Ebook 2
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Ebook 2 Document Transcript

  • 1. Concluding Paragraphs 8th Grade Style Matt Hilbrich, Kangni Gu, Juliet Kelsten
  • 2. Chapter 1 What are concluding paragraphs and why are they important? 1
  • 3. Let’s Get Started With a Video... Jenny Sawyer: How to Write that A+ Paper 2
  • 4. Definition A concluding paragraph is the last paragraph in your essay intended to sum up your ideas, restate your thoughts, and provide a broader meaning for the reader Synthesize (or rephrase) your information, DON’T just summarize your thoughts in the exact same way 3
  • 5. The purpose of conclusions is to: • make a final impression on your readers • summarize your thoughts • demonstrate the importance of your work • propel the reader to look at the issue(s) in a new way • end on a positive note 4
  • 6. Chapter 2 How to write a concluding paragraph 5
  • 7. There are 3 Parts: 1. Restate Thesis Statement Write a sentence that states your main claim, but do not simply use the same sentence that is in the introduction paragraph. 2. Summation Summarize your arguments in a new way, but do not be repetitive. Explain your topic in a broader context, without adding new ideas. 3. Concluding Sentence End your essay on a positive note. 6
  • 8. Identifying the three parts of your conclusion paragraph: Restate Thesis Summation Concluding Sentence Sample Essay: Technology in the 21st Century (INTRO.)! Technology has changed the world in which we live. In some ways it has made communication better and easier. In other ways, technology has decreased the person-to-person contact. Overall, technology has enhanced our society, even though it has made some negative impacts as well. (BODY) The word ‘technology’ is an umbrella term for computers, cell phones, software, apps, the Internet, and social media. All of these devices have become accessible for most people and in almost every situation. This has made navigation, work, and communication easier. (BODY)   Unfortunately, though, this unlimited access to technology has changed the culture of the world. People are always texting, tweeting, and snapping. This has decreased the face-to-face contact people have with one another, and it allows for cyber bullying, which is a dangerous and sad reality. (CONCL.) Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects. Because there are so many good and bad consequences to technology, it is important to educate students and their parents about technology and its effects. This is part of a teacher’s job, and it is a good preventative technique to keep technology from being harmful to our society.    7
  • 9. 1.Restating Your Thesis Original Thesis: Overall, technology has enhanced our society, even though it has made some negative impacts as well. Tips: • Choose powerful words ! (“impossible to ignore”) • Cha!enge readers to develop a ! standpoint • Emphasize the importance of your work 8 **The restated thesis should summarize your claim, in a new and interesting way.** Thesis Restated: Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects.
  • 10. 2. Summation -Mention your arguments in a new way -Combine your ideas to show connections -Make your viewpoint on the issue very clear Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects. Because there are so many good and bad consequences to technology, it is important to educate students and their parents about technology and its effects. This is part of a teacher’s job, and it is a good preventative technique to keep technology from being harmful to our society.   9
  • 11. 3. Concluding Sentence -Finish your essay on a positive note -Explain your claim in a broader context -Offer su#estions to readers -NO CLIFFHANGERS!! Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects. Because there are so many good and bad consequences to technology, it is important to educate students and their parents about technology and its effects. This is part of a teacher’s job, and it is a good preventative technique to keep technology from being harmful to our society.   10
  • 12. Chapter 3 What makes a superb concluding paragraph? 11
  • 13. Contains a reworded thesis statement Only summarizes information Never introduces new arguments Combines all information from essay Lets the reader know the broader point Uses proper grammar and organization Shouldn’t be repetitive Includes final thoughts on the topic Only restates ideas in a new way Nicely ends the essay 12
  • 14. What is GOOD and NOT-SOGOOD about this conclusion? Good Not-so-good (INTRO)! Technology has changed the world in which we live. In some ways it has made communication better and easier. In other ways, technology has decreased the person-to-person contact. Overall, technology has enhanced our society, even though it has made some negative impacts as well. (BODY) ! ! The word ‘technology’ is an umbrella term for computers, cell phones, software, apps, the Internet, and social media. All of these devices have become accessible for most people and in almost every situation. This has made navigation, work, and communication easier. (BODY)   Unfortunately, though, this unlimited access to technology has changed the culture of the world. People are always texting, tweeting, and snapping. This has decreased the face-to-face contact people have with one another, and it allows for cyber bullying, which is a dangerous and sad reality. (CONCLUSION) Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects. Because there are so many good and bad consequences to technology, it is important to educate students and their parents about technology and its effects. This is part of a 13 teacher’s job, and it is a good preventative technique to keep technology from being harmful to our society.   
  • 15. Good -restates the thesis without being repetitive -summarizes points mentioned earlier -comments on the topic in a broader way -ends the essay on a positive note -the author makes her viewpoint clear and remains on topic 14 Not-so-good -the vocabulary could be stronger -use a thesaurus as to not repeat words -Start sentences in an active voice not passive voice
  • 16. What makes a good concluding paragraph in general? Good -do not repeat your arguments word for word -explain your final thoughts in a different way -end your essay on a positive note -use good grammar -use strong vocabulary words 15 Same Not-so-good
  • 17. What makes a not-so-good concluding paragraph in general? Good -do not repeat your arguments word for word -explain your final thoughts in a different way -end your essay on a positive note -use good grammar -use strong vocabulary words 16 Same Not-so-good -repeats the exact wording of the essay -doesn’t stay on topic -doesn’t explain the essay in a broader context -uses poor vocabulary -contains grammatical errors
  • 18. What’s the same about good and not-so-good concluding paragraphs in general? Good -do not repeat your arguments word for word -explain your final thoughts in a different way -end your essay on a positive note -use good grammar -use strong vocabulary words 17 Same Not-so-good -mention your arguments again -explains final thoughts -ends your essay -repeats the exact wording of the essay -doesn’t stay on topic -doesn’t explain the essay in a broader context -uses poor vocabulary -contains grammatical errors
  • 19. Chapter 4 The broader picture: looking at the essay as a whole 18
  • 20. Your concluding paragraph can only be great if your entire essay is... List your strengths and weaknesses as a writer... Be honest with yourself, and you wi$ see more productive results! ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 19 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  • 21. Let’s Review Introduction Paragraphs... DO... -introduce your topic with a hook -mention your arguments -state your thesis -identify your voice and style of essay -be specific -stay on topic DON’T... -use dictionary definition -use generalizations -waffle back and forth -summarize the plot of a book -announce your intentions (i.e. I am going to write about...) 20
  • 22. Let’s review body paragraphs... SHOULD... -introduce only one main argument per body paragraph -connect back to your thesis -include transitions between ideas -be on topic -help prove your points -include other sources to back up your opinions SHOULD NOT... -include slang or casual jargon -be off topic -include grammatical errors -have more than argument per paragraph 21
  • 23. There are 3 main goals in essay writing... 1. introduction paragraph should explain what your main claim is and preview how you are going to prove it 2. body paragraphs should prove your points in an organized fashion 3. conclusion paragraph should tie all the loose ends together 22
  • 24. Use this checklist to “grade” the sample essay: • Introduction Paragraph • Hook • Short explanation of arguments • Clear, concise, specific thesis statement • Body Paragraphs • Topic sentence that introduces argument in that paragraph • Specific examples and explanations for each argument • transition sentence to next argument • Conclusion Paragraph • restate thesis statement • summation • concluding sentence ocabulary • Grammar and V • essay should be free of grammatical errors and typos • words should not be overly-used (use a thesaurus) • use a dictionary to strengthen your vocabulary 23
  • 25. Chapter 5 Practice identifying the parts of the essay 24
  • 26. SAMPLE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH Key: Hook Arguments Thesis Statement ! ! ! Technology has changed the world in which we live. In some ways it has made communication better and easier. In other ways, technology has decreased the person-to-person contact. Overall, technology has enhanced our society, even though it has made some negative impacts as well. 25
  • 27. SAMPLE BODY PARAGRAPH #1 Key: topic sentence support transition sentence ! ! ! The word ‘technology’ is an umbrella term for computers, cell phones, software, apps, the Internet, and social media. All of these devices have become accessible for most people and in almost every situation. This has made navigation, work, and communication easier. 26
  • 28. SAMPLE BODY PARAGRAPH #2 Key: topic sentence support transition sentence ! ! ! Unfortunately, though, this unlimited access to technology has changed the culture of the world. People are always texting, tweeting, and snapping. This has decreased the face-to-face contact people have with one another, and it allows for cyber bullying, which is a dangerous and sad reality. 27
  • 29. SAMPLE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH Key: restate thesis summation conclusion paragraph ! ! ! Although it is obvious that technology has bettered our society, it is impossible to ignore the fact that it has also had some negative effects. Because there are so many good and bad consequences to technology, it is important to educate students and their parents about technology and its effects. This is part of a teacher’s job, and it is a good preventative technique to keep technology from being harmful to our 28
  • 30. Chapter 6 Strategies for your concluding paragraph 29
  • 31. Idea One: Start your essay from the middle or end Sometimes starting at the beginning can be the hardest thing! Take a different approach and... -sum up your ideas first -expand on your arguments -work on your thesis statement 30
  • 32. Idea Two: Do Research If you feel stuck, do some research about your topic in order to get your thoughts rolling and to see other people’s ideas....be careful not to plagiarize 31
  • 33. Idea Three: Talk with a friend Talk about your essay casually with a friend or teacher to brainstorm. You can even recorder your conversation and try to write from that! 32
  • 34. Idea Four: explore the other side If your paper is argumentative or persuasive, look at the opposing viewpoint to see how you can structure your comebacks 33
  • 35. Idea Five: Refresh your memory on words that signal a “transition” or “conclusion” Transitions: -moreover -however -oppositely -for example -but -though 34 Conclusion: -in conclusion -finally -in the end -lastly -eventually -at last
  • 36. -the introduction paragraph should catch your reader’s attention, mention your point, and introduce your claim -the body paragraphs should explain your arguments, have support for each point, and provide transitions to other ideas -the conclusion paragraph should tie loose ends together by restating your thesis, summing up your arguments, and closing the essay on a positive note -remember none of these parts function well without one another 35
  • 37. CREDITS: PICTURES: hamburgeressay-http://grammarandcomposition.wikispaces.com/file/view/hamburger2.jpg/59346122/hamburger2.jp g blackboard-http://www.wallpapermania.eu/wallpaper/green-blackboard-back-to-school dictionary-http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/d/d1/20130603002655!Dictionary_Icon.png got purpose-https://www.outreach.com/media/print/product/product_images/IC1231820_l.jpg writing-http://library.thinkquest.org/J001156/forms%20of%20writing/writing.GIF thesis wordle-http://blogs.msbcollege.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/thesis_statement.jpg A+-http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-83r-7l3MnA4/UYa1PRMRldI/AAAAAAAADNw/UyTXE0ohVw4/s1600/grade-a.jpg goodandbad-http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/coramax/coramax1208/coramax120801690/14815095-3d-people--m an-person-presents-good-and-bad-words.jpg venn diagram-http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/2venn.gif bigger picture-http://www.darcymoore.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/3279873902_9cf69cb55a_z.jpeg strengths and weaknesses-http://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/p/5/000/228/3fa/39ba681.png introduction paragraphs-http://stpaddys.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/6/8/13689605/2277045_orig.jpg?391 body paragraph-http://teachers.saschina.org/mbradshaw/files/2013/01/body-paragraph-structure.jpg five paragraph essay-http://img.ozessay.com.au/content/five-paragraph-essay-structure.png checklist-http://www.lymphomaclub.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/mental-strength-checklist-1.jpg introduction-http://blog.contactually.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/introduction.jpg content-http://www.gonetbusiness.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Content-Marketing-Introduction.jpg finishline-http://www.lifetime-weightloss.com/storage/wl_bmtn_finish_line_020313.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHE VERSION=1359672027403 essay house-http://www.caribexams.org/files/files/essay_structure3.gif takehomepoints-http://eatsleepmove.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/take-home-message.png pen-http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Stipula_fountain_pen.jpg essayorganization-http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Ow77BN7tPlg/T0PyBCccTMI/AAAAAAAAB4A/8P4i2Led1ig/s1600/I MG_0277.JPG research-http://www.vumc.com/27576/7086114/7086164/Homepagecarroussel-research1.jpg talk about idea-http://lovedelusions.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/How_to_Talk_to_Girls.jpg thegrassisgreener-http://www.inboundsales.net/Portals/87880/images/Lead%20Generation%20-%20Is%20he%20g rass%20really%20greener%20on%20the%20other%20side%20of%20the%20fence.png colorful gear shifts-http://images.colourbox.com/thumb_COLOURBOX3524433.jpg 8th grade pencil-http://donnamathgames.pbworks.com/f/1344454753/8th%20grade%20math.jpg OTHER RESOURCES: http://www.tutorforenglish.com/courses/Essay/Show.aspx?Lesson=Essay_Structure_Checklist http://www.asdk12.org/Middlelink/LA/writing/StepUp/Transition_Closing_Words.pdf https://wikis.engrade.com/writingaconclusionparag VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tGl4GR5LdmA 36
  • 38. User’s Guide: This book is intended for 8th grade English students. It contains information about concluding paragraphs, and thus satisfies standard CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1e. That element of the eighth grade curriculum states that students must be able to provide a concluding statement or section that fo$ows %om and supports the argument(s) presented. This book also reviews essays as a whole and other writing strategies, since these things effect conclusion paragraphs as we$. 37