WSC5.05 Introduction to Wine Business<br />Assignment 1 Part B<br />Prehistory <br />of <br />Wine<br /> Juliette Simmons 2001000675<br />
Wine has been around as long as civilization and has played many significant roles throughout history. <br />In this slideshow, the following topics will be discussed:<br /><ul><li>Where and when wine was discovered many years ago
The early viticulture practices that were developed
The many roles wine was used for in different societies
The difference between New World Wines and Old World wines</li></ul>Introduction<br />
Where & When Wine was Discovered<br /><ul><li>Wine has been around for thousands of years with the earliest known being discovered in a region of Georgia (which is situated at the dividing line of Asia and Europe) and Iran (which is situated in the Middle East).
There is no exact date for the first evidence of wine.
Remnants of wine from between 8,500 and 4,000 BC have been discovered
There has been confirmed evidence of wine being produced in the northern Zargros Mountains of Iran which date's back to between 5,400 and 5,000 BC with the use of carbon dating.
Archaeologists have also found evidence of wine production in northern Greece that dates back to 4,500 BC and in China where grapes were mixed with rice and fermented that dates back to around 7,000 BC.</li></ul>WORLD'S OLDEST BOTTLE of WINEThe bottle dates from approximately 325 A.D. and was found in 1867.<br />
Early Winemaking Techniques<br />The Ancient Egyptians was one of the first to processes grapes into wine. Their winemaking involved the following steps:<br />1. Harvesting - men women and children would cut the white, pink, green and dark blue grapes from the vines by hand and placed them in huge baskets which the men would transport on long stick to the processing area.<br />2. Treading and Pressing - directly after harvest the grapes were placed into large vats made of granite or schist. The men manually tread on the grapes while juice flowed through a drain to a smaller vat below. The treaded grapes were then placed on some linen that was stretched on a frame and squeezed until the juice was released into another vat below the cloth.<br />3. Fermentation - the vats were sealed in a warm place for several weeks until the wine was richer and more colourful depending on how much skins were left in the vats.<br />4. Bottling and Sealing - after fermentation the wine was filtered through clothes to remove any solids and poured into wide jars with coned bases that collected detritus should the wine continue to ferment in storage. Reeds, straw and pottery pieces were used as stoppers.<br />
Early Viticulture Practices<br />Romans <br /><ul><li>Theuse of stakes as a form of trellis systems to train vines up instead of </li></ul> tree trunks to help improve canopy management <br /><ul><li>Trimmed the canopy to control the sun exposure of the berries for ripening.
One of the first to grow vines on steep hillsidesasthe cool air would run down the hill to the valley which reduced the amount of cool air around the vine and the winter frost weren't so severe.</li></ul>Ancient Greek<br /><ul><li>Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and vegetation, taught the early Greeks how to grow the grapes.
First recorded people in history to plant commercial vineyards, around 3500 years ago.
Thought that an important technique was to study vineyard soils and match them with specific varieties. They also controlled yields to improve the concentration of flavours and quality, rather than increased quantity
Used suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings.
Practiced vine training with stacked plants for easier growing and harvesting, rather than letting the grapevines grow untrained in bushes or up trees</li></ul>Catholic monks<br /><ul><li>Were one of the first to studied vines in the middle ages. </li></ul>The study involved what varieties were best suitable to<br /> different environments.<br />An Ancient Roman Vineyard Site <br />
The Use of Wine in Different Societies<br />Wine was used and prohibited in many societies for different reasons<br />Romans:<br />In Rome the was two religious groups that saw wine a positive light and that was:<br /><ul><li>Judaism - wines an important part of Jewish laws and traditions like the Kiddush which is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify a Jewish holiday and also wine was apart of the sacrificial service in the Temple of Jerusalem.
Christianity - views on the use of wine is viewed with Christians being taught that wine is a gift from god to make life more joyous to over consuming too much wine which leads to drunkenness as being a sin. But wine was used in a sacred rites like the Eucharist which originates with the Last Supper where Jesus shares bread and wine with his disciples and tells them to remember him. </li></ul>The consumption of wine women was prohibited and if the husband caught the wife drinking wine he was allowed to legally kill of divorce her.<br />For medical use the Romans used wine to heal the mind from depression, memory loss and grief as well as the body from various ailments-including bloating, constipation, diarrhoea, gout, halitosis, snakebites, tapeworms, urinary problems and vertigo. Wounds would be bathed in wine as an antiseptic and used as analgesic for surgery. The Romans also were aware if wine was consumed over moderation there was a tendency towards "madness".<br />
The Use of Wine in Different Societiescont<br />Islam :<br />Wine was forbidden under most interpretation of Islamic law<br />Greeks:<br />In addition to wine being a trade commodity the Greeks used wine for important religious and social festivals, these were held through out the year to honour the God of wine.<br />Wine was used for medical reasons like curing fevers, convalescence, antiseptic. analgesic, diuretic, tonic and even a digestive aid.<br />Also they were aware that consuming too much wine has a negative health affect like inducing a hangovers.<br />Ancient Egyptians:<br />Wine was mixed with herbs and tree resins to make natural medicines as they were aware of the benefits of natural additives when dissolved into an alcoholic medium<br />Egyptian Wine Jar <br />about 5000 years ago <br />
Old World Wines vs. New World Wines<br /> Wine has evolved over thousands of years in the techniques and processes that are involved to make a wine. This has resulted in two different types of wines being produced, that is one is very traditional and the over new age. These two types are known as old World Wines and New World Wines. <br />Old World wines <br /><ul><li>Are wines that are produced in the classic wine making regions in Europe like Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain. They generally can be dated back to their origins of the Roman Empire and beyond. The wine is classified by traditions and history of acertain region and terroir which is soil, climate and topography of that certain region. There are local regulations and laws for that region that have to be followed to allow a wine to be associated with that region.
Winemaking techniques are driven by the terroirto emphasis where the grapes originate from. Old World winemakers tend to be more open to use of wild, ambient yeasts during the fermentation process as a part of the terroir with other techniques used like higher fermentation temperatures and a period of extended maceration following fermentation for more phenolic compounds from the grape skins to add more layers of complexity that require longer periods of bottle aging in order to mature.
The viticulture techniques and practices that are used have been adapted from hundreds even thousands of years ago. Vineyards generally have high vine density and close proximately of plantings because pruning and harvesting was done manually, but now some are increasing the spacing for mechanical techniques.</li></li></ul><li>New World wines <br /><ul><li>Are Wines that are produced outside the traditional wine growing areas of Europe, like Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. There no regulations or laws for the wine that comes from a certain country or region.
New World winemaking techniques are used to bring out the fruit flavours of a wine. The winemakers often use cultured yeast strains and oak barrels during fermentation and inducing malolactic fermentation early, they are also more open to experimenting with new scientific advances (like the use of enzymes as an additive). This results in a wine being softer and mature earlier.</li></ul>Old World Wines vs. New World WinesCont.<br />Where old and new wine regions are found<br />
<ul><li>Ancient Wine Jar picture</li></ul>Egyptian Scorpion King made Medicine from Herbs & Booze 5k Years Ago Retrieved on 17 August 2011<br />http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2009/04/14/egyptian-scorpion-king-made-medicine-from-herbs-booze-5k-years-ago<br /><ul><li>World Oldest Bottle of Wine picture</li></ul>Wine History ... science and social impact through time ... Retrieved on 18 August 2011<br />http://www.winepros.org/wine101/history.htm<br /><ul><li>Ancient Roman Vineyard Site picture. </li></ul>What are Lynchets Terracing on Hills. Retrieved on 18 August 2011<br />http://www.rodcollins.com/wordpress/what-are-lynchets-terracing-on-hills<br /><ul><li>Map of Old World Wine vs. New World Wine Regions picture</li></ul>What Are New World Wines? Retreived on 18 August 2011<br />http://winepressblogger.com/1600/what-are-new-world-wines/<br />Bibliography<br />
Part A References <br />Who Discovered Wine? Retrieved on 16 August 2011<br />http://www.wineandfoodtravel.com/wine/wine-101/hey-who-discovered-wine/<br /> <br />Wine History ... science and social impact through time ... Retrieved on 16 August 2011<br />http://www.winepros.org/wine101/history.htm<br /> <br />Wikipedia. History of Making Wine. Retrieved on 8 August 2011<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wine<br /> <br />The History of Making Wine. Retreived on 8 August 2011<br />http://greathomemadewine.ca/hw/HistoryOfWine.html<br /> <br />Primitive Wine Making Methods. Retrieved on 11 August 2011<br />http://www.ehow.com/info_8362288_primitive-wine-making-methods.html<br /> <br />Viticulture. Retrieved on 11 August 2011 <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viticulture<br /> <br /> <br />
Quality Vintages/Roman Wine. Retrieved on 17 August 2011<br />http://www.mmdtkw.org/VRomanWine.html<br />Ancient Rome and wine. Retrieved on 8 August 2011<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome_and_wine<br /> <br />Wikipedia. Old World Wine. Retrieved on 8 August 2011<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World_wine<br /> <br />Wikipedia. New World Wine. Retrieved on 8 August 2011<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World_wine<br />Reference Cont<br />