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  • 1. Chapter One:Special Education
    Sped 413
  • 2. Critical Legislation
    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
    Public Law 94-142
    Passed in 1975
    Initially authorized funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion and improvement of Special Ed. Programs
    States had to adhere to provisions in order to receive federal funds
    Goal was to provide an appropriate education for special needs students
    Name changed to IDEA in 2004
  • 3. Critical Legislation
    Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) in 2004
    Key Components added:
    Schools must provide a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for special needs students
    If unable to furnish, must provide transportation and related services when necessary
    Special needs students are required to have an IEP (Individual Education Program)
    IEP is a Legal written document formed by the multidisciplinary team, parents and student:
    Establish learning goals, determine the services the school district must provide to meet those learning goals, and to enhance communication among parents and professional about the student’s program
    Transition Planning – Must begin before the student reaches the age of 16 (IEP)
    Coordinated set of activities to help the student for a life after high school based on the student’s needs
    Transition to postsecondary school, vocational training, employment, adult education, adult services, independent living, community participation
    Assistive Technology - Schools must assume maintenance or replacement responsibilities for family-owned assistive technologies
  • 4. IDEA
    Key Components Cont.
    LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)-Schools must education disabled students in the general education setting as much as possible; explained in the IEP
    Parent and Student Participation:
    Parental Consent must accompany every decision that affects a child with a disability
    Parents must consent to the evaluation of a students education abilities and needs, determination of necessary services, and the placement of their child in special ed.
    Procedural Safeguards:
    Parents have the right to educational records, Obtain in IEE (Independent Educational Evaluation), Request a Due Process Hearing, Appeal decisions
  • 5. Section 504
    Part of the Rehabilitation Act
    Any student who has a physical or mental impartment that substantially limits one or more major life activity can qualify
    Can be short term or long term disabilities
    Students are able to receive a FAPE
  • 6. ADA
    Americans with Disabilities Act passes in 1990
    Law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunication systems
    Individuals with disabilities are protected against discrimination
  • 7. NCLB
    No Child Left Behind passed in 2001
    Was the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    Intent to better serve special needs students and hold schools more accountable using scientifically based instruction
    Annual state standards in language arts and mathematics for ALL STUDENTS
    Schools must pass AYP (Annual Yearly Progress) in order to receive federal funds. If they do not meet AYP, schools are punished and considered “failing”
    Funds available for parents to move their children who attend a “failing” school to a better one in order to receive appropriate special educational services
    Goal was to 100% of all students graduate from high school!
    Set a goal of having all teachers fully qualified by 2006
  • 8. Standard Based Education
    What is taught in public schools, must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standard that now exist in core subject areas of language arts, mathematics, and science
    Purpose to have a common set of goals and mileposts of all schools in states
    Began in 2001 with passage of NCLB
  • 9. Student Accountability
    Due to passage of NCLB in 2001, ALL public school students must take state standard tests
    Most students with disabilities will take the regular statewide tests
    Some students will take the tests using some type of accommodation
    Some students with more severe needs will be exempt from the regular statewide tests and will take an alternative assessment
    Must be documented in their IEP BEFORE they take the standard tests
  • 10. Inclusion
    Not just a physical place, time
    Accepting Differences
    Disabled students are not judged
    Adults are role models: Children see adults accept everyone, they will do the same
  • 11.
  • 12. UDL
    Universal Design for Learning
    Goals to provide an appropriate challenge for ALL students
    Materials have a flexible format, supporting transformation between media and multiple representations of content to support all students
    Methods are flexible and diverse enough to provide appropriate learning experience, challenges, and support for ALL students
    Assessment is flexible to provide accurate, ongoing information that helps teachers adjust instruction and maximize learning
  • 13. Differentiated Instruction
    Intent to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each students where he/she is, and assisting them in the learning process
    Allows special needs students to spend more time in general educational settings
  • 14. Evidence Based Practice
    Due to NCLB and IDEA: Teacher Accountability
    Require teachers to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the populations with whom they are being used
  • 15. Diversity Considerations
    Not all students are the same
    Teachers must be sensitive to the diverse needs of their students in order for them to excel in school
    Teachers must be knowledgeable about diversity and develop skills to address the needs of every student
  • 16. Diversity Considerations
    Dimensions of Diversity:
    Setting (Urban, Migrant)
    Sexual Orientation
    * ONLY 3 align with disabilities
    Disabilities are not always visible. No matter what kind of disability a student has (physical, learning, behavioral) they may need help. In the short time frame students are in school; parents, educators, staff and students must all work together to help every student accomplish their goals while meeting their individual needs.