 — Exceeds Expectations: Performs complex and multiple tasks; can coach, teach, or lead others. Financial & Quantitative Skills- 1 — Below Expectations: Unable to perform basic tasks. 2 — Meets Expectations: Understands basic principles and performs routine tasks with reliable results; works with minimal supervision or assistance. 3 — Exceeds Expectations: Performs complex and multiple tasks; can coach, teach, or lead others.
  • Because the work can change rapidly and it is impossible to rewrite job descriptions every week, job descriptions and specifications need to be flexible. Research suggests that successful downsizing efforts almost always entail changes in the nature of jobs, not just their number. Jobs that have survived the downsizing of the most recent recession tend to have a broader scope of responsibilities coupled with less supervision. These changes in the nature of work and the expanded use of “project-based” organizational structures require the type of broader understanding that comes from an analysis of work flows. Because the work can change rapidly and it is impossible to rewrite job descriptions every week, job descriptions and specifications need to balance flexibility with the need for legal documentation.
  • Although job analysis is important for an understanding of existing jobs, organizations must also plan for new jobs and periodically consider whether they should revise existing jobs.
  • As shown in Figure 4.5 , the available approaches to job design emphasize different aspects of the job: The mechanics of doing a job efficiently. The job ’s impact on motivation. The use of safe work practices. The mental demands of the job.
  • If workers perform tasks as efficiently as possible, not only does the organization benefit from lower costs and greater output per worker, but workers should be less fatigued. Industrial engineering provides measurable and practical benefits. However, a focus on efficiency alone can create jobs that are so simple and repetitive that workers get bored. Industrial engineering is usually combined with other approaches to job design.
  • Employers also need to ensure that workers have a positive attitude toward their jobs so that they show up at work with enthusiasm, commitment, and creativity. A model that shows how to make jobs more motivating is the Job Characteristics Model , developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham. This model describes jobs in terms of five characteristics:
  • As shown in Figure 4.6 , the more of each of these characteristics a job has, the more motivating the job will be, according to the Job Characteristics Model . Applications of the job characteristics approach to job design include job enlargement, job en
  • In a job design, job enlargement refers to a broadening of the types of tasks performed. The objective of job enlargement is to make jobs less repetitive and more interesting. Methods of job enlargement include: Job extension Job rotation
  • Adding more tasks to an existing job is called ____________, while adding more decision-making authority to jobs is called _________. Job extension; job rotation Job rotation; job enrichment Job enlargement; job enrichment Job enlargement; job rotation Answer: C
  • One way in which an organization can give employees some say in how their work is structured is to offer flexible work schedules. Two approaches include flextime and job sharing
  • Figure 4.7 illustrates alternatives to the traditional 40-hour workweek. Flextime- A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization. A flextime policy also may enable workers to adjust a particular day’s hours in order to make time for doctor’s appointments, children’s activities, hobbies, or vol- unteer work. A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating for some employees.
  • Flexibility can extend to work locations as well as work schedules. For employers, advantages of telework include less need for office space and the abil- ity to offer greater flexibility to employees who are disabled or need to be available for children or elderly relatives. The employees using telework arrangements may have less absences from work than employees with similar demands who must commute to work. Telecommuting can also support a strategy of corporate social responsibility because these employees do not produce the greenhouse gas emissions that result from com- muting by car.
  • The way people use their bodies when they work affects their physical well-being and may affect how long they can work. The goal of ergonomics is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works. Ergonomic design may involve modifying equipment to reduce the physical demands of per- forming certain jobs or redesigning the jobs them- selves to reduce strain. Ergonomic design may target work practices associated with injuries A recent ergonomic challenge comes from the popularity of mobile devices. As workers find more and more uses for these devices, they are at risk from repetitive-stress injuries (RSIs). Heavy users of these devices must therefore trade off eyestrain against physical strain to wrists, unless they can hook up their device to an extra, properly positioned keyboard or monitor. When using mobile devices or any computer, workers can protect themselves by taking frequent breaks and paying attention to their posture while they work.
  • Just as the human body has capabilities and limitations, addressed by ergonomics, the mind, too, has capabilities and limitations. Employers may seek to reduce mental as well as physical strain. The job design may limit the amount of information and memorization involved. Adequate lighting, easy-to-read gauges and displays, simple-to-operate equipment, and clear instructions also can minimize mental strain. Computer soft- ware can simplify jobs—for example, by performing calculations or filtering out spam from important e-mail. Finally, organizations can select employees with the necessary abilities to handle a job’s mental demands.
  • Every job requires some degree of thinking, remembering, and paying attention, so for every job, organizations need to evaluate whether their employees can handle the job ’s mental demands.
  • The basic technique for designing efficient jobs is industrial engineering, which looks for the simplest way to structure work to maximize efficiency. Through methods such as time-and-motion studies, the industrial engineer creates jobs that are relatively simple and typically repetitive. These jobs may bore workers because they are so simple.
  • According to the Job Characteristics Model, jobs are more motivating if they have greater skill vari- ety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback about performance effectiveness. Ways to create such jobs include job enlargement (through job extension or job rotation) and job enrichment. In addition, self-managing work teams offer greater skill variety and task identity. Flexible work schedules and telework offer greater autonomy.
  • Ergonomic design may involve modifying equipment to reduce the physical demands of per- forming certain jobs or redesigning the jobs them- selves to reduce strain. Ergonomic design may target work practices associated with injuries. Adequate lighting, easy-to-read gauges and displays, simple-to-operate equipment, and clear instructions also can minimize mental strain.
  • Chapter 4 powerpoint

    1. 1. . Copyright © 2014 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin CHAPTER 4 ANALYZING W O RK AND DESIG NING JO BS FUNDAM ENTALS O F HUM AN RESO URCE M ANAG EM ENT 5 TH EDITIO N BY R.A. NO E, J.R. HO LLENBECK, B. G ERHART, AND P.M . W RIG HT
    2. 2. Need to Know 1. Elements of work flow analysis and how work flow is related to an organization’s structure. 2. How to obtain information for a job analysis. 3. Elements and trends in job analysis and their significance in HRM. 4. Methods for designing a job so that it can be done efficiently and motivating. 5. How organizations apply ergonomics to design safe jobs and plan for mental demands of a job. 1. Elements of work flow analysis and how work flow is related to an organization’s structure. 2. How to obtain information for a job analysis. 3. Elements and trends in job analysis and their significance in HRM. 4. Methods for designing a job so that it can be done efficiently and motivating. 5. How organizations apply ergonomics to design safe jobs and plan for mental demands of a job. 4-2
    3. 3. Work Flow In Organizations 4-3
    4. 4. Figure 4.1: Developing a Work Flow Analysis 4-4
    5. 5. Work Flow Design and Organization’s Structure Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs. The organization’s structure brings together people who must collaborate to efficiently produce desired outputs.  Centralized  Decentralized  Functional  Product or Customer Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs. The organization’s structure brings together people who must collaborate to efficiently produce desired outputs.  Centralized  Decentralized  Functional  Product or Customer 4-5
    6. 6. Firefighters work as a team. They and their equipment are the inputs and the output is an extinguished fire and the rescue of people and pets. In any organization or team, workers need to be cross- trained in several skills to create an effective team. Firefighters work as a team. They and their equipment are the inputs and the output is an extinguished fire and the rescue of people and pets. In any organization or team, workers need to be cross- trained in several skills to create an effective team. 4-6
    7. 7. Job Analysis Process of getting detailed information about jobs. Process of getting detailed information about jobs. 4-7
    8. 8. Job Descriptions  Jo b De scriptio n: a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.  Key components:  Job Title  Brief description of the TDRs  List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty  Jo b De scriptio n: a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.  Key components:  Job Title  Brief description of the TDRs  List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty 4-8
    9. 9. Figure 4.2: Sample Job Description 4-9
    10. 10. Job Specifications Job Specification: list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO needed to perform a particular job).  Knowledge: factual or procedural information necessary for successfully performing a task.  Skill: an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task.  Ability: a general enduring capability that an individual possesses.  Other Characteristics: job-related licensing, certifications, or personality traits. Job Specification: list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO needed to perform a particular job).  Knowledge: factual or procedural information necessary for successfully performing a task.  Skill: an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task.  Ability: a general enduring capability that an individual possesses.  Other Characteristics: job-related licensing, certifications, or personality traits. 4-10
    11. 11. Figure 4.3: Sample Job Specifications 4-11
    12. 12. Sources of Job Information 4-12
    13. 13. 4-13
    14. 14. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. 1. Information input 2. Mental processes 3. Work output 4. Relationships with other persons 5. Job context 6. Other characteristics 1. Information input 2. Mental processes 3. Work output 4. Relationships with other persons 5. Job context 6. Other characteristics What is it? Key sections: 4-14
    15. 15. Fleishman Job Analysis System Job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job. Job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job. • Written comprehension • Deductive reasoning • Manual dexterity • Stamina • Originality • Written comprehension • Deductive reasoning • Manual dexterity • Stamina • Originality What is it? Categories of abilities: 4-15
    16. 16. Figure 4.4: Example of an Ability from Fleishman Job Analysis System 4-16
    17. 17. Importance of Job Analysis Job analysis is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of all HRM functions. Almost every HRM program requires some type of information determined by job analysis. Job analysis is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of all HRM functions. Almost every HRM program requires some type of information determined by job analysis. • Work redesign • HR planning • Selection • Training • Performance appraisal • Career planning • Job evaluation • Work redesign • HR planning • Selection • Training • Performance appraisal • Career planning • Job evaluation 4-17
    18. 18. Table 4.1: competency model Project Manager Competencies Proficiency Ratings Organizational & Planning Skills Ability to establish priorities on projects and schedule activities to achieve results 1—Below Expectations 2—Meets Expectations 3—Exceeds Expectations Communications Ability to build credibility and trust through open and direct communications with internal and external customers. 1—Below Expectations 2—Meets Expectations 3—Exceeds Expectations Financial & Quantitative Skills Ability to analyze financial information accurately and set financial goals that have a positive impact on company’s bottom line and fiscal objective 1—Below Expectations 2—Meets Expectations 3—Exceeds Expectations 4-18
    19. 19. Trends in Job Analysis Organizations are being viewed as a field of work needing to be done, rather than as a set series of jobs held by individuals. “Dejobbing” – designing work by project rather than jobs. Organizations are being viewed as a field of work needing to be done, rather than as a set series of jobs held by individuals. “Dejobbing” – designing work by project rather than jobs. 4-19
    20. 20. Job Design  Jo b De sig n: the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.  Jo b Re de sig n: a similar process that involves changing an existing job design.  To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand:  job itself (through job analysis) and  its place in the units work flow (work flow analysis)  Jo b De sig n: the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.  Jo b Re de sig n: a similar process that involves changing an existing job design.  To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand:  job itself (through job analysis) and  its place in the units work flow (work flow analysis) 4-20
    21. 21. Figure 4.5: Approaches to Job Design 4-21
    22. 22. Designing Efficient Jobs  IndustrialEng ine e ring : study of jobs to find simplest way to structure work to maximize efficiency.  Reduces complexity of work.  Allows almost anyone to be trained quickly and easily perform the job.  Used for highly specialized and repetitive jobs.  IndustrialEng ine e ring : study of jobs to find simplest way to structure work to maximize efficiency.  Reduces complexity of work.  Allows almost anyone to be trained quickly and easily perform the job.  Used for highly specialized and repetitive jobs. 4-22
    23. 23. Designing Jobs That Motivate: The Job Characteristics Model 1. Skill variety – extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out tasks involved. 2. Task identity – degree to which a job requires completing a “whole” piece of work from beginning to end. 3. Task significance – extent to which the job has an important impact on lives of other people. 1. Skill variety – extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out tasks involved. 2. Task identity – degree to which a job requires completing a “whole” piece of work from beginning to end. 3. Task significance – extent to which the job has an important impact on lives of other people. 4-23
    24. 24. Designing Jobs that Motivate: Job Characteristics Model 4. Autonomy – degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way work will be carried out. 5. Feedback - extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself. 4. Autonomy – degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way work will be carried out. 5. Feedback - extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself. 4-24
    25. 25. Figure 4.6: Characteristics of a Motivating Job 4-25
    26. 26. Designing Jobs That Motivate Job Enlargement 4-26
    27. 27. Designing Jobs That Motivate • Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs. • Based on Herzberg’s theory of motivation. • Individuals motivated more by intrinsic aspects of work. • Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs. • Based on Herzberg’s theory of motivation. • Individuals motivated more by intrinsic aspects of work. Have authority for an entire work process or segment Team members motivated by autonomy, skill variety, and task identity. Have authority for an entire work process or segment Team members motivated by autonomy, skill variety, and task identity. Job Enrichment Self-Managing WorkTeams 4-27
    28. 28. Test Your Knowledge  Adding more tasks to an existing job is called ____________, while adding more decision- making authority to jobs is called _________. A. Job extension; job rotation B. Job rotation; job enrichment C. Job enlargement; job enrichment D. Job enlargement; job rotation 4-28
    29. 29. Designing Jobs That Motivate Flexible Work Schedules •A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization. •A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating. •A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization. •A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating. •A work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job. •Enables an organization to attract or retain valued employees who want more time to attend school or take care of family matters. •A work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job. •Enables an organization to attract or retain valued employees who want more time to attend school or take care of family matters. Flextime Job Sharing 4-29
    30. 30. Figure 4.7: Alternatives to 8-to-5 Job 4-30
    31. 31. Designing Jobs That Motivate Telework Telework – the broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office. • Advantages to employers include:  less need for office space  greater flexibility to employees with special needs • Easiest to implement for managerial, professional, or sales jobs. • Difficult to set up for manufacturing workers. Telework – the broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office. • Advantages to employers include:  less need for office space  greater flexibility to employees with special needs • Easiest to implement for managerial, professional, or sales jobs. • Difficult to set up for manufacturing workers. 4-31
    32. 32. Designing Ergonomic Jobs Ergonomics – study of interface between individuals’ physiology and characteristics of physical work environment. • Goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring physical work environment around the way the human body works. • Redesigning work to make it more worker- friendly can lead to increased efficiencies. Ergonomics – study of interface between individuals’ physiology and characteristics of physical work environment. • Goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring physical work environment around the way the human body works. • Redesigning work to make it more worker- friendly can lead to increased efficiencies. 4-32
    33. 33. Although employers in all industries are supposed to protect workers under the OSHA “general duty” clause, nursing homes, grocery stores, and poultry- processing plants are the only three industries for which OSHA has published ergonomic standards. 4-33
    34. 34. Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations • Work is designed to reduce information- processing requirements of the job. • Workers may be less likely to make mistakes or have accidents. • Simpler jobs may be less motivating. • Technology tools may be distracting employees from their primary task resulting in increased mistakes and accidents. • Work is designed to reduce information- processing requirements of the job. • Workers may be less likely to make mistakes or have accidents. • Simpler jobs may be less motivating. • Technology tools may be distracting employees from their primary task resulting in increased mistakes and accidents. 4-34
    35. 35. Ways to Simplify a Job’s Mental Demands  Limit amount of information and memorization that the job requires.  Organizations can provide:  adequate lighting  easy-to-read gauges and displays  simple-to-operate equipment  clear instructions  Limit amount of information and memorization that the job requires.  Organizations can provide:  adequate lighting  easy-to-read gauges and displays  simple-to-operate equipment  clear instructions 4-35
    36. 36. Summary Work flow analysis identifies:  amount and quality of a work unit’s outputs  work processes required to produce these outputs  inputs used to carry out processes and produce outputs • Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs, and organization’s structure brings people together for this purpose. • Job analysis is the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Work flow analysis identifies:  amount and quality of a work unit’s outputs  work processes required to produce these outputs  inputs used to carry out processes and produce outputs • Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs, and organization’s structure brings people together for this purpose. • Job analysis is the process of getting detailed information about jobs. 4-36
    37. 37. Summary  Job analysis includes preparation of  Job descriptions  Job specifications  Information for analyzing an existing job often comes from incumbents and their supervisors.  The U.S. Department of Labor provides information:  Dictionary of Occupational Titles  Occupational Information Network (O*NET)  Job analysis includes preparation of  Job descriptions  Job specifications  Information for analyzing an existing job often comes from incumbents and their supervisors.  The U.S. Department of Labor provides information:  Dictionary of Occupational Titles  Occupational Information Network (O*NET) 4-37
    38. 38. Summary  The nature of work and job design is changing.  Viewing organizations in terms of a field of work needing to be done instead of specific job descriptions  Organizations are adopting project-based structures and teamwork, which also require flexibility and ability to handle broad responsibilities.  The basic technique for designing efficient jobs is industrial engineering.  The nature of work and job design is changing.  Viewing organizations in terms of a field of work needing to be done instead of specific job descriptions  Organizations are adopting project-based structures and teamwork, which also require flexibility and ability to handle broad responsibilities.  The basic technique for designing efficient jobs is industrial engineering. 4-38
    39. 39. Summary  According to the Job Characteristics Model, jobs are more motivating if they have greater skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.  Ways to create such jobs include:  Job Enlargement  Job Rotation  Job Enrichment  Self-managing work teams offer greater skill variety and task identity  Flexible work schedules and telework offer greater autonomy  According to the Job Characteristics Model, jobs are more motivating if they have greater skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.  Ways to create such jobs include:  Job Enlargement  Job Rotation  Job Enrichment  Self-managing work teams offer greater skill variety and task identity  Flexible work schedules and telework offer greater autonomy 4-39
    40. 40. Summary  Goal of ergonomics is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works Employers may seek to reduce the mental as well as physical strain and reduce errors and accidents.  Job design may limit amount of information and memorization involved.  Technology tools may actually cause more distractions, errors, and accidents.  Goal of ergonomics is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works Employers may seek to reduce the mental as well as physical strain and reduce errors and accidents.  Job design may limit amount of information and memorization involved.  Technology tools may actually cause more distractions, errors, and accidents. 4-40
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×