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Our PowerPoint Presentation about Gertrude Bonnin Simmons.

Our PowerPoint Presentation about Gertrude Bonnin Simmons.

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Zitkala Ša (Red Bird)
    • Born on the Yankton Sioux Reservation on February 22, 1876
    • Died in Washington DC on January 26, 1938
    • Native American activist, writer, and public speaker
    • Began schooling at White’s Manual Institute
    • Continued her education at Earlham College
    • Married Raymond Bonnin in May 1902
    • Had a son, Raymond Ohiya Bonnin born in 1903
    • Moved from Utah to Washington DC in 1916 so Zitkala could take up her elected position
  • 3.
    • Took 2 nd place overall at a statewide oratory contest in 1896
    • Started working for the Carlisle Institute’s publication, The Indian Helper, in 1897
    • “ Impressions of an Indian Childhood,” “The Schooldays of an Indian Girl,” and “ An Indian teacher among Indians” published in 1900
    • Published her first full-length book, Old Indian Legends, in 1901
  • 4.
    • Her short story, “The Soft-Hearted Sioux” and the essay-manifesto “Why I Am a Pagan” appeared in Harper’s Monthly in 1901
    • Carlisle publication reacted angrily, calling Zitkala “a person of infinite conceit” and “utterly unthankful for all that has been done for her by the pale faces, which in her case is considerable”
  • 5.
    • Stories are an autobiography of her life
      • Was a free spirited young girl who led a simple life with her mother
      • Was treated with love and respect
      • Quaker missionaries came to reservation
        • She was mesmerized by them and their stories
        • She was persuaded to go with them by their promises of more beautiful lands and apple orchids
  • 6.
    • When she first arrived she was terrified
    • She was forced to cut her hair
      • In her culture that was a sign of shame and mourning
    • After three years of schooling at White’s Manual Labor Institute, she was allowed to return home to see her family, where she stayed for four years
    • Upon her return, she felt estranged from Euro-Americans and also disconnected with her Native American Culture
  • 7.
    • She then returned east to receive her high school diploma, and begin her college career
    • Although people made racist comments to her and ridiculed her, she felt a sense of victory and accomplishment in front an American audience
    • She went on to teach in Pennsylvania
    • She returned to the Yankton reservation to recruit students for the next school year
    • After returning she decided she should not return to teach at Carlisle
  • 8.
    • A Sioux boy returns to his native culture after being away for several years
    • He is rejected by the natives, because he has strayed from their way of life, and is viewed as useless
    • He then attempts to revert back to his culture in order to save his father
    • He kills a man and ends up being imprisoned
    • At the end he shows his struggle of knowing where he belongs
  • 9.
    • An essay that address her views of Indian spirituality as opposed to Christianity
    • She believed in one Great Spirit that looked over everyone
  • 10.
    • http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Bios/entries/bonnin_gertrude_simmons_zitkalasa.html
    • http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/gsbonnin.htm