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Ed 276 A, Month #1, Sept 11 12


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  • Have everyone share their words.Many people in the field of early care and organization think about power negatively. It may be that they are thinking of a traditional definition of power: Posession of control or authority over others. Often when we notice issues of power in movies, literature, TV etc, power is not represented in a positive light (misued, abuses of power) and not within the communication patterns we are most comfortable with. Many people in our field would prefer to say that they are more comfortable thinking about themselves as empowering others….supporting others to act and have agency (rather than in posessing power).In a field where we don’t have enough resources (!) and the work is often undervalued (ever have the experience of someone’s eyes glazing over when you talk about ECE or people thinking about you as just “playing with kids” ?), it is easy for power to be something that is disowned. The field as a whole is more likely, perhaps, to think about our lack of power. Often times we struggle with our own legitimate power, we avoid it, we feel uncomfortable about embracing a powerful role, or in our field, we often face the reality that it is others who define what we can/can’t do, we feel as though we have no choice in a system that gives away our power.Can be uncomfortable talking about power……We need to realize that many of us are socialized in ways that suggest that to be powerful is to lack understanding, fairness and compassion. We worry about being powerful because of our fears about what others might think and say. In this way, we need to reflect on whether there is fear at the root of our conceptualizations of power, what this fear represents, and how we can overcome these fears in order to embrace our own personal power with confidence. One of our goals in class will be for you to reflect deeply about your own relationship with power and to bring voice to these things you know intuitively and see in operation everyday. We will be working to shift our perceptions of power from negative to positive, to understand that power isn’t bad, it is the abuse of power that is (looking for ways to use power for good and letting go of our fears)Given the vacuum of power in our field, it is not a surprise that Marcy and Lea looked outside our field to get some perspective on this issue….Remember, whenever you get people together, issues of power are in play.
  • According to Hill, power and conflict are inevitable in organizations. Whether it is constructive or destructive to the group has to do with how it is used. The question isn’t whether there are power dynamics at work, but how they operate. And as we shall explore over the course of the year, there are better and worse ways that people and groups use their power.Why does she think power and conflict are inevitable?What does she mean when she says powerlessness corrupts? Can you provide an example?
  • Political conflict more likely under certain conditions. Thus, there is a distinction between power dynamics and political conflict.
  • Hill suggests that understanding power is inevitably about understanding the interdependence of people and the sources of power. These variables give you a way to understand power dynamics.Interdependence: Who is dependent on whom for what? Whose cooperation is needed? Whose compliance? Scarcity…Relevant differences: values, goals, stakes, stylesWhat reinforces them?Where is conflict?Hill also gave us a strategy for thinking about our own individual power in various professional situations. Next month we will apply these ideas to an analysis of the main characters in the movie “Norma Rae”.
  • Kotter article moves our focus to leaders and their role in groups. Need to understand his distinctions between leaders and managers. Is there anybody who wants to try and explain?Leaders need plans to complement their visions.
  • Typically, we all have elements of both and need both to be effectiveHelpful to think about which is dominant in you. Do you have a sense of that?Think about the head of your organization. Are they more one or the other, a good balance? Are there a couple of people who share the role?
  • Think about own experiences….these in place?Think about how you work with emerging leaders?
  • Example of transformational leadership theoryWe will read most of this book over the course of the semester/yearDo you agree with this assertion? Have you experienced it?As a profession, we are not there but are aspiring to this…
  • BA and stratification
  • Senge travels back and forth between the group and the individual
  • Systems thinking is a way to understand complex relationships between multiple variablesMakes visible how structures influence performance and also resistance to changeHow can you see the system of which you are a part?
  • Do you see these learning disabilities at work in your organization or the field?Can you give examples?
  • Each of you have a leadership theory written on a piece of paper that was discussed in the reading. Find the other person (people) with the same type of theory and spend a few minutes describing it and the extent to which you think it is useful. When we return to the full group, you will be asked to give us a very brief description of it. We will discuss what’s useful about it.For sixty or so years, people have been studying leadership, trying to understand what makes someone a good leader, important for business, health of organizations, and politics. Some focus on the emergence of leaders others on the effectiveness.Some of these theories have a research base, established knowledge, while others are more reasonable hypotheses that people are trying to test.Started in the 1940s….in the order laid out, transformative and charismatic are the dominant theories today.
  • Personal qualities and characteristics (FDR, perseverance)Five traits identified in 4 or more studies in the 1960s, switched when organized around personality frameworksFirst three established in researchExtroversion the most (emergences)Similar to Hill’s personal sources of power
  • 1000 traits, reduced to twoDiscredited but later validated through researchEmployees like more considerate leaders, and those more into initiating structures are judged more productiveMichigan found employee oriented to be more productive and better likedLeadership or management grid—concern for people, concern for productionHow to blend trait and behavioral theory?
  • Same person not always effective, leaders rise and fall. This is why people are trying to understand which situation requires which kind of leader and leader behavior
  • Leader-member relations (good or bad)Task structure (high or low)Position power (strong or weak)Best fit is good relationships, more structure and more positional powerChanged the latter to say some do better with high or low control, some with moderateSome elements test well in research, but leadership style not stable and complexMatch style and situation to get best results…..some combinations work better than others
  • Leaders differentiate
  • Leaders make path to success clear and helps to remove roadblocksDepending on the situation, leader can exhibit any of the behaviors…Behavior modified by environment and subordinatesTwo classes of contingency variables that moderate leadership behaviorIn the environment (outside of employee control, e.g., task structure, formal authority system, work group)Personal characteristics of employee (locus of control, experience, perceived ability)Environmental factors determine the type of leader behavior required as a complement if follower outcomes are maximizedPersonal characteristics determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpretedPredicts some leader behavior redundant with aspects of structure and incongruent with certain employee characteristics (employee internal locus of control better with participative leadership, directive style if highly structured tasks could be stressful). Picture on p. 185Research: complexity makes it hard to study—jury is out. Some say we don’t know how to test, others say it isn’t an accurate theory
  • Negative examples in historyMany highly successful companies have an absence of ego driven charismatic leaders, instead, these leaders put their focus on the company
  • Transactional focused on established goalsTransformational: transcend self-interest, focused on change.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Welcome LPEC Students!
      • Make a name tent
      • 2. Take a handful of M&Ms
      We will start soon…
    • 3. Name You Want Me to Call You
      Three M&Ms (color coded answers)
      Goal you Have for the Semester
      Red: Favorite hobbies
      Green: Favorite foods
      Yellow: Favorite movies
      Orange: Favorite places to travel
      Brown: Meaningful experience from the summer
      Blue: Wild card (interesting fact about you)
    • 4. ED 276A Leadership Seminar September 11-12
      Leaders and Power
    • 5. When you think about the word power in relation to people, what first comes to mind?
      Take a moment and write down the first words that come to mind
    • 6.
      • Power defined as: The potential of an individual to influence another individual or group
      • 7. People exercise power to change attitudes and behaviors of others
      • 8. Power and conflict inevitable in organizations
      • 9. Powerlessness also corrupts
      Linda Hill: Power Dynamics in Organizations
    • 10. Political Conflict in OrganizationsHill, L. Power Dyanamics in Organizations
      Precipitating Factors:
      • Crisis
      • 11. Void in Authority
      • 12. Formation of competing coalitions
      Sources of Political Conflict
      • Diversity
      • 13. Interdependence
      • 14. Competition for scarce resources
      Prevention Factors
      • Thick culture of shared value
      • 15. Leadership
      • 16. Capacity to resolve conflict
      Action of Key Players
      Creativity and Innovation
      Political Infighting
    • 17. Sources of Positional Power:
    • 18. Sources of Personal Power
    • 19.
      • Is it effective for the individual?
      • 20. Is it effective for the organization?
      • 21. Is it ethical?
      Linda Hill
      Assessing Individual Power and Influence
    • 22. Distinguishes leaders and managers
      Need a balance between leadership and management within organizations (and ideally in leaders/managers as individuals)
      Often organizations over managed, under led
      Leadership and management are distinctive and complimentary
      Kotter: What Leaders Really Do
    • 23. Kotter: Leaders vs Manager
    • 24.
      • Challenge early in career involving risk and willingness to learn from triumphs and failures
      • 25. Broadening experiences and networks
      • 26. Developmentally appropriate mentoring and coaching
      What makes leaders?
    • 27. It is helpful to think about yourself along the dimensions of leadership and management. Which is dominant in you?
      Think about the head of your organization. Are they more one or the other, a good balance? Are there a couple of people who share the role?
      Personal Reflection: Leaders and Managers
    • 28. Within your organization, is your power personal and/or positional?
      What qualities describe your power?
      Final Reflection
    • 29. The most successful organizations will be “learning organizations.”
      Work must become more learningful.
      Peter Senge: The Fifth Discipline
    • 30.
      • Assertion: Organizations are healthy when learning occurs
      • 31. Learning organizations are those that tap people’s commitment to learn at all levels and positions within the organization
      • 32. Learning organizations are created
      • 33. Discipline: Developmental path for acquiring skills and knowledge
      • 34. An approach or disposition towards knowledge construction and relationships, *NOT* best practices or emulating a model
      Peter Senge’sFifth Discipline
    • 35. 5 Disciplines as Ensemble
      Personal Mastery
      Mental Models
      Building Shared Vision
      Team Learning
      Systems Thinking: 5th Discipline drives and unifies
    • 36. Proficiency
      Taking a learning stance, commitment to own lifelong learning
      Deepening personal vision (self-knowing, clarity, authenticity)
      Reflective versus reactive (mindfulness)
      Personal Mastery
    • 37. Assumptions, values and beliefs that shape our understanding and perception of the world.
      “Filters” for knowledge construction that keep us from having new insights
      Dispositions for Inquiry
      Self-knowing and Reflectivity
      Learning to accept Disequilibrium and Uncertainty. Opening up to new thinking
      (think of Rogoff and Gonzalez-Mena’s work in ECE)
      Mental Models
    • 38. Goals and values that are shared across an organization…not just the leaders
      United visions or “pictures” of the future, collective mission
      Commitment to the long term
      Not forced compliance
      Building Shared Vision
    • 39. Starts with dialogue, “thinking together”
      Suspending assumptions and defenses, all become aware of what undermines learning
      Key is looking for a “larger picture” beyond any individual perspective
      Team Learning
    • 40. We tend to focus on “snapshots” of isolated parts of a system (islands and silos)
      Seeing ourselves as part of a larger system “The whole”…connected versus separate
      Learning to think about consequences of our actions (or in-actions)
      Systems Thinking
    • 41.
      • I am my position
      • 42. The enemy is out there
      • 43. The illusion of taking charge
      • 44. The fixation of events
      • 45. The parable of the boiled frog
      • 46. The delusion of learning from experience
      • 47. The myth of the management team
      Organizational Learning Disability
    • 48.
      • Trait Theory
      • 49. Behavioral Theory
      • 50. Contingency Theory
      • 51. Inspirational Theory
      Charismatic Leadership
      Transformative Leadership
      Leadership Theories
    • 52. Big Five (predictive)
      • Extroversion* (includes ambition and energy)
      • 53. Conscientiousness*
      • 54. Openness to new experiences*
      • 55. Agreeableness
      • 56. Emotional Stability
      Newer Theories: Emotional Intelligence (empathy)
      Trait theory helpful for leadership identification—emergence and appearance of leaders—but does not identify who will be effective as a leader
      Trait Theory (Who You Are)
    • 57. Ohio State Studies
      • Initiating structure (organizing work, well-defined tasks, goals and deadlines)
      • 58. Consideration (mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, regard for feelings)
      University of Michigan Studies
      • Employee-oriented (interpersonal emphasis)
      • 59. Production-oriented (task oriented)
      Behavioral Theory (What You Do and How Well it Works)
    • 60.
      • Fiedler Model
      • 61. Leaders-Member Exchange Theory (LMXO)
      • 62. Path-Goal Theory (Robert House)
      Contingency Theories(Depends on the Situation)
    • 63.
      • Establishes leadership style using Least Preferred Coworker Questionnaire
      • 64. Assumes leadership style fixed (change the leader to fit the situation, change the situation to fit the leader)
      • 65. Assesses style in terms of
      Leader-member relations
      Task structure
      Position power
      Fiedler Contingency Model
    • 66. Leaders relationships not all the same due to time, establishes a special group with some
      In-group and out-group categorized and relationships stable over time
      Based on personality characteristics and competence
      In group members higher performance ratings, lower turnover intentions, greater satisfaction with supervisors, and higher overall satisfaction
      Leader-Member Exchange Theory (Contingency)
    • 67. Robbins and Judge, Chap 11 Leadership
      The Path-Goal Theory (Contingency)
      Environmental Contingency Factors
      • Task structure
      • 68. Formal Authority System
      • 69. Work Group
      • Performance
      • 70. Satisfaction
      Leader Behavior
      Subordinate Contingency Factors
      • Locus of Control
      • 74. Experience
      • 75. Perceived Ability
      • Vision, willingness to take personal risks to achieve vision
      • 76. Sensitivity to followers’ needs and exhibits extraordinary behaviors
      • 77. Articulates appealing vision, high performance expectations, sets new values by example, emotional contagion
      • 78. Do-able (Yes We Can!)
      Charismatic Leadership (Inspirational) Theory
    • 79. Motivate their followers by guiding them in the direction of the established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
      Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.
      Management by Exception: (active) Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes correct action.
      Management by Exception: (passive) Intervenes only if standards are not met.
      Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
      Robbins and Judge, Chap. 11, Leadership
      Transactional Leaders
    • 80.
      • Pay attention to the concerns and needs of followers
      • 81. Help followers look at problems in new ways
      • 82. Excite and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals
      • 83. Encourage followers to be innovating and creative
      • 84. Encourage followers to question established authority
      Robbins and Judge, Chap 11. Leadership
      Transformational Leaders:
    • 85.
      • Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
      • 86. Inspirational Motivation:Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.
      • 87. Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem-solving.
      • 88. Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
      Robbins and Judge, Chap 11. Leadership
      Transformational Leaders
    • 89. Full Range of Leadership Model
      Idealized Influence
      Inspirational Motivation
      Intellectual Stimulation
      Individualized Consideration
      Contingent Reward
      Management by Exception