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  • 1. HUPA LANGUAGE DICTIONARY SECOND EDITION SEAL O EAT FT GR HE E Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe’ TH HO OP E B AV RI ALLEY T
  • 2. HUPA LANGUAGE DICTIONARY Second Edition Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe’ Copyright © 1996 Hoopa Valley Tribal Council P.O. Box 1308 Hoopa, CA 95546
  • 3. Dictionary Staff Compiled By Victor Golla Edited By Ray Baldy Louise Badgely Ruth Beck Calvin Carpenter William Carpenter Victor Golla James Jackson Minnie McWilliams Elsie Ricklefs Herman Sherman Graphic Layout & Cover Design Linda McRae Derek Gamlyn Merrold Young Tribal Computer Consultant Chad Thompson Administrative Staff Marcelene Norton, Ed. Director Lois J. Risling, C.I.C.D. Director Jill Sherman Fletcher, Tribal K–12 Director Jennifer George, C.I.C.D. Language Coordinator
  • 4. Hoopa Valley Village Sites as of 1850 Taken from: 1. Map–Unknown source. 2. Number of houses–Baumhoff. 3. Locations of village/house sites–Goddard L&C.
  • 5. This book is dedicated to all speakers of the Hupa language. May this language always be spoken in the valley. Rudolph Socktish
  • 6. In Memory of Raymond “Ray” R. Baldy For all his work, active commitment to, and preservation of the Hupa language and culture. May his work with this dictionary continue the use of the Hupa language.
  • 7. Photo and Art Credits Photo Credits Page Courtesy of Photo Subject Cover Jill Sherman Fletcher Hoopa Valley Dedication Merv George Family/ Rudolph Socktish Jill Sherman Fletcher Memorial Indian Teacher and Raymond R. Baldy Educational Personnel Program (ITEPP) 7 Merv George Family George Grant, Merv George, Sr., Merv George, Jr. 22 Hoopa Valley Tribe Houses 32 Gary Risling Emmielee R. Risling 42 Jill Sherman Fletcher Dean Davis, Duane Sherman, Herman Sherman, Sr., Reggie Davis 48 Steve Baldy W. Cutcha Baldy 52 Merv George Family Merv George, Sr. 54 Marcelene Norton Hoopa Headstart Children 59 Lois Risling Gary Risling, Emmielee Risling 64 Hoopa Valley Tribe Three Boats 69 Marcelene Norton Jump Dance 75 Marcelene Norton Hoopa Headstart Children 76 Marcelene Norton Phillip Vigil, Carrying Medicine Brush Dance 93 Marcelene Norton Phillip Vigil, Carrying Medicine Brush Dance 99 Hoopa Valley Tribe Boat Dance 103 Jill Sherman Fletcher Hoopa Valley 109 Marcelene Norton Ruth Beck and Family Art Credits Artist Page Description Derek Gamlyn 1 Acorn 25 Dentalia 29 Drum 35 Hand 83 Small dentalia shells
  • 8. Art Credits, continued Artist Page Description Lyn Risling 2 Acorn soup 3 Alder 5 Apron 10 Beaver 12 Bluejay, Bobcat 13 Bow 14 Breast 16 Cap 18 Child 18 Civet cat 21 Coyote 26 Dip net 30 Eel 33 Father 34 Fern 40 Girl 43 Hair 44 Hawk 49 Indian 61 Indian paintbrush, Mosquito, Iris 54 Kinsman 55 Laurel 57 Lily 60 Maple 63 Moss 66 Necklace 67 Oak 70 Paddle 72 Place 73 Porcupine 76 Quail 79 Ring-tai, Robinl 80 Root 86 Skirt 88 Solomon’s seal, Sorrel 89 Spoon 98 Tobbacco 107 Willow 108 Wolf Chad Thompson 9 Bear’s Paw design, Sharp-tooth design 35 Fish dam 36 Flint design 48 Gambling sticks 44 Headdress 47 Hooks; House 51 Jackrabbit 64 Jump Dance basket; Jump Dance fence 72 Pipe 84 Shinny 86 Slanting design 87 Snake-nose design 90 Standing Up design 93 Swallow Tail design
  • 9. HUPA ALPHABET CHART a a: b ch ch’ chw f father palm bear church (ch with catch) inchworm orm whila’ whina:’ bo:se mindich which’ich’ chwich ich (my hand) (my eye) (cat) (bobcat) (my elbow) (firewood) d dz e e: g gy deer adze met men geese figure dinday didzit whixe’ ne:s niwhgit g digyun gyun (bullet) (short) (my foot) (long) (I’m afraid) (here) h i j k ky k’ hen hit jar keep thank y k you (k with catch) xontah mis je:nis king kya’ ky k’ina’ (house) (riverbank) (day) (stick) (dress) (Yurok) ky’ l ¬ m n ng (ky with catch) let (breathy l) mill now ring ng ky’oh ky’ lah ¬a’ milimil nundil whing ng (porcupine) (seaweed) (one) (flute) (snow) (song) o o: q q’ s sh tote cone (guttural k) (q with catch) sit rush dingq’och to:-nehwa:n qo whiq’ q’os sa:ts’ nosht’ah t’ah (sour) (obsidian) (worm) (my throat) (bear) (I don’t believe it) t t’ t¬’ ts ts’ u tea t¬ (t with catch) (t¬ with catch) cats (ts with catch) run r to t’e’ t¬’oh tse ts’i¬ting’ ¬ixun (water) (blanket) (grass) (stone) (weapon, rifle) (sweet) w wh x xw y ‘ word whirred (guttural h) (guttural wh) yes (catch) wi¬dung’ wha xong’ xwe:y ya’ ‘ah (yesterday) (sun) (fire) (his property) (louse) (cloud)
  • 10. Introduction • The Hupa Dictionary Project • History and Structure of the Hupa Language • Hupa Dialects • Structure of Entries • Grammatical Terms Used in the Dictionary • The Hupa Alphabet • References The Hupa Dictionary Project This dictionary contains the Hupa vocabulary— speakers. including many inflected forms of verbs—that is Beginning in early 1970s, a series of projects currently used or remembered by fluent speakers of sponsored variously by the Hoopa Valley Tribe, the the language. Klamath-Trinity Unified School District, and Hum- boldt State University focused on the preparation of Some of this material was collected by linguists and Hupa teaching materials for children from pre-school anthropologists. The earliest of these was Pliny Earle through high school. Working as a consultant for the Goddard, who was a missionary at Hoopa from 1897 Tribal Education Office, Dr. Golla helped establish a to 1900 and later taught at the University of California. standard Hupa Alphabet and compiled several refer- Goddard learned to speak Hupa and obtained infor- ence works. mation on the language from dozens of people, some of whom were old enough to have remembered the The first of these, the Hupa Language Dictionary, first coming of Euro-Americans. Although Goddard was published by the Tribe in 1983. It is in some ways published a good deal on Hupa language and culture, the predecessor of the present work, although it is far he never compiled a dictionary. from being a complete dictionary of the language. It contains only nouns and is organized around thirteen Probably the most important documentation of Hupa semantic categories (from “Baskets” to “Natural vocabulary is in the notes and files that Edward Sapir Phenomena”). In 1985, the Hoopa Tribe published compiled during his visit to Hoopa during the summer a Short Practical Grammar of Hupa, intended to of 1927. Although he stayed in Hoopa Valley only a explain the basic structure of Hupa in relatively non- few months, Sapir’s transcriptions are extraordinarily technical terms. (A second, substantially revised, accurate. Much of the material Sapir obtained came edition is now in preparation.) In addition, a chart from his interpreter, Sam Brown, but he also collected and cassette tape of the Hupa Alphabet was prepared, many technical and specialized terms from Emma and work was begun on taped language lessons. Frank (Tahsenche), a renowned doctor, and such elders as John Shoemaker. A number of Hupa speakers aided in this work. These included Calvin Carpenter, Lila Colegrove, The most recent linguist to have worked extensively Fred Davis, Minnie McWilliams, Jack Scott, Her- on the documentation of Hupa is Victor Golla. During man Sherman. Others involved in the work included his first period of work on Hupa, from 1962 to 1965, he Jon Brooks, Adrienne Drake, Mary Jane Risling, collected extensive lists of words from several speakers, Laura Lee George, Lincoln Jackson, and Lyle Mar- most importantly Ned and Louise Jackson, Minnie shall. Special thanks go to Marcellene Norton and Reeves, and Rudolph Socktish. He also went over Lois Risling. older materials from Goddard and Sapir with these
  • 11. ii. INTRODUCTION From 1989-91, the National Endowment for the project, this weekly workshop continued with Tribal Humanities funded the Hupa Dictionary Project, support. The Hupa speakers most directly involved in with the goal of producing a complete reference this effort were (in alphabetical order): Ray Baldy, diction–ary of the Hupa language. Marcellene Nor- Louise Badgely, Ruth Beck, Elsie Ricklefs, Calvin ton served as project coordinator, Dr. Golla was the Carpenter, William Carpenter, James Jackson, Minnie primary consultant, and Dr. Chad Thompson worked McWilliams, and Herman Sherman. for 18 months as the project linguist. All of the vo- cabulary material in Dr. Golla’s files, together with The current edition of the Hupa Dictionary is still a good deal of grammatical data, was entered into a a work in progress. A preliminary edition of this large database (a version of 4th Dimension, specially dictionary was circulated to tribal members in 1995. designed for the project by Kenneth W. Whistler) by Several speakers reviewed it carefully, and the late Dr. Thompson. In connection with the project, an Ray Baldy prepared an extensive list of corrections extensive archival collection was made, under the and additions. Dr. Ruth Bennett also prepared a list supervision of Eugene Colegrove. of additional words based on the suggestions of a number of speakers at meetings held in 1995 and An important feature of the Hupa Dictionary Project 1996. Where possible these new materials have been was a group of fluent Hupa-speaking elders, who incorporated into this edition. served as consultants for dictionary content and as sources of further vocabulary. A weekly evening Future plans envision an expanded version of this meeting of this group, to which all community mem- dictionary, correcting errors that will surely be found, bers were invited, was the workshop in which much incorporating additional vocabulary, and including a of this work and discussion took place. Following Hupa-to-English index organized by verb stems. the end of the NEH-funded phase of the dictionary History and Structure of the Hupa language Hupa (together with Chilula and Whilkut, closely Athabaskan languages are highly distinctive, in many related dialects formerly spoken along Redwood ways unlike any other languages in the world. They Creek and parts of Mad River) is one of the California appear very complex, almost bafflingly so. Indeed, Athabaskan languages. The others were spoken along learning to speak an Athabaskan language fluently the various branches of the Eel River, the Mattole is no easy task in adult life, although of course chil- River, the Van Duzen River, and the upper Mad River, dren raised in Athabaskan-speaking communities in the southern half of Humboldt County, the northern find them no more difficult than children find any quarter of Mendocino County, and southwestern por- language. The flexibility and creativity of an Atha- tions of Trinity County. (The original territories of baskan language is remarkable. New words can be the California Athabaskans are shown in Baumhoff coined very easily, and the grammatical system, 1958.) Other Athabaskan-speaking peoples are found complex as it is, is by and large very regular. Once along the Pacific Coast from Oregon to Alaska, in the you have mastered the principles of word formation, interior of northwestern Canada, and in the American learning vocabulary is largely a matter of applying Southwest. Navajo and the Apache languages are these principles to specific cases. Athabaskan. The modern Hupa people have made Hoopa Valley their home for as long as humans have lived in the Americas.
  • 12. INTRODUCTION iii. Putting together a dictionary of an Athabaskan lan- If you browse through this dictionary you will dis- guage is an open-ended process. Hupa, like every cover that all of the following English words—many human language, has a certain number of basic of which seem very basic to Hupa traditional life—are words that must be learned by sheer memorization. translated in Hupa by verbs or phrases based on verbs: Only a relative handful of these, however, are nouns. Acorn, Arm, Arrow, Baby, Bird, Boat, Cedar, Clam, Most are verbs, and many of these verbs have very Club, Coyote, Creek, Dawn, Deer, Dog, Drum, Elder, general, analytic meanings (classificatory verbs are Feast, Flea, Flint, Fox, Goose, Gooseberry, Gopher, particularly good examples of this: see the section on Head, Heart, Heel, Hill, Indian, Jackrabbit, Knot, GRAMMATICAL TERMS below). A good deal of Ladder, Man, Mat, Mortar, Otter, Paint, Person, the vocabulary of Hupa—including the vast majority Pestle, Quiver, Rabbit, Rain, Rainbow, Rope, Seal, of nouns—is formed from just a few hundred basic Seine, Shoe, Snow, Spear, Squirrel, Steelhead, Stool, verb stems modified and inflected by a few score Story, Summer, Ten, Thorn, Tomorrow, Vulture, Water, verbal prefixes. Wind, Wolf, Woman, and Woodpecker. Hupa Dialects Before the Euro-American invasion in 1850, Hupa South Fork Trinity River and Burnt Ranch was spoken in several distinct regions, each with its (tse:ning-xwe). own distinctive dialect. As far as can be determined from the scanty documentation (most extensively in New River (q’ultsahs-ni). The Hupa C. Hart Merriam’s notes), the following dialect areas speakers in this area were apparently also were distinguished: speakers of Chimariko. Hoopa Valley (dining’xine:wh). It would seem that the differences among these dialects was not very great. After the establishment Redwood Creek (xwiy¬q’it-xwe). Possi- of a reservation in the 1860s, Hupa speakers from bly two distinct dialects were spoken along outlying areas were moved to Hoopa Valley, where Redwood Creek: a downstream dialect their distinctive dialects were lost. A few words are known as “Chilula,” and an upstream dialect still pronounced differently by different speakers known as “Whilkut.” (e.g., ch’ahl and chw’ahl frog), possibly reflecting older dialect differences. North Fork Mad River (me:w-yinuq).
  • 13. iv. INTRODUCTION Structure of Entries The entries in this dictionary are highly structured, al- 5 The general translation or identification of the lowing a large amount of information to be displayed Hupa word or phrase in 2 is given in italics. In in a relatively small space. The examples below il- the example: a basket design equivalent to the Yurok lustrate the devices used to structure entries. “foot” design. A. Typical noun entries: 6 Supplementary information is shown in plain type, in parentheses, and is introduced by the paragraph frog’s hand design1: ch’ahli-mila’2 (or chw’ahli- sign (¶). Information given here includes refer- mila’)3 [=‘frog-its hand’]4 a basket design equiva- ences to technical discussions, photographs, etc. lent to the Yurok “foot” design5 (¶ Goddard L&C (The abbreviations of reference sources are ex- p.46, figure 9, Plate 25, figure 3.)6 plained in the section on references below.) Also included here are comments on usage, such as false Solomon’s seal: miq’is-nint’ik’ [=‘(along) “slang” or “archaic.” (“Archaic” words are ones half of it-it stretches along’] false Solomon’s seal which are not remembered by modern speakers but (Smilacina sessilifolia)7 (¶ Medicinal herb. The are attested in older documents.) In the example: bulb is boiled and crushed for a poultice to be (¶ Goddard L&C p.46, figure 9, Plate 25, figure 3.) placed on sores.) 7 Botanical or zoological identifications of plant and 1 The English headword, in boldface capital letters, animal species are given where known, as part of begins each entry. In the example: frog’s hand the general translation. Since many of these iden- design. tifications come from older sources, they should be used with caution. In the example: (Smilacina 2 The Hupa word or phrase that most directly trans- sessilifolia). lates the English headword immediately follows the headword. All Hupa words are written in B. Typical verb entry:ingxits’ he fell, boldface lower case. When hyphens are used, they dropped (off of separate words in a phrase. (Hyphens are not used fall1: nawhts’it2 I’m falling (from a height), dropping;3 to break Hupa words at the ends of lines.) In the na:lts’it it fell; na:whts’it I fell; na’wilts’it he fell4 example: ch’ahli-mila’. •5 k’ingxis6 fall! fall over!; k’e’wingxits’ he fell; ch’idiwingxits’ he fell, dropped (off of something) 3 An alternative pronunciation is shown in paren- • ’ixat (several objects) drop, fall; ’ingxat’ they theses. In a few cases, dialect differences or dropped (e.g., k’iloy ’ingxat’ ‘hail fell’)7; k’ixat it collapses, drops (e.g., deadfall, house); k’ingxat’ other factors give rise to variants that are equally it collapsed or nearly equally correct. In the example: (or chw’ahli-mila’). 1 The English headword. In the example: fall. (Note 4 A word-by-word translation of a Hupa phrase is that verbs are usually cited without the “to” of the given in square brackets, and is marked an equal infinitive.) sign (=). Hyphens in a word-by-word translation exactly match the hyphens in the Hupa phrase. In 2 One of the forms of the Hupa verb that most the example ‘frog-’ translates ch’ahli- and ‘-its directly translates the English headword. Where hand’ translates -mila’. In some cases a ques- possible the first form given will be in the in- tion mark is inserted after the equal sign (= ?), definite (or “imperfective”) aspect, which usually indicating that the word-by-word translation is lacks an inflection for aspect. In the example: not certain. nawhts’it (indefinite aspect).
  • 14. INTRODUCTION v. 3 Translation of the Hupa word in 2. In the example: 6 A translation with an exclamation mark usually I’m falling (from a height), dropping. indicates that the Hupa verb is an imperative form, which is the same as the second person singular 4 Other forms of the Hupa verb that translates the of the indefinite aspect. In the example: k’ingxis English headword are given, illustrating different fall! fall over! (or you fall over). inflections (subjects, objects, and aspects) of the verb. In the examples: na:lts’it it fell.—When the fell.— 7 A Hupa phrase or sentence in parentheses, in bold- translation is in the past tense (as here), or in the face italics with English translation in single quotes, future tense, it can be assumed that the form is in illustrates the meaning or usage of the preceding the definite (“perfective”) aspect. verb form. In the example: (k’iloy’ingxut’ ‘hail fell’) illustrates the use of ’ingxut’ they dropped. 5 A bullet (•) indicates a shift to another verb which also translates the headword. Quite often, an English verb will have two or more translations in Hupa, with subtle differences in meaning. Grammatical Terms Used in This Dictionary ADVERB: Adverbs express when, where, or how Verbs of this type take a large number of different an action is performed (Practical Grammar, Section modifying prefixes and are rarely found without 8). A small number of basic (unanalyzable) adverbs such a prefix. Following are examples of classifica- exist in Hupa, such as wi¬dung’ yesterday, hayah tory verbs with the modifying prefix ya- up (in the there, yide’ downstream, and xo’ji in a correct way, air): ya’winta:n he picked up (a stick-like object); truly. Most adverbs are formed from other words by ya’wingxa:n he picked up (a filled container); means of adverb-forming suffixes: niwhong-xw in a ya’wi¬te:n he picked up (a living being); ya’wing’a: good way, well (from niwho:n it is good), ta:q’i-ding good n he picked up (a round object); ya’wi¬iq’ he picked three times, thrice (from ta:q’ three). Many English up (a dough-like substance); ya’wilay he picked up adverbs are also formed with adverb-forming suffixes, (several objects or a rope); ya’winjich he picked like -ly in nicely and greatly. up (a granular mass); ya’wi¬kyo:s he picked up (a cloth-like object). CAUSATIVE: Causative sentences indicate that some action or state is the result of another action. CONDITIONAL: The possibility (but not certainty) The only regular way of forming causative sentences of something happening is marked by the future in Hupa is with the verb ch’i¬chwe make: ni¬chwing conditional tense marker -de’ if, when. seh¬chwe’n I made it stink; k’ik’e:t’ ch’i¬chwe he makes it squeak. CONNECTIVE WORD: In stories of all sorts, Hupa sentences are linked together by connective words CLASSIFICATORY VERB: Hupa, like all Atha- roughly equivalent to English words and phrases like baskan languages, has verbs that refer to moving or Then.., After that..., etc. (Practical Grammar, Section handling things of a particular shape or consistency 2.6). There are nearly a dozen connective words, and the (Practical Grammar, Section 4.13). These are referred differences in meaning are hard to translate. Some of the to as “classificatory” verbs in Athabaskan grammar. commonest are: haya:¬, hayahmi¬, and hayahajit.
  • 15. vi. INTRODUCTION DIMINUTIVE: The suffix -ch (or -ji, when closely mar, Section 8). Interrogative sentences (questions) followed by another word) has “diminutive” mean- are usually constructed with the question particle ing. That is, it indicates that the word to which it is ’ung (e.g., ch’i¬tsa:n ’ung did he see it? Practical attached refers to a small or delicate object. Thus, Grammar, Section 2.4). je:lo’ (large) storage basket; je:lo’-ch treasure bas- ket (small basket in which valuables were kept). A LOCATIVE: The suffixes -ding and -xw form similar “diminutive” meaning is signalled by altering adverbs of place, or “locative” adverbial phrases, certain sounds in a word: e.g., j to dz, wh to s, ky i.e. phrases that indicate the place where something to K, etc. Compare miwhxe’ its young with misxe’ exists or happens (Practical Grammar, Section 8.2). (diminutive) its babies; and xo’ji-kyoh very well, Thus, xontah-ding at the house, at home. Many place thoroughly with xo’dzi-Koh (diminutive) with great names are locative phrases of this type: na:tini-xw care or delicacy. Hoopa Valley (“where the trails return”), ta’k’imi¬- ding Hostler Ranch (“where they cook”). EMPHATIC PARTICLE: A type of particle used to emphasize that something is true or that it happened NEGATIVE PARTICLE: The particle do not is used exactly the way the speaker says. Particles of this type to negate the word or phrase it stands in front of (do are usually attached to a word or phrase. For example, niwho:n not good). do:ng’ for sure, indeed in ts’iseh¬we:n-dó:ng’ he killed it for sure, without a doubt; or q’ut right, exact PARTICLE: Particles are short, usually unanalyzable in haya:¬-q’ut right then, at that very time). words that modify the meanings of words and sen- tences in various ways (Practical Grammar, Section EVIDENTIAL: An evidential is a word used at the 2.4). They are used extensively in conversational end of a phrase to indicate the type of “evidence” on speech, and many are difficult to translate. Some which the statement is based. The commonest eviden- common types of particle are: EMPHATIC (’ung’ tial in Hupa is the suffixed particle -ts’eh feel, taste, for sure, q’ut right, exact); NEGATIVE (do not); be perceived (so): ¬ixan-ts’eh it tastes good, sweet; QUESTION (’ung); QUOTATIVE (ch’in they say); k’isiwhdile:-ts’eh I feel cold, freezing; ch’iskis-ts’eh EXCLAMATORY (gya’ lo and behold!); EVIDEN- someone was heard knocking. TIAL (ts’eh be perceived). EXCLAMATION: An exclamation expresses a PAST TENSE: See TENSE. simple idea in a direct way rather than in a sentence (Practical Grammar, Section 9.2). Some common POSTPOSITION: Postpositions are the Hupa equiva- exclamations are q’ut okay!, diye yes!, daw no!, lent of English prepositions, but are called “post-” and mawh it stinks! Some particles are also used because they follow rather than come before the noun with exclamatory meaning inside a sentence: e.g., or phrase they govern (Practical Grammar, Section 6). gya’ lo and behold! in ni¬’in-de:-gya’ look at this! Thus ch’ing’ to, toward follows the noun in xontah see here! ch’ing’ to the house, and follows the pronoun in whi-ch’ing’ to me. FUTURE TENSE: See TENSE; CONDITIONAL. PREFIX: A “prefix” is any meaningful part of a INTERROGATIVE: Interrogative words or sentences complex word that comes in front of the stem. Hupa ask questions. Hupa has a small set of interrogative verbs always consist of one or more verb prefixes and words. These include interrogative pronouns (diydi a stem that is usually the last element in the word what?, dundi who? Practical Grammar, Section 7.2) (Practical Grammar, Section 4.14). Verb prefixes are and interrogative adverbs of place, time, and manner of two general types: (1) inflections, which either (da:ydi-ding where, at what place?, duhun’di-dung’ indicate the “aspect” of the verb (Section 4.2) or ex- when (in the past)?, daxwe:di how? Practical Gram- press the subject or object pronoun (Section 4.3); and
  • 16. INTRODUCTION vii. (2) modifying prefixes, which add specific secondary STEM: The “stem” expresses the basic meaning of meanings to the verb, many of these having to do with a complex word. It is usually the last element in the the direction of the action (Section 4.5). The verb word, although there is a small number of suffixes no’ninta:n he put (a stick-like object) down consists that can follow stems. (Practical Grammar, Section of a stem -ta:n handle a stick-like object with three 4.11). prefixes: no- down to a point of rest (modifying pre- fix); -’- he/she (subject inflection); and -nin- definite SUFFIX: A “suffix” is any meaningful part of a word (aspect inflection). that follows the stem. Suffixes are rare in Hupa, and most are actually particles or other semi-independent QUESTION PARTICLE: The particle ’ung is used words, such as the tense markers -te and -ne’in, the evi- to question the word, phrase, or sentence it follows, dential particle -ts’eh, or the imperative marker -ne’. e.g. no:k’ine:yo:t ’ung is it a dog?, ch’i¬tsa:n ’ung did he see it? (Practical Grammar, Section 2.4). TENSE: “Past” and “future” tense are marked in Hupa by the dependent words ne’in and te following a QUOTATIVE: A quotative is a word used at the end word (Practical Grammar, Section 4.22). Usually this of a direct quotation, indicating that what precedes is word is a verb (no’nintun-te he will put (a stick-like to be understood as quoted words. Only one quotative object) down), but it may be a noun or another type particle is in regular use: ch’in they say. Much more of word (wha’ut-te my future wife). These markers common is the use of a fully inflected quotative verb are optional; tense does not have to be indicated in (ch’ide:ne’ he said, etc.) at the end of a quotation. a Hupa verb. See also CONDITIONAL. The Hupa Alphabet Consonants d sounds like d in English den, but more lightly b sounds like b in English bear, but more lightly pronounced, almost like the t of ten: dinday pronounced, almost like the p of pear: bo:se arrow, bullet, me’dil canoe. cat, ’ijibeh it’s scary! The b is a rare sound in Hupa. dz sounds like the dz in English adze, but more light- ly pronounced, almost like the ts of cats: didzit ch sounds like the ch of English rich. It is found it is short. The dz is a rare sound in Hupa. only at the ends of words: mindich wildcat, kile: xich boy. g sounds like the g in English geese, but more lightly pronounced, almost like the k of key: chw is like English ch followed w as in inchworm. ne:whgit I am afraid, ¬ige:y pine squirrel. Although this is a rare combination in English, it is common in Hupa: chwich firewood, whichwo gy is the pronunciation of g when it comes before my grandmother. a, o, or u. It is the same as g, but with a y–like sound before the vowel: king’a:gya:n ch’ is the same as ch except that it is pronounced tobacco pipe, digyung here. with a “catch” (technically known as glottal-iza- tion): ch’ahl frog, which’ich’ my elbow. G sounds like g in English guy, intermediate be- tween Hupa g (or gy) and q. It is found only in chw’ is chw with a catch. It is a variant of chw in a few words with “diminutive” meaning: misGe’gits words: chw’ahl frog (variant pronunciation). they (things, children) are little.
  • 17. viii. INTRODUCTION h sounds like h in English hen: hun’ river. It ng sounds like ng in English sing. Just as in English, is very rare as the first sound in a word, but is it is never found at the beginning of a word. The very common in the middle or at the end of a g is silent: whing song, ningxa’-ch’inehwa:n he word. In these positions it is fully pronounced, is handsome. unlike the English “silent” h of words like oh! or Rohnerville: xontah house, tehla:n whale. q is a sound foreign to English. It is a “guttural” version of g, pronounced far back in the mouth: j sounds like j in English Jim, but more lightly qehs king salmon, yinuq upstream. pronounced, almost like the ch of chin: je:nis day, mije’e:din baby. q’ is the same as q except that it is pronounced with a “catch”: q’ut already, ta:q’ three. k sounds like the k in English keep: king stick, ditsik unshelled acorns. s sounds like s in English sun: sa’xa:wh acorn soup, mis riverbank. k’ is the same as k execpt that it is pronounced with a “catch”: k’ina’ Yurok, dink’ four. sh sounds like sh in English shoe. It is rare in Hupa, and usually is found only in exclamations or in ky is the pronunciation of k when it comes before words taken from other languages: ’ulush it’s a, o, or u. It is the same as k, but with a y–like dirty!, bahshe:l holly. sound before the vowel: kya’ skirt, qawh-kyoh redwood. t sounds like t in English tea: to water, ¬it smoke. ky’ s the same as ky execpt that it is pronounced with a “catch”: ky’oh procupine. t’ is the same as t except that it is pronounced with a “catch”: t’e’ blanket, nimit’ your belly. K sounds like k in English Kahn, intermediate be- tween Hupa k (or ky) and a forceful pronunciation t¬’ is a compound sound, made up of t followed by of q. It is found only in words with “diminutive” the whispered-l sound, and pronounced with a meaning: xo’dzi-Koh carefully, thoroughly. “catch”. It somewhat resembles the kl of English Klamath: t¬’oh grass, xut¬’e’ night. K’ s the same as K execpt that it is pronounced with a “catch”: K’iwa’-mi¬ white man. ts sounds like the ts of English cats. Unlike Eng- lish, Hupa ts is frequently found at the beginning l sounds like l in English let: lah seaweed, me’dil of a word: tse stone, k’iwidits string, twine. canoe. ts’ is the same as ts except that it is pronounced with ¬ is a sound that is foreign to English. Basically, a “catch”: ts’i¬ting’ rifle, bow, tits’ cane. Hupa ¬ is a whispered version of l. It can be approximated by pronouncing sl of English slip w sounds like w in English went or how. Hupa w very rapidly: ¬a’one, mi¬ with, k’i¬ixun deer, is always pronounced, even at the end of a word: venison. witwa:t acorn flour, k’ima:w medicine. m sounds like m in English mill: minq’ lake, tismil wh sounds like wh in the English pronunciation of eagle. when and what if these are pronounced differ- ently from wen and watt (only a minority of n sounds like n in English net: ne:s long, tin trail, Americans make this distinction): wha:t my road. older sister, k’iwe:whe’ egg.
  • 18. INTRODUCTION ix. x is a sound foreign to English. It is a rough- ’ is the symbol for the “catch”. When it follows sounding kind of h-sound, like ch in German a consonant, the consonant is pronounced Achtung!: xong’ fire, whixe’ my foot. abruptly, with a slight pop (see k’, K’, q’, t’, t¬’ and ts’). When it is at the beginning of a word, xw is the combination of x and w. It sounds like the following vowel begins abruptly (’ehs fish wh, but is more roughly pronounced. Compare dam). When it follows a vowel, the vowel is xwa:t his older sister with wha:t my older cut off abruptly: wha’ut my wife, ¬a’ one. sister. y sounds like y in English yes or day. Hupa y is always pronounced, even at the end of a word: ya’ louse, misa:y seeds. Vowels The Hupa Alphabet uses five vowel letters: a, e, i, o, The colon (:) is used to mark length mark with three and u. Their basic values are as follows: vowels: a:, e:, and o:. Each long vowel has the same basic sound as the short vowel, but is drawn out. a has the sound of English a in father: wha sun, ¬a’ one, ’ah cloud. a: is a drawn-out a as in fa-a-ther: sa:ts’ bear, whina:’ my eye. e has the sound of English e in met: tse stone, e: is a drawn-out e as in ye-e-s: ne:s long, whi- me’dil canoe, jeh pitch. tse:’ my daughter (man speaking). i basically has the sound of English i in sit: mis o: is a drawn-out o as in no-o: ¬o:q’ salmon, riverbank, ¬ing’ pet, dog. Notice, however, ’isq’o:ts’ berries. that the combination iw often sounds like English ew in dew: whijiw’ my ear, miwa’ its fur. When a word ends in a vowel, the vowel sound is slightly longer than in a short vowel, but not distinctly o has the sound of English o in go: to water long. If a word ending in a vowel is attached to (lake, river), je:lo’ storage basket, whiq’os another word, the vowel becomes long: to water, my neck. to:-nehwa:n obsidian (“water-it resembles”). u has the sound of English u in fun: nundil snow, yiduq uphill. Accent An accent mark is sometimes written above a exclamations and particles: ch’iyo:xw-dinéh my vowel (á, é, etc.). This indicates that the syllable goodness!, ts’iseh¬we:n-dó:ng’ he killed it for sure, is pronounced with a distinct high pitch. Syllables without a doubt. with high pitch are consistently found only in a few
  • 19. x. INTRODUCTION References The following references are cited in the Dictionary with the abbreviations shown. Baumhoff Merriam’s notes Baumhoff, Martin. 1958. California Athabascan C. Hart Merriam. Vocabularies of Hupa and Red- Groups. University of California Anthropological wood Creek Dialects. C. Hart Merriam Collection, Records, volume 16, number 5. [Chiefly concerned Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. with traditional tribal boundaries and village sites.] [Nine vocabularies, collected between 1910 and 1934. Also materials on placenames and ethnography; Curtis photographs. The only full attestation of the dialect Curtis, Edward S. 1924. The North American In- differences in Hupa, including Redwood Creek, South dian. Volume 13. [The Hupa, pp. 3-36; magnificent Fork, and Mad River dialects.] photographs, also a good vocabulary.] Practical Grammar Goddard L&C Golla, Victor. 1985. A Short Practical Grammar of Goddard, Pliny Earle. 1903. Life and Culture of Hupa. Hoopa Valley Tribe the Hupa. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, volume 1, Sapir’s notes number 1. [The classic anthropological study of Edward Sapir. Hupa texts and file slips. APS manu- Hupa traditional life.] script 30(Na.20a.4). Franz Boas Collection, Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Kroeber & Barrett Pennsylvania. [All of the original materials that Sapir Kroeber, A. L. and S. A. Barrett. 1960. Fishing collected at Hoopa during his 1927 visit. Eleven Among the Indians of Northwestern California. notebooks; about 5,000 slips.] University of California Anthropological Records, volume 22, number 1. [Detailed descriptions of weirs, nets, harpoons, and other fishing technology.]
  • 20. A A-frame net: k’ixa:q’ A-frame lifting net, “trigger” beat up his wife net (¶ See Goddard L&C, P. 23-4.) accent, speak with: misah-k’itidlut’ [=‘its mouth- • mi¬-dahsiday [=‘with it-one sits on top’] A-frame makes a ripping sound’] foreigner, someone who can’t lifting net, equivalent to k’ixa:q’ speak well • k’ixa’king [= from k’ixa:q’-king ‘A-frame net-sticks] accomplish: me’nixe’ he finished it, accomplished (the poles that the A-frame net sits in task); me:lxe’ it is finished, accomplished • mi¬-dahch’iwiyo:sil [=‘with it-one keeps pulling it account: See STORY up’] trigger string attached to the A-frame net account of, on: ma:n on account of..., for (that) reason • yehk’i¬qot’ put the net on to the frame!; yehk’e:lqot’ (e.g., hayi-ma:n ‘for that reason’; daxwe:di-ma:n ‘for I put the net on to the frame what reason? why?’; do:niwho:ni-ma:n ‘on account of abalone: xosa:k’ abalone (Haliotis), a rock-clinging its being bad’) gastropod; mollusks that have a flattened shell, slightly ace: xung’ marked stick in Indian gambling (kin-na:way), spiral in form and lined with mother-of-pearl ace in modern playing cards • diwidwa:s [=‘cut up into strips’] strips of abalone ache: dinch’a:t it aches, hurts, is sore (e.g., whila’- shell sewn onto a woman’s dance skirt dinch’a:t ‘my hand is sore’); diwhch’ah I’m ach- abalone-shell dress: xo’ji-kya [=‘true dress’] ing, I am sick; diwinch’a:t it got sore; cere–monial abalone-shell dress worn by women at the ch’idiwinch’a:t he got sick Jump Dance and on other special occasions acorn: k’iwinya’n [=‘what someone • k’e:lkya’ [=‘the specific thing that is worn as a skirt’] eats’] acorn (general term) another term for abalone-shell dress • ditsik unshelled acorns abdomen: whikya:ne (or whikya:n, whikyung) • ts’iwahsilay [=‘the ones which are my abdomen, belly, insides (also used abstractly for (cracked) apart’] (also jiwahsilay or dzi- “mind,” “attention”); the part of the body between the wahslay) shelled acorns, acorn meat • k’iwitsit pounded acorns ditsik thorax and the pelvis abortion: mije’e:din-ts’iswe:n [=‘baby-one kills it’] • k’iwinya’n-wuna:ya’di¬-ding’ [=‘acorns-they go abort a fetus, kill an unborn child after them-time’] acorn-gathering time about: wung concerning it, about it (in phrases): acorn bread: k’itust-de:diwi¬iq’ [=‘acorn dough- daydi-wung [=‘what?-concerning it’] why? for what baked’] acorn bread reason?; whiwung-’a:dixudya:n [=‘concerning me-he acorn camp: t’unq’-ts’isday [=‘in the fall-she stays is ashamed’] my enemy; wung-xowidilik [=‘concern- there’] acorn camp ing it-what has been told’] a story about something, an • t’unq’-no:’ondil [=‘in the fall-(where) they sit’] acorn- account of something gathering claim above: je:nah up above, high up, upstairs; je:nah-ch’ing’ • no:k’indi¬-ding [=‘(where) someone sits-place’] acorn [=‘above-toward’] in an upward direction, up in the picking lot air • whina:ndiw’ my acorn picking lot (¶ Archaic term (?) • mit’a:w above it, on the uphill side of it; whit’a:w attested only in Sapir’s notes.) up above me, on the upper side of me, uphill from me Acorn Feast: no’k’ingxa:n [=‘one puts the container absence: whit¬’a:n in my absence, missing me; down’] feast, picnic, in particular the Acorn Feast; to xot¬’a:n in his absence, missing him (e.g., whit¬’a:n- can apples, berries, etc. (modern) ch’iningyay ‘missing me-he arrived’ ‘he arrived after • no’k’ingxun-ding the Acorn Feast ground (at I had left, he missed me’) Ta’kimi¬ding) abuse: daxo:q’i-’a’dilaw [=‘in some way-one acts’] • sa’k’ixawh-ding [=‘one eats acorn soup-place’] eating abuse, misuse, do something improper (such as joking place during Acorn Feast, Acorn Feast ground or blaspheming during a religious dance) • ma:-k’itsit [=‘leading-she pounds’] woman who leads abuse one’s wife: k’isa’n he beats his wife up, the pounders in the Acorn Feast abuses his wife, he’s a wife-beater; k’iwinsa’n he acorn flour: k’itust leached acorn flour, before cooking (¶ See Goddard L&C p. 28.)
  • 21. ACORN FLOUR/AFTER 2 • widwa:t sifted acorn flour; modern flour swampy place and left to rot; eaten in the winter, when • k’e:sde’ lumps of acorn meal that are left over the supply of acorns gets low after pounding • k’i¬iwhin [=‘something black’] black acorn meat Acorn Provider: yinuqi-ts’isday [=‘upstream-he • wa’nto:t rotten-acorn stew, made from mouldy stays there’] Acorn Provider, an old spirit who is the acorns left to soak in water for a week or more “boss” of all food (¶ See Goddard L&C, p. 29.) • yinuqits’isday-ts’isle’n [=‘Acorn Provider-he acquainted with: ky’owhts’it I know about something, becomes’] the person who impersonates the Acorn I’m acquainted with it; ky’o’wi¬ts’it he got acquainted Provider during the Acorn Feast with it acorn soup: sa’xa:wh [=‘what someone puts into his acquire: na:y’a’ [=‘I came to have (round object), came mouth (in a container)’] acorn to be carrying it around’] I acquired it, got it, bought mush, acorn soup; sa’k’ixa: it (stone); na’wing’a’ he acquired it (CLASSIFICATORY wh [=‘he puts (a specific filled VERB) container) into his mouth’] he • weh¬’a’ [=‘I came to have (round object) lying eats acorn soup motionless’] I got it, kept it, came into possession • sa’xa:wh-mito’ [=‘acorn sa’xa:wh of it (e.g., stone); ch’iwi¬’a’ he got it; ’i¬’a’ get it! soup-its juice’] acorn soup (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) juice, a beverage of watery acorn soup across: yima:n across, across the stream • ta’k’imil [=‘they throw things into water’] they are • ya’unch’ing coming in this direction from across cooking acorn soup; ta’k’i–wime:t¬’ they have cooked • whima:n-ch’ing’ [=‘across from me-toward’] across acorn soup from me, opposite me; xoma:n-ch’ing’ across from • tse:lna:t’ [=‘from tse:-wilna:t’ (?)‘rocks-that are him; ’i¬ma:n-ch’ing’ across from each other, facing licked’] rocks used to cook acorn soup (¶ See Goddard each other, on opposite sides of something L&C, p. 29.) • whima’n across from me, opposite me (equivalent to acorn worm: qo:-ne:s [=‘worm-long’] Acorn worm whima:n-ch’ing’); ’i¬ma’n across from each other • qo:-dziwolts [=‘worm-round (diminutive)’] a small • yima:n’ch’ing’ [= from yima:n-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘across- white worm that is found in acorns side-toward’] on the other side (of the stream), on the • k’iwinya’n-ma:’a’ [=‘acorn-its lice’] maggots that opposite side feed on acorn adultery: ky’o’niwinga:n [= from ky’o’niwingwa:n] he acorns drop: na:yk’indeh acorns drop to the ground; committed adultery with someone; ch’ixo:–niwinga:n na:k’iwindiw acorns have dropped to the ground he committed adultery with her; do:-ky’o’niwa:n one • ’ina:wh [=‘it goes’] they (nuts, acorns) are dropping; should not commit adultery ’inyay they dropped advance, in: See BEFOREHAND acorns, crack: k’iwhdik’ I’m cracking acorns, advise: no:k’iniwhyoh I’m telling, advising someone I’m pecking at something; k’i¬dik’ crack acorns!; to stop (doing something), I’m warning them; no:xon- k’iseh¬dik’ I cracked acorns; mi¬-k’i¬dik’ [=‘with it- ingyoh advise him to stop!; no’xone:yo:t he advises him she cracks acorns’] darkish rock, about 8 inches long, to stop; no:k’ine:yo:t it (dog) tells someone to stop (by used to crack acorns barking); no:xone:ne:yo:t I have advised him to stop • jiwa:k’iwhliwh I’m cracking acorns open; jiwa:k’e: afar, from: nisah-mi¬ [=‘far-(starting) from’] from afar lay I have cracked them open (e.g., nisahmi¬-ch’xo¬tsa:n ‘from afar-he saw her’) acorns, gather: ky’a:dawhne I’m gathering, picking afraid, to be: niwhgit I’m afraid, I fear, I’m a coward; up (acorns, apples, round objects); ky’a:dayne gather ch’inilgit he is afraid; ch’ine:lgit he became afraid; (acorns)!; ky’a:da’ne she is gathering (acorns); ky’a: me:niwhgit I’m afraid of it, I fear it; whe’nilgit he da:ne:-xosin acorn-gathering is happening; ky’a: is afraid of me; me:ne:sgit I became afraid of it; da:yne’ I gathered (acorns); ky’a:da’we:ne’ she do:-xwe:niwilgidi-heh don’t be afraid of him! gathered acorns • ’ijibeh I’m scared! I’m afraid! It’s scary! (exclamation; acorns, leach: k’itawhtsit I’m leaching acorns, said to children) soaking acorns to remove tannic acid; k’ita¬tsit leach after: whixa after me (to fetch me), in pursuit of me; acorns!; k’itu’wi¬tsit she leached acorns; k’ita:ltsit mixa after it, in pursuit of it (e.g., mixa:-ch’itehsyay ‘he shallow pit in riverbank sand used for leaching acorns, went after (the deer)’; whixa:-ch’ixe:ne:wh ‘she called “dirt pan” out for me’; mixa:-yehk’e:lay ‘I reached in for it’) acorns, pound: k’iwhtsit I’m pounding acorns; k’intsit • whiq’eh (following) after me; miq’eh (following) pound acorns!; k’iwintsit she pounded acorns along it, after it, according to it; tini-q’eh (following) acorns, rotten: to¬git [= from to:-ni¬git ‘water-rotten’] along the road (e.g., miq’eh-ch’iqa:l ’he goes along “black acorns,” “Indian cheese,” acorns buried in a after it, follows it’)
  • 22. 3 AFTER/ALONGSIDE OF • mi¬ [=‘with’ (after a phrase)] when..., after... alas: ’e:wa:k alas! poor thing! (exclamation of pity) (e.g., nahding-yisxa:ni-mi¬ [=‘two times-it dawned- alcohol: xon’-ta’na:n [=‘fire-water’] whiskey, any when’] ‘after two days had passed’; minyay-mi¬ ‘when distilled spirit the time for it came’) • miwowh-tina:wh [=‘its foam-moves along’] beer after a while: q’a:de’ after a while • daht¬’o:l’-mito’ [=‘grape-its juice’] grape juice, afterbirth: which’ut’ my afterbirth, placenta wine afternoon: yitsin’ni-wing’a¸h [=‘downhill-(round • de:nohq’it-xotse:lin’ [=‘Heaven, God-his blood’] object) has come to lie there, takes up position there’] (Christian) sacramental the sun has moved to the western side of the sky, it wine is afternoon alder: q’iwh alder • yitsin’ni-wa’a:l [=‘downhill-(round object) comes to (Alnus sp.) lie in one place after another’] the sun gets lower and alive, be: whixinay’ lower in the sky, moves progressively westward [=‘my survival, escape’] afterwards: digyun’-hit [=‘here-recently-at that time’] I’m alive, I’m surviving, q’iwh a short time afterwards, later on I’m safe; xoxinay’ he is • mine:jixomi¬ [=‘from mine:jit-xw-mi¬ ‘the middle alive; xa:t’i-whixinay’ of it-at-from, after’] (connective particle) afterwards, I am still alive then (after a while) all: ’aht’ing all (of them), every one; ’aht’in-ding [=‘all- again: k’iye again places’] all places, everwhere; ’aht’in-ch’ing’ [=‘all- age: ’iwhdiya’n I’m growing old, aging; do:-ch’idya’n toward’] in all directions, (to) everywhere; ’aht’ing-q’ he doesn’t age [=‘all-ways’] in every way; ’aht’ing-q’a-’unt’e [=‘all- • k’iwungxoya:n old man, aged man ways-it is’] all kinds of things, everything, every which • do:k’iwile [= ‘someone who is poor, weak’] old thing, any old thing woman, aged woman all day: ¬a’-je:nis [=‘one-day’] all of one day, all day, • k’inehsya:n older people, adults, people who all day long have aged all over: ’u¬kyo:we all over agitate: xiwhnay I move it back and forth, stir it, agitate all right: xa’ all right! okay!; quickly (e.g., xa’-k’inyung it; xi¬na move it back and forth!; ch’ixi¬nay he moves ‘okay, eat!’; xa’-na’way [=‘quickly-he goes’] ‘he’s a it back and forth; xe:y¬na’ I have moved it back and fast walker’) forth allergic: do:-whini¬who’ it doesn’t suit me, agree with ago: tungxwodun’ a while ago, already (e.g., hay- me; I’m allergic to it da’ni-no:ne:xa:n [=‘the (one which)-a while ago- alligator: See WATER MONSTER I put (container) down’, i.e., the (basket filled with alone: ¬iwuning [= from ¬iwun-ding ‘one person-being something) that I put down a while ago] there’] alone, all by oneself (e.g., tsamehst¬’o:n- • na:sda’undeh a few days ago ¬iwuning-ch’iwinda’ ‘the woman-all alone-she stayed • sa’a:-dung’ [=‘long time-in the past’] a long there’) time ago • na:sdongxw alone, by oneself (e.g., na:sdongxwo- agree with: whiq’eh-dinung [= ‘(following) after ky’a:n ‘alone-she eats’, euphemism for ‘she is men- me-sloping, inclined’] facing me, agreeing with me; struating’) niq’eh-wiwhdinung’ [=‘after you-I came to be sloped, along: miq’eh (following) along it, after it, according inclined’] I agree with you; whiq’eh-ch’iwina’n (or to it; tini-q’eh (following) along the road; whiq’eh -ch’iwidna’n) he agrees with me; whiq’eh-’indinung (following) after me (e.g., miq’eh-ch’iqa:l ‘he goes agree with me! along after it, follows it’) ahead of: na:tse ahead, first, preceding (e.g., na:tse: along with: mich’ing’-na:sa’a:n [=‘toward it-it lies ding-ch’i¬chwe [=‘in the first place, ahead of the others- again’] along with something (e.g., xowa’tiliwh wiloy’, he makes it’]; na:tse:-xay-dung’ [=‘preceding-winter- mich’ing’-na:sa’a:n hay me:wina:sita:n ‘he gives past’], i.e., the winter before last); whina:tse ahead of them grass bundles, along with the headdresses’) me, before me, preceding me; mina:tse ahead of it alongside of: whi¬nehs [=‘it is as long as me, it’s my • wha:ming ahead of me, out in front of me (as in a length’] alongside of me, on my side, along the length race); na:ming ahead of you; ma:ming ahead of it of me; xo¬nehs alongside of him (e.g., na:ming-dahdiwh¬ah ‘ahead of you-I run’) • whe:dinung-ding alongside of me, next to me • minah ahead of time, beforehand, in advance • whino:ng’ay’ding [= from whino:ng’ay’-ding ‘my (e.g., minah-’a:ch’ilaw ‘beforehand-it is done’) extending to there-place’] alongside of me, near to aim: wun-no¬qeh [=‘shove (a stick) down there towards where I am, next to me it’] aim at it!; xowun-no’ni¬qe:t he aimed at him • whixehsta:n’-ding close beside me, within my reach
  • 23. ALREADY/ANTISOCIAL 4 already: da’n a while ago, already (e.g., hay-da’ni-no: angel: See IMMORTALS ne:xa:n [=‘the (one which)-a while ago-I put (con- angelica: mixa:ch’e’-xole:n [=‘its roots-there are tainer) down’, i.e., the (basket filled with something) plenty’] angelica, sweet anise, incense root (Angelica that I put down a while ago] sylvestris) (¶ This root gives off a pungent, pleasant- • q’ut now, already, still (e.g., q’ut-ch’iwiltong’il ‘al- smelling smoke when burned, and is used in many Hupa ready-he was dancing’; q’ud-úng’-na:whay [=‘still-it religious ceremonies.) is-I go around’] ‘I’m still alive’) • ma:-de:diwh’awh [=‘for it-I put (round object) into also: q’ina’ also, again, too the fire’] I burn incense root (angelica) in the fire and alternate: nidiwa alternating, moving from one to the pray (at a ceremony); ma:-de:ding’awh you burn other (e.g., nidiwa:-sile’n [=‘moving from one to the incense root and pray!; ma:-de’diwing’a:n he burned other-it became’] ‘they traded, exchanged things’) incense root and prayed always: wint’e it always happens, it is always so angry, get: whikyulah-’a:k’idyawh [= from whikyun- (e.g., na:wha:-wint’e [=‘I go around-it is always so’] lah-’a:k’idyah ‘my insides-opposite to, contrary to-it ‘I always go around (day after day)’) happened’] I am angry, I got angry, mad; xokyulah-’a: ambitious: me:sowhsin I want to do it; k’e:sowhsin k’idyaw he got angry I want to do things (in general), I’m ambitious, I’m a anguish: na:k’iqot [=‘something pokes around’] pain, willing worker distress, anguish; a stab of pain (e.g., xokyunsa’a:n- • k’itise (or k’itise:-xw) [=‘(moving) over things’] me’-na:k’iqot [=‘his heart-in-pain stabs’] ‘he has a smart, ambitious, capable, superior (e.g., k’itise:xwo- pain in his heart’) ’a:wht’e ‘I am smart’) animal: ¬ing’ (domesticated) animal, dog, horse among: nohtah among, around (a place) (also: -taw (whilink’e’ my animal) the one that is among) (post–position) (e.g., mitah • ¬inch’e’ mare, bitch ‘among them, around where they are’; nohtah ‘among • mitsumest’o:n’ [=‘its woman’] a female animal us’; k’iwinya’nya:n-tah ‘among people’; xonteh¬-taw • xina:y (hunted) animal, fresh meat [=‘the one that is around the flats, clearings’ ‘coyote’]; • tohna:y fish, eel, any edible water creature yo:-ch’in’-tah [=‘there-towards-around’] ‘here and animals move: ti¬’awh (several animals) move off, set there, in different places’) off walking; teh¬’a:ch’ they have moved off; yeh’i¬’ah • -tah [=‘among’, used metaphorically] possibly, they move into (an enclosure); yehwi¬’a:ch’ they moved among the others, at times, either...or... (e.g., whe:-tah into it; nah¬’awh they move around, browse, roam; ‘maybe me’; dangwho’-tah ‘someone or another’; nahs’a:ch’ they have moved around te:se:ya:-te:-tah ‘I will probably go too’; nahdin- animal spirits: ta:n forest spirits who look tah ta:q’idin-tah ‘two times-or three times-or’ after game ‘either two times or three times’) ankle: whiqe:-jiwol’ [=‘my leg-ball’] my ankle • mitiwa among them (things), amongst it, in the midst announce: xongwhe give him a name! announce his of it; xotiwa among them (people) (archaic) name!; ch’o:whe he names it, announces its name; amongst: -tah-xw [=‘among, around-at’] amongst, ch’ixo:ngwhe’ he named him, announces his name amidst (a group of people, an area) (postposition) annoy: See MAKE FUN OF; TEASE (e.g., mitahxw ‘amongst them, (among plants) in the annual: ¬a’-me:nundiyay [=‘one-it comes back’] garden’; k’itahxw ‘amongst something’ ‘in the brush, (when) a year has passed, annually up in the brush’; k’ina’-tahxw ‘amongst the Yurok’; another: na:-¬a’ [=‘again-one’] another, repeated, k’inusni-mitahxw ‘amongst the Karuk’) again (used for counting) amount: dunungwho’ some number of, some amount • midi¬wa different from it, moving on to another from of, several; dunungwho’-ding several times, a number it; xodi¬wa different from him, moving on past him of times; dunungwho’n several people (e.g., midi¬wa:-’a:de:ne’ [=‘different from it-she said • ’o:ltaq’ what has been counted, an amount something’] ‘she mentioned something else, she went ancestor: do:-xo’osday [=‘not-a man’] dead person on to talk about another thing’; whidi¬wa:-ch’e’ningyay (polite term) [=‘moving on past me-he came out’] ‘he passed me on • ’a:ya’wine:l someone who has passed away his way out’) (polite term) answer: xoda’-me’-xiningyehwh [=‘his mouth-into- ancestry: See FAMILY speak!’] answer him!; whida’-me’-ch’ixe:ne:wh he ancient: ch’ixolchwe:-dung’ [=‘(world) being made- answered me when (in the past)’] in ancient times; at the time the ant: ’a:disch ant world was being prepared for human beings antisocial: xoje’sa’a:n [= xoje:y’-sa’a:n ‘(in) his mind- and: hijit and, and then (connective particle, joining claus- (something) lies’] he or she is cranky, mean, antisocial es) (e.g., no’ninta:n hijit ts’isqit ‘she put it down and • dime:n-na’ay [=‘sharp(ness)-he carries it around, has then she began to saw it’). See also THEN; TOO; WITH it’] he is cranky, quarrelsome
  • 24. 5 ANTLERS/ARROW, FEATHER AN antlers: mide’ (animal’s) horn, antlers; • tsung-wit¬’o:n [=‘apron-woven’] braided apron k’ide’ a set of antlers (detached from • k’imi¬na:tul [=‘tied in a braid’] braid used for apron the animal). See also POINTS fringes of apron (tsung) mide’ anus: whichwe:xing’ (or whichwe:xino’) aralia: k’i¬muq’-kyoh [=‘a popping sound-big’] swamp my anus; the posterior opening of the alimentary canal weed, aralia (Aralia californica) • whit¬’a’-q’eh [=‘up along my bottom’] my anus archery: xo’ji-ts’iting’ [=‘true-weapon’] traditional anybody: dungwho’ someone, somebody, anybody (sinew-backed) bow (¶ Goddard L&C pp. 32-3, and anyhow: daxo:’ somehow, anyhow; daxo:’-q’ in Plate 11, figures 1-3.) some way • ch’idiwinchwit he shot off (an arrow), let go (the anything: diywho’ something, anything arrow release) anytime: daxungwho’ sometime, anytime • miq’it-dahna’diwi’a’ [=‘on it-he stuck it atop!’] he anyway: hayi-heh despite it, anyway, even so shot, hit it (with an arrow) (e.g., hayiheh-’awhdiyaw ‘I did it anyway, even so’) argue: ch’iidzehsdila’ they quarrelled, argued with each anywhere: da:ywho’ somewhere, anywhere other, hated each other apart: ji¬qiwh pull it apart!; je’wi¬qiwh he pulled it • do:-xoh-whitsis [=‘not-in vain-you see me’] you apart where it was forked always quarrel, argue with me • da’a:ch’ilaw he took it apart; da’a:na’ulaw he undid • dime:n-na’ay [=‘sharp(ness)-he carries it around, has it, untied it, rubbed it off it’] he is quarrelsome, argumentative • na:’asxut’ he took it all apart, he tore arm: whiky’a:ng’ay [=‘it extends away from me’] (the house) down my arm • whiwah apart from me, separated from me, at a • whits’e:l’ my forearm distance from me; ’i¬wah (or ni¬wah) apart from each arm around, put: xona:siwnik I’m putting my arm other, separated around him; whina:se:nik put your arm around • mit’ah (standing) apart from it, (getting) away from me!; whina’sinik he’s putting his arm around me; it, escaping from it; ’i¬t’ah (or ni¬t’ah) apart from each nina’siwe:nik he has put his arm around you other arm in arm: dah ch’i ¬iwidle:l they stand arm in arm; apology: xola’-ch’a’awh [=‘(in) his hand-he puts dah¬iwe:dile:l we stand arm in arm; dahch’iwidle:l (a round object)’] he pays him, settles up with him, he holds his arm apologizes, ends a dispute; whila’-’ing’awh pay me!; armor: k’iwidwol [=‘scraped (hide)’] shield of elk-skin; k’ila’-ch’iwing’a:n he paid someone, he paid up; war-jacket, armor made of arrowwood strips (kint¬’its’) xola’-wid’a:n he has been paid woven together • xowa:na:na:lwe:n [=‘it melts away from him’] armpit: whiq’ehjiwa’ my armpit, armpit hair medicine to remove hard feelings, for forgiveness’ aroma: See ODOR (¶ This is medicine for one who wants his enemy, one around: whina:t around me, all around me (in a he’s had a quarrel with, to forgive him. If you kill a circle); mina:t around it; ni¬na:t around each other person this medicine makes a person’s relatives not (e.g., xong’-mina:t ch’itehsyay ‘he went around the fire’) have hard-feeling. You burn mixa:ch’e’-xole:n and • wiwina around me, (passing) around me, half-way sing a certain kind of song all night.) around me (passing me by); miwina around it (pass- a p p e a r : me:xot’e:n it looks like it, it has ing it by) (e.g., xowina:-xe’inyahwh ‘go around him! its appearance pass him by!’; k’iwina:-xe’e:n¬a:t ‘(dog) ran around • nehwa:n it resembles, looks like, appears to be (some- the corner’) thing); ch’inehwa:n he or she resembles (something, around here: de:di-xw [=‘this here-at’] around here, someone) in this area appetite: me:diwhchwing I’m hungry for it, have an arrive: ch’inehsyay he came, arrived, ninyahwh come!; appetite for it (e.g., ¬o:q’i-me:diwhchwing ‘I have an ch’ininde:t’ they arrived, nohdi come (you all)! appetite for fish’); me’diwinchwe’n he got hungry arrogant: diwa:’unchwe’n he is selfish, arrogant for it arrow: na:tse:s arrow (¶ See Goddard, L&C p. 34-5, and applaud: See CLAP Plate 11, figures 4-6.) apple: ’e:bilos apples (from English • dahch’iwile:l [=‘he holds them up’] arrows apples) • q’a:xis mock orange (wood), arrow shaft; q’a:xis- apron: tsung apron, made of fringed deer- xowa:ningxits’ [=‘arrow shaft-flew through him’] hide and worn in front of the skirt (kya’) the arrow (shaft) went through him, passed through by women (¶ See Goddard L&C, p. 19-20 his body and plate 3, figure 2; also Curtis, p. 9, and arrow, feather an: me’k’isloy’ [=‘he tied something illustration between pp. 22-3.) tsung to it’] he feathered an arrow; me:k’iwiloy’-ding
  • 25. ARROW, FEATHER AN/AWAY, RUN 6 [=‘something tied to it-place’] shaft of an arrow (where ‘the place where she wants to go’; xoda:nya:-ding it is feathered) (¶ Three rounds of feathers are attached [=‘(sun) went down-at’] ‘when the sun has gone down, to a normal arrow, only two rounds to a child’s (prac- after the sun has set’); whe:-ding [=‘me-at’] ‘at my tice) arrow.) place, where I am’; dan¬andi-ding [=‘how many-at’] arrow, hit with: miq’it-dahna:di¬’a [=‘on it- ‘how many times?’) stick it atop!’] shoot it, hit it (with an arrow)!; • xw at, around, in that direction (locative, mainly used whiq’it-dahna’diwi¬’a’ he shot me, hit me in fossilized compounds) (e.g., da:ydi-xw [=‘where?- arrowhead: xo’ji-dinday at’] ‘at what place?’; to:-xw [=‘water-at’] ‘at the river’; [=‘real bullet’] obsidian whije:y’-xw ‘my heart-at’ ‘in front of me, the front part arrowhead (¶ See Goddard, of my body’; na:tini-xw [=‘trails (leading) back-at’] L&C, p. 34, describes arrow ‘Hoopa Valley,’ i.e., where the trails lead back) points and the technique of at that time: hayah-de’ [=‘there-when’] at that time (in flaking; see also Plate 12.) the future); hayah-dung’ at that time (in the past) • dahk’is’a:n [=‘(a specific attack: xwe:diwliw they’re attacking them, coming to xo’ji-dinday round object) lies on top’] challenge them to a fight; xwe:dohleh attack them or dahk’islay [=‘(several (you warriors)!; nehe’diwiliw they attacked us. See specific ojects) lie on top’] also FIGHT; KILL arrowhead(s), obsidian point(s) attention, pay: miq’eh-nawh’ay [=‘after it-I carry it arrowwood: kingt¬’its’ from king-nit¬’its’ [=‘stick- around’] I mind it, heed it, pay attention to it; miq’eh- which is hard’] a type of shrub with hard wood (Ho- nung’a mind it!; miq’eh-na:’as’a’ he minded it; lodiscus discolor) whida’-q’eh-na:’as’a’ [=‘my mouth (i.e., words)-he as if: ¬ahxw...sile’n’ [= ‘just...it becomes’] just as if, minded’] he minded me, paid attention to me; xoda’- as though (e.g., ¬ahxw-xontah-ch’iwinga:s-sile’n q’eh-nung’a mind him! [=‘just-house-it scratched-it became’] ‘just as if some- • hayixwo-niwhsin [=‘in that way-I think!’] thing had scratched the house’) I pay attention; hayixwo-ninsing pay attention!; do:- as soon as: q’ut...mi¬ [=‘now...when’] as soon as..., hayixwo-ch’o:ne he doesn’t pay attention; hayixwo- just when... (e.g., q’at-hay-ch’itehsyay-mi¬ ‘as soon ch’ondehsne’ he paid attention as he started out’) audible: nayts’ung there is a sound (noise; sound of ash (tree): ch’ah-ch’il’e:n [=‘ch’ah-people treat it animal; echo) is heard (in the distance); naywints’a’n like’; ch’ah is a word for ‘hat’] ash (Fraxinas or- there was a sound, something was heard egona) • ’a:k’ine’-ts’iw people are heard ashamed: ’a:dixa:whdiya:n I’m ashamed; ’a:dixa: audience: ya’tehs’e’n they are looking on, watching, ndiya:n you are ashamed; ’a:dixudya:n he is being spectators; ya’te:ng’e’n they looked on ashamed; ’a:dixa:niwhdiyun’-ts’eh I felt ashamed; aunt: whinq’a’y’ my maternal aunt, mother’s sister ’a:dixa’niwidya’n he became ashamed. See also • wha:dichwing my paternal aunt, father’s sister SHAME; ENEMY authentic: xo’ch (or xo’ji-) true, authentic, genu- ashes: xong’-din ashes ine (e.g., xo’ji-kya’ [=‘authentic-dress’] ‘traditional ask: xo:diwhxit I ask him (a question); Indian dress’) xo:di¬xit ask him!; ch’iwho:diwi¬xit he asked me; no: automobile: ’a:da:-nah¬’its [=‘by itself-it runs de:¬xit I asked you around’] automobile, train • xowh’ay I ask him (to do something); xo¬’a ask him!; avoid: whiwung-’a:dixudya:n [=‘concerning me-he ch’iwhi¬’ay he asks me; ch’iwhiwi¬’a’ he asked me is ashamed’] he is ashamed around me, avoids me, is • See BEG; INVITE on bad terms with me asleep: whikiwung I am asleep; whikiwinga’n [= from awake: See WAKE UP whikiwingwa’n] I slept, went to sleep; xokiwung he aware: ch’ixoniwh he is awake, aware, conscious, is asleep has feeling (in his body); xowhniwh I am awake; assemble: ¬e:k’iwhlaw [=‘I finger things together’] I xwe:niwh-’ung are you awake?; ch’ixowe:niwh he gather (firewood), collect (things), assemble (people) became awake together; ¬e’k’ixolaw he gathers (people) together, • k’ixoniwh awareness, feeling (in the body); collects a crowd whik’ixoniwhe’ the feeling in my body, my awareness astray: ting’iwha:wh I’m getting lost, going astray; of things. See HAPPY ting’inyahwh get lost! go astray!; tingwe:yay I got away, run: ting’il¬ah (or ting’in¬ah) run away! run lost; tiw’winyay he got lost, went astray off and get lost!; xowun-tiwiwh¬a:t I ran away from at: -ding at that place, at that time (locative) him; ting’wil¬a:t (or ting’win¬a:t, tiw’win¬a:t) he (e.g., xontah-ding [=‘house-at (place)’] ‘at the house, ran away at home’; hay-me’de:din-ding [=‘the-she wants it-at’]
  • 26. 7 AWAY FROM/AXE away from: whiky’a:-ch’ing’ [=‘away from me- distance from me; ’i¬wah (or ni¬wah) apart from each towards’] away from me; miky’a:-ch’ing’ away other, separate from it • mit’ah (getting) away from it, escaping from it, (stand- • whe:nisah far away from me; me:nisah far away from ing) apart from it; ’i¬t’ah (or ni¬t’ah) separated from it; ¬e:nisah far away from each other (e.g., xontah-me: each other, apart nisah ‘house-far away from it’) • See also DISTANT • whiwah apart from me, separated from me, at a axe: mi¬-ch’oh¬wul [=‘with it-one chops’] axe
  • 27. B babble: ch’idilwa:wh they are talking, conversing, bad, spoiled; ch’iniwinchwe’n he or she became ugly; “chewing the fat”; ch’idiwilwa:wh they talked, entered nichwin’-ch’ing’ [=‘bad, ugly-side’] on the left into conversation; wun’dilwa:wh they are talking, • to:-nichwe’n [=‘water-bad looking’] rough water; conversing about it. See also TOLOWA bad luck baby: q’un-’isla:n [=‘recently-it was born’] newborn • ’e:wa:k too bad infant badly: nichwing’-xw (or do:-niwhong-xw) badly, in • mije’e:din probably from mije:y’-’e:din ‘its mind-is a bad way (e.g., nichwing’xw-’a:wht’e ‘I’m unwell, lacking’ baby, child not feeling good’) • xixiy baby (boy) bag: See SACK • whiwhxiy’ my baby boy, son bake: de:di¬iw [=‘he puts (dough-like object) into the baby basket: xe:q’ay’ cradle, baby-basket (¶ See fire’] he bakes (bread, cake, etc.); de’diwin¬iq’ he Goddard, L&C p. 52 & Plate 21, figure 1.) baked it; de:diwi¬iq’ [=‘(dough-like object) that has • mich’e:k’e’xw-na:nint’ik’ [=‘around its belly-it been put into the fire’ bread, baked goods ] stretches across’] the string which loops back and forth baking powder: mitah-’a:’i¬’e:n [=‘amongst on a baby’s belly in the baby-basket it-someone scatters it’] a powder used as a leavening baby blanket: See BLANKET agent in making baked goods (such as quick breads) that baby, have a: mije’e:din-xwa:-na:’aste’ [=‘baby-for consists of a carbonate, an acid substance, and starch him-she carried it around’] she had a baby for him bald: xwe:da’ay-ni¬je:n [=‘his head-shines’] he bachelor: See UNMARRIED is bald back: whe:neq’ my back; in back of me Bald eagle: ¬o:q’-ya:n [=‘fish-eater’] Bald eagle • whije:’-miching’ [=‘opposite my breast’] my back, (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the middle of my back ball: jiwol ball, round object • whingkine’ or whingkin’ the small of my back • k’ijiwolch (or gijiwolch) [=‘little round thing’] ball; • whitse:king’ [=‘my head-base’] back of my head round object • See also BACKBONE bang: na:ni¬tsong’ hit, bang against it!; na:ne:y¬tso’n back and forth, move: xi¬na move it back and forth!; I banged against it ch’ixi¬nay he moved it back and forth bank (of river); mis cliff, bluff, riverbank back, go: See RETURN • nuqit (or na’qit) (coming) by land, (travelling) along back of house: xontah-me:neq’ (or ming’-kine:xw) the bank of the river (as opposed to travelling by boat) [=‘ming’-at the base’] at the back of a house (¶ Ming’, • to:-xw (or to:-ding) [=‘water-at’] at the river or min’- is an archaic word for “house” used only in bankrupt: do:wile [= from do:-wile ‘not-it is enough’] compounds. See also DOOR; ENTRANCE; EXIT; MENSTRUAL (he) is poor, weak; do:we:se:le’ I came not to have enough HUT; POLE; SMOKEHOLE.) (money), went bankrupt; do:wehsle’ he went bankrupt back, to the: mit¬’a’-ch’ing’ [=‘its buttocks-towards’] bar: na:q’it gravel, river bar the back, rear, tail-end of something; stern of a boat • na:q’i(t)-ta:ng’a:ding [=‘gravel-extending into the backbone: whe:nts’ing’ whe:ne’ ts’ing’ [=‘my spine water’] gravel bar in river bone’] my back, spine bar, to tend: xon’ta’na:n-mi¬-wa’k’it¬iwh [=‘liquor- • ma:ning’ay ‘it reaches for it’ (or me:ning’ay [=‘it with-it is served out’] (tending) bar extends along against it, leans against it’] backbone of barbecue: ’inyeh-ky’a’awh [=‘in the ground-he puts salmon with meat attached (some round object)’] he barbecues something by backstrap: miyehch’o’ its (sturgeon’s or eel’s) “back- burying it and building a fire over it; ’inyeh-k’ing’awh strap” or “string” barbecue it!; ’inyeh-k’iwing’a:n (or ’inyeh-k’ing’a: • k’i¬ixun-me:ne:q’-nint’ik’ [=‘deer-behind it-what n) he barbecued it stretches down’] deer’s backstrap • xong’-ch’ing’-k’iniwhnoy [=‘fire-toward-I stick backwards: na:t¬’a’ backward things up’] I barbecue (fish, meat) by roasting it on bad: do:-niwho:n [=‘not-good’] bad, unlucky, no good spits around a fire; xong’-ch’ing’-k’ini¬no barbecue • nichwe’n it is bad, bad-looking, ugly, dirty; on spits!; xong’-ch’ing’-k’ine:¬no’ he barbecued ch’inchwe’n he or she is bad, ugly; niwinchwe’n it got on spits
  • 28. 9 BARBER/BEAST barber: na’k’ide:s [=‘he cuts someone’s hair’] barber basket, handle a: wiwhtil [=‘I’m carrying (a long • xa:na’k’idi¬tsit’ [=‘he cuts someone’s hair’] barber object) along’] I’m carrying (an empty basket) along; bare: See NUDE yuntiwh pick up (an empty basket)!; ya’winta:n he barefoot: yehch’itul-’e:din [=‘shoes-lacking’] bare- picked it up; nawhtin I’m carrying (an empty basket) foot, in stocking feet around; na:’aste’n I carried it around (CLASSIFICA- bark (dog): no:k’ine:yoh it (dog) tells someone to stop TORY VERB) (by barking), it barks at something; no:whine:nyo:t it basket, weave a: k’iwht¬’oy I’m weaving (a basket); barked at me ya’k’it¬’oy they are weaving baskets; k’ise:t¬’o’n I • yik’iqung it (dog) barks in deer-hunting (¶ The pecu- wove a basket; ya’ki’st¬’o’n they wove baskets liar, high, staccato sound made by a dog when he is on the basketball: jiwolch-na’k’i¬tsil [=‘ball-he throws it track of a deer.) yik’iwingqa:n it barked, started to bark around’] basketball bark (tree): k’ila:dosch’e’ heavy bark of conifers basketful: ¬a’-xe:l a basketful, one basketload • sike:ts’ thin bark of deciduous trees, e.g., oak; shell basketmaker: hay k’e’it¬’o’ [=‘the one who weaves (of a nut) (habitually)’] a woman who weaves baskets bark, peel off: wundi¬ch’ut’ peel off bark (from a tree basketry roots: See ROOT or bush whose bark comes off easily); wun’diwi¬ch’ut’ bastard: tintah-ts’isla:n [=‘in the woods-he was he peeled it off born’] illegitimate child, bastard base: mikin at the base of it; mikin’-ding (or mikine’- bat: xut¬’e’-na:mat’ [=‘at night-it flaps around’] bat ding) [=‘its base-place’] at the foot of something, at bathe: nawhme I’m swimming, bathing; na:yme’ I the base of it swam; na’wime’ he swam baseball: jiwolch-na’k’i¬wul [=‘ball-he hits it around’] • na:xo¬me bathe him! give him a bath!; na’whiwi¬me’ baseball he bathed me • mi¬-na’k’i¬wul [=‘with it-he hits it around’] baseball bat bathroom: me’-ch’e’na:wh [=‘in it-one goes out- • k’iti¬tsil [=‘he throws (a rock, ball)’] baseball pitcher side’] outhouse, (inside) bathroom bashful: ’a:dich’o:whte [=‘I overpower myself’] I am • ch’e:wha:wh [=‘I’m going outside’] I’m going to bashful; ’a:dich’o’wi¬te’ he became bashful the bathroom, I’m going to the toilet; ch’e’ninyay basin: me’-k’isinto’-ch’i¬chwe [=‘in it-grease-he he went to the bathroom gathers’] stone basin for catching grease from roasting bathtub: me’-tehna:na’k’i¬diw [=‘in it-one salmon, eels. See also MORTAR washes up’] (modern) place for washing; bathtub, basket: k’it¬’oy [=‘(she is) weaving’] weaving; bas- washroom ketry; k’iwit¬’o:n [=‘what has been woven’] woven bay tree: See LAUREL (basket), weaving be: ’a:wht’e I am (such and such) (e.g., niwhongxw- • See also terms for specific types of basket: BABY ’a:wht’e ‘I am well’; k’ite:t’aw-’a:wht’e ‘I am a BASKET (xe:q’ay’); BOWL (xaytsa’); BUCKET (mi¬to:y); doctor’); ’a:nint’e (or ’a:nt’e) you are; ’a:’unt’e he BURDEN BASKET (q’ay’timi¬); DIPPER (xunis-ch’il’e:n); is; ’unt’e it is; ’a’niwehst’e’ he came to be, became HOPPER (q’ay’k’ist); JUMP DANCE BASKET (na’wehch); PAN (such and such) (q’ay’tel); PAN (k’iwa:t); PLATE (q’ay’te); SEED-BEATING beach: to:-no:ng’a:-ding [=‘water-where it extends BASKET (me’-k’i¬wul); SIFTING BASKET (mi¬-k’itiwa:t); to-place’] beach, shore STORAGE BASKET (je:lo’); TREASURE BASKET (je:lo’ch) ( ( • to:-ding ‘water-place’ beach, shore basket cap: xo’ji-q’osta:n ‘true-hat’ traditional hat, beads: na’k’idilyay [=‘something made to go around basketry cap (¶ Usually worn by women; see Goddard, (neck)’] necklace of shells or beads L&C, p. 20.) • k’iwidchwiq’ beads (etc.) that have been strung on basket design: ’a:k’i¬’e:n [=‘marking’] basket design a line. See also SHELLS (general term). See also terms for specific designs: beam: See POLE BEAR’S PAW DESIGN (mik–yowe’-mila’); ELK DESIGN (¬e: beans: na:de’t¬’-nehwa:n [=‘pine nuts-they na:t¬’o:n); FLINT DESIGN (ni¬q’it-dahsa’a:n); FROG’S resemble’] beans (modern) HAND DESIGN (ch’ahli-mila’); bear: sa:ts’ common (black) bear (Ursus americanus) SHARP - TOOTH DESIGN (ch’ah- • mikyow’ (or mikyowe’) grizzly (Ursus horribilis) ch’e:ng’e:t¬’); SLANTING DESIGN bear grass: t¬’oh-teh¬ [=‘grass-wide’] bear grass (k’inilyiw); SNAKE-NOSE DESIGN mik-yowe’-mila’ (Xerophyllum tenax) (t¬’iwh-minchwiwh); STAND- bear’s paw design: mikyowe’-mila’ [=‘grizzly ING-UP DESIGN (k’inehs–noy); bear-its paw’] basket design equivalent to the Yurok STURGEON BACK DESIGN (¬o’kyoh- and Karok “striped” design miqojine’); SWALLOW TAIL DE- • See also BASKET DESIGN SIGN (tesjehji-mike’); ZIGZAG ch’ ah-ch’e:ng’e:t¬’ beard: See WHISKERS DESIGN (na:k’ixolq’its’) beast: See ANIMAL
  • 29. BEAT/BELOVED 10 beat: yawhwul I’m chopping it, beating it (with an axe, befall: nilts’it [=‘it falls (hither)’] it comes to someone club, etc.); ya:xoseh¬wa:t¬’ I beat him, clubbed him (as a gift, blessing), it befalls someone • mi¬wu¬ beat against it, drum!; me’wi¬wa:t¬’ he beat before: dongq’a’ before (e.g., dongq’a’-yi¬xa’ ‘before-it against it, drummed dawns’;dongq’a’-k’iwinya’nya:n-na:na:nde’t¬’-dung’ beat one’s wife: k’isa’n he beats his wife up, abuses his [=‘before-people-came down to earth-in the past’] ‘be- wife, he’s a wife-beater; k’iwinsa’n he beat up his wife fore the time people came to live on the earth’) beat time: ’i¬wah¬ beat time! rattle sticks! (esp. in the • do:-...-dung’ [=‘not (yet) in the past’] ‘before..., un- Flower Dance); ch’i¬wa:l they are beating time; a Flow- til...’ (e.g., do:-’owhts’id-dung’ ‘before I understood it’) er Dance is being held; ts’iswa:l he started to beat time • me’eh turning away from it, turning back before beat up: ch’ixowi¬we’ he fought him, beat him up; ¬idil- reaching it we we are fighting each other, beating each other up before eyes: whina:¬ before my eyes, in my presence, beautiful: ningxa’-ch’inehwa:n [=‘ningxa’-he/she re- in my sight; xona:¬ before his eyes sembles’] he or she is good-looking, handsome, beautiful beforehand: minah beforehand, ahead of time, in beaver: chwa’ beaver (Castor) advance (e.g., minah-’a:ch’ilaw ‘beforehand-it is • chwa’ay beaver (¶ Occurs done,’ prepare) only in the placename beg: ky’o’didxit he is begging for something. See ASK chwa’ay-me’ [=‘beavers- • kyungxowhtiw I’m begging for food, I’m bumming; in’], an old village site down- kyung’xo¬tiw he begs for food, he is a beggar, bummer; stream from xonsah-ding.) do:-kyungxowiltiw-heh don’t beg for food! because: mich’ing’-ding chwa’ beggar: kyung’xo¬tiw he is a beggar, bummer [=‘towards it-place’] because begin: ch’idung’ at first, to begin with; ch’idun’-ding of it, resulting from it; daydi- in the first place, at the beginning mich’ing’ [=‘what?-towards it’] why? because of what? behave: ch’iniwho:n he is good, kind, well-behaved become: sile’n it became; ts’isle’n he became • ch’iniq’iw he behaves well, is nice (old-fashioned term) (e.g., wha’ut-ts’isle’n ‘she became my wife’); se:le’n behind: whe:ne:q’ behind me, at my back; me:ne:q’ I became (e.g., k’ite:t’aw-se:le’n ‘I became a doctor’); behind it; ¬e:ne:q’ behind each other, lined up (each ’ileh-ne’ you must become, turn into (something)!; facing the back of the one in front) ’e’iliw it always becomes (something) • mino’ (hidden) behind it, out of sight; whino’ (hidden) bed: k’iste:n bed behind me; k’ino’ (hidden) behind something, in hiding • k’i¬teh¬ spread out a mat, blanket! prepare a bed!; belch: xa:na:k’iwhdigit I’m belching up; xa:na’k’idgit k’iseh¬te:l I spread it; k’iwilte:l [=‘what is spread he belches up; xa:na:k’iwiwhdigit I belched up out’] mat, traditional Indian bed; na:k’i¬teh¬ spread believe: wun-nowht’aw I believe it; wun-nont’ah believe (the blanket) again! make the bed!; na:k’iseh¬te:l I it!; wun-ch’ino:t’aw he believes it; do:-ch’ino:t’aw he made the bed doesn’t believe it; do:-no:yt’aw I didn’t believe it; nosht’ah bed, go to: na:ntiwh lie down again! go to bed!; I don’t believe it! it’s a lie!; xowich’e:t a lie. See LIE, TELL na’nehste:n he went to bed; na:ne:se:te:n I went to • ky’o’dila:n he doesn’t believe it; ky’ondilung don’t bed; na:whte’ I want to go to bed (back to bed) believe it!; ky’o’widla’n he didn’t believe it bee: ts’isnah bee (general term) bell: k’idil [=‘something that rings’] bell • xontah-yayliwh [=‘house-they watch it, keep an eye belligerent: mehsla:-xosin he is mean, quarrelsome, on it’] bumblebee belligerent beef: mide’xole:n-mitsing’ [=‘cow, cattle-its meat’] belly: whimit’ my belly, stomach beef • k’imide’ the belly part (in cutting fish), deer tripe beer: miwowh-tina:wh [=‘its foam-moves along’] • xomit’-ch’e:nt¬’e:t’ his belly bulges out, he has a beer pot-belly beet: k’iqade’-tse:lnehwa:n [=‘willow root-red’] • See also INSIDES beet belly button: whits’e:q’ my navel, belly button beetle: chwun’-k’iti¬ma:s [=‘excrement-it rolls it belly-down: yiwi-dimit [=‘under-bellied’] (animal, along’] dung beetle person) with its belly down, (glass, etc.) with its open • tehjung’ small black water beetle, said to be end down, (hand) with palm down poisonous belly-up: yiduqa-dimit [=‘uphill-bellied’] (animal, • xoch’in’-tse:t [=‘toward him-farting’] a small black person) with its belly up, (glass, etc.) with its open end beetle up, (hand) with palm up • ’i¬ch’in’-tse:t [=‘towards each other-farting’] belongings: See POSSESSIONS alternative name for xoch’in’-tse:t beloved: wi¬ilyo’ my boyfriend, girlfriend, sweetheart, • to:me:q’onje’ large river beetle beloved
  • 30. 11 BELT/BLANKET belt: mi¬-xowiloy’ [=‘with it-he is tied up’] belt • -kyoh big... (suffix) (e.g., qawh-kyoh [=‘yew-big’] bend: ti¬tsoh bend it over (limber tree, stick, as for a ‘redwood’) snare)!; te:seh¬tsow I bent it over; tidtsow it bends, big, be so: ’u¬kyow it is so big, as big as (something) is easily bent; ch’ite:ditsow he bent over (e.g., ting-’u¬kyow ‘it is very big’) • na¬qot’ bend it (e.g., stick, rod)!; na:’asqot’ he bent big house: xontah-nikya:w [=‘house-big’] the it. See SNARE Sacred House, “church”, at Ta’kimi¬ding (Hostler bent: nahsqot’ it is bent over, crooked Ranch) (¶ The Jump Dance both begins and ends at bequeath: wha:-tahna’k’islay [=‘for me-he took the stone terrace (min’day’) in front of the Sacred them back out’] he left them to me, he bequeathed House at Ta’kimi¬ding, where a fire is tended by the them to me; xwa:-tahna:k’iliwh leave them to dance leader.) him! bigfoot: tintah-k’iwungxoya:n [=‘out in the woods- berate: See SCOLD old man’] “Bigfoot,” forest giant in local folklore berries, eat: ’iwhdi¬ I’m eating small objects (such as bird: k’iya:wh [=‘small one’] bird (general term) berries) one by one (as I pick them); ch’ildil he’s eating • k’iyach [= diminutive form of k’iya:wh] small them one by one; ch’iwilde:t¬’he ate them one by one bird berry: ’isq’o:ts’ berries (general term); blackberries bird’s mythical: tit’aw-¬iqay [=‘it floats in the air- (Rubus vitifolius) white’] mythical bird (¶ Its wings are said to scatter • See also other terms for specific berries: EL- Indian money.) DERBERRY (ch’iwhowh); GOOSEBERRY (k’i¬qos and • yiniw-na:lto’n [=‘in the ground-it jumps’] a dahchwing’); JUNIPER BERRY (xeh¬juq’); PIGEON BERRY mythical bird with spikey wings (king’onq’ots); RASPBERRY (qu¬kyoht); SALAL BERRY birds, unidentified: (k’ina’diday); SALMONBERRY (daxa:t¬’e’); SERVICE- • xah¬t’iwhge bird of some kind BERRY (miq’ik’ildil); THIMBLEBERRY (wun’da’awh) • na:xolts’a’ [=‘it soaks down into the ground’] a beside: mingwah (or mingah, miwah) at the edge variety of small bird, towhee of it, bordering it, beside it, (lying) next to it (e.g., birth, give: k’i¬chwe [=‘she makes something’] she xonteh¬-mingwah ‘at the edge of the flat, clearing’ gives birth; k’ischwe’n she gave birth; yik’ischwe’n (placename); xohk’e:dimin¬ung-miwah-na:-xohk’it it (animal) give birth, had a litter, whelped [=‘seventy-beside it-again-seven’] ‘seventy-seven’ • xo¬-xitinaw [=‘with her-it moves’] the unborn (and in all similar numeral formations)). See APART child moves in her, she starts feeling she is going to • whingxits’ beside me, close to me, near me; mingxits’ give birth; xo¬-xitehsna’n (or xo¬-xitehsdina’n) the beside it; k’ingxits’ beside a girl, woman, sweetheart unborn child has moved in her • See also ALONGSIDE bitch: ¬inch’e’ bitch, female dog. See FEMALE bet: ¬iy bet, stakes, prize (e.g., mi¬iy’-k’iwilchwe:n ‘the bite: diwhxuts’ I’m biting something; xodilxuts’ bite bet-has been made, set’) him!; ch’idiwilxuts’ he bit something; yehwhidi- bet, call a: xwe:k’iliwh [=‘move your hand against wilxuts’ it (e.g., insect) bit into me him’] call his bet!; whe’k’iliwh he calls my bet; me: • diwhqos I bite off (something brittle, crunchy); k’ine:ylay I called the bet de:¬qots’ I bit it off between: mituq between (e.g., k’ide’-tuq ‘between bitter: ch’ilxun it is bitter, sour; ch’ilxun-ts’eh it the horns’); mituq between them (things); xotuq tastes bitter; mich’ilxune’ its bitterness between them (people); nohtuq between us; k’ituq black: ¬iwhin something is black; widwhe’n it between some things, in a narrow place turned black between, to dance: xotuq-ch’e’ninyay [=‘between • dilwhin blackish, dark-colored; diwilwhe’n it them-she goes out’] for a woman to dance between turned blackish: See also DARK two male partners; a feature of the Brush Dance black (person): mining’-¬iwhin [=‘its face-is beyond: mitis (moving) over it, beyond it (e.g., ninis’a: black’] (or k’ining’-¬iwhin [=‘the face-is black’]) n-mitis-wa:nan’diwinde:t’ ‘they went over the moun- black person, Negro tain, beyond the mountain’) black oak: See OAK • miwina (passing) around it, beyond it (e.g., mi- blackberry: ’isq’o:ts’ wild blackberry (Rubus vitifo- wina:-xe’e:na:t ‘(dog) ran off beyond it’) lius), berries in general bicycle: ’a:di¬-na:k’i¬tul [=‘by oneself-one kicks blackbird: mik’iqots’e’-ma:’a’ [=‘elk-its lice’] black- around’] bicycle bird (Brewer’s blackbird) big: nikya:w it is big, large; niwhkya:w I’m big; bladder: whilije’-me’-saxa:n [=‘my urine-in it-it lies ch’ingkya:w he is big; wingkyah it is getting big contained’] my bladder • nitsa:s it is big around, thick (like a stick); niwhtsa:s blanket: t’e’ blanket (general term for both traditional I’m big around the waist and modern blankets)
  • 31. BLANKET/BODY 12 • xo’ji-t’e’ [=‘true-blanket’] traditional deerhide • yiduq-dahwin¬a¬ [=‘it blanket, tanned with the fur left on keeps alighting and flying up’] • sahbiley’-t’e’ [=‘sahbiley’-blanket’] baby blanket jay, specifically Stellar’s jay made from cottontail rabbit skins (¶ The word sahbiley’ • tse:y-mitahxw-na:da’a’ is apparently from Yurok copele’y ‘rabbit skin blanket,’ [=‘brush-amongst it-it sticks k’ist’ay’-chwing in turn probably borrowed from California Athabaskan its head (tail-up)’] jay, spe- (some language other than Hupa) chah-bile’ ‘crying- cifically California jay cover,’ i.e., ‘baby blanket’.) bluff: mis cliff; bank • nahxa-le:n [=‘two-le:n’] large (and valuable) blanket • tse:-sigya:s [=‘rock-(which is) broken’] the bluff made from two (deer)hides sewn together; a ‘double’ upstream from Willow Creek blanket blunt: dichwil it’s dull, blunted (knife); ke’-chwil blanket, throw a: ’iwh’ut I’m throwing, shaking, [=‘tail-blunted’] bobbed tail. See TAN HIDE flopping (a cloth, blanket); sa:’ut I threw it; nowh’ut board: ¬isch’ board, plank (¶ Rough-hewn with a stone I’m throwing (a cloth, blanket) down (spread out); adze, usually from a cedar, although redwood was nong’ut throw it down! drop it!; no’ning’ut he threw it sometimes used. Planks were used primarily in the down; nawh’ut I’m waving, flopping (a cloth, blanket) construction of houses.) around; na:’as’ut he waved it around; sid’ut (cloth, boast: me’niwit’il he is proud of it, he talks proudly blanket) has been thrown flat about it, boasts; me:nint’i¬ be proud of it! boast! blasphemy: ting’xine:wh [=‘speaking out of place’] • k’inahsni passing in front of someone (¶ Refers to blasphemy; words or actions that are “against the warriors in the War Dance boastfully dancing in front rules,” particularly during religious dances of the line of enemy dancers; (e.g., k’inahsni-na’qot ‘in blaze: k’idnot it (fire) blazes; k’ite:dinot it started to blaze; front of someone-they move around with poles, poke ya:k’idnot it blazes up (in the air), flames up, flashes poles around,’ i.e., they dance opposite the enemy with bleed: tse:wiling it is bleeding; tse:wehsle’n it bled trophies on sticks.) blind, hunter’s: k’e:w-wung-wilme’n (?) [=‘hidden-for- boat: me’dil [= from me’-na’dil ‘in it-they travel’] it is built’] blind for hunting (¶ Only in Merriam’s notes.) (traditional) canoe, (modern) boat blind: xona:’e:din [=from xona:’-’e:din ‘his eyes-are • wiwhqe:l [=‘I shove (a stick) along’] I’m paddling lacking’] he is blind, a blind person; whina:’e:nde’n a canoe, going along in a boat; nu¬qeh [=‘shove (a [= from whina:’-’e:nde’n ‘my eyes-they became stick) around’] paddle a canoe around! go around in lacking’] I became blind; xona:’i¬ding’ [= from a boat!; na:’asqe:t he paddled it around xona:’-’i¬ding’ ‘his eyes-make them be lacking!’] • See also SHOVE OFF; LAND blind him! Boat Dance: ta:’a¬tul [=‘they kick it in the water’] the “blind”: See HEADDRESS Boat Dance, a segment of the White Deerskin Dance blink: ’iwht’a’n I flinch, jerk away, duck, blink; ’int’ung’ which is performed on canoes in the river; ta’wi¬ta:t¬’ duck!; ch’iwint’a’n he flinched, ducked they started the Boat Dance blister: me’k’itimowh a blister is forming; me’k’ite: • hun’-q’eh-ch’idilye [=‘river-along-religious dance’] mo:wh blister, a blister (which) has formed White Deerskin Dance, specifically the Boat Dance blood: tse:lin blood; tse:wiling it is bleeding; tse: boat, get out of: tahna:’asdiyay [=‘he came back out wehsle’n it bled of the water’] he got out of a boat, disembarked bloom: k’ida:y’ it blooms, it is in flower, a flower; bobbed tail: ke’-chwil [=‘tail-blunted’] bobbed tail k’iwinda:y’ it bloomed bobcat: mindich bobcat, lynx blossom: See FLOWER • mimi¬na:tul’-jiwol or mimi¬na: blow: ’iwhyo:l I’m blowing; ’i¬yoh¬ blow!; seh¬yo:l I tul’-jiwol-ch [=‘its paw, blew; na:xoni¬yoh¬ I’m blowing at him; na:ne:y¬yo: foot(print)-round-(diminutive)’] l I blew at it (candle, to extinguish it); xe’e:wi¬yo:l he a second name for the bobcat blew it away. See SWEAR body: whinist’e’ my body (material blowfly: See FLY substance, as opposed to whina: mindich blue: ¬itsow something is blue, green; t’aw’ ‘my spirit, immaterial sub- widtsow it turned blue, green (¶ The traditional Hupa stance’) (¶ Whinist’e’ is the part did not distinguish between blue and green.) of me that will go to Heaven or Hell after my death; bluebird: k’iyach-¬itsow [=‘small bird-blue/green’] whina:t’aw’ is the part of me that will stay behind to bluebird (Western Bluebird) haunt people.) bluejay: k’ist’ay’-chwing [=‘k’ist’ay’-sort’] jay, blue- • whixa:q’e’ the frame of my body, my skeleton jay (Cyanocitta) specifically Scrub jay • xo:’a:’adyaw (dead) body, corpse
  • 32. 13 BODY ODOR/BREAK THE RULES body odor: whikyo:n’ my odor, body odor boxer: ky’o:’oh¬kis [=‘he hits at something’] boxer boil: k’idmut (water) is boiling; k’iwidmut it came to a boy: kile:xich boy before puberty. See BROTHER (YOUNGER) boil; xa:k’indimut it boiled up out of something • me:da’ay-wilchwil [=‘its hair-is growing’] boy at • k’i¬mehch boil it! cook it by boiling!; k’iseh¬me:ch puberty I boiled it; k’iwilme:ch boiled (meat) • q’un-ch’iwilchwil [=‘newly, recently-he is growing’] boil (on skin): wi¬ch’ich’ (someone has) a boil; adolescent boy, male teenager weh¬ch’ich’ I have a boil boyfriend: See SWEETHEART • xa:k’iwinyay [=‘what has erupted’] boil, skin erup- bracken: me:me:hch or me:me: [= from me:me:-ch tion, something puffing up ‘fern-small’] bracken (fern) • ¬iwh¬oh I have boils; ch’i¬i¬oh he has boils; we:¬ow braid: tsehch’it¬’o:wh she braids (her hair); I got boils. See SCAB tseh’int¬’ohwh braid it!; tsehse:t¬’o:n I braided it; bone: whits’in’ (or whits’ing’) my bone, leg tsehts’ist¬’o:n she braided it; xwe:da’ay-tsehna: • k’iwilts’o’ts’ [=‘what is sucked’] fish bone wit¬’o:n [=‘her head, hair-braided again’] (or book: ’a:k’iwilaw [=‘it is marked, written’] writing, book xotsehst¬’o:n’) her braided hair (wrapped back of ear border: mingwah (or mingah, miwah) at the edge of it, with a buckskin tie) bordering it, (lying) next to it (e.g., xonteh-mingwah • k’imi¬na:tul’ [=‘something’s paw, footprint’] braid ‘at the edge of the flat, clearing’) used for fringes of apron (tsung) born: ’isla:n (the baby) was born, (animal) was born; • See also HAIR ts’isla:n he was born; se:la:n I was born; q’un-’isla: brain: whitse:¬iq’e’ [=‘my head dough’] my brain n [=‘recently-it was born’] newborn infant; na:’asla: branch: miky’a:ng’ay [=‘its arm’] limb, branch (of n he was born again any tree) boss: ningxa’t’e:n leader, boss, rich and important • ’i¬ limb, bough of a conifer person; miningxa’t’e:n’ the boss (of some organiza- brave: xoje:’-tilte’ [=‘his mind-is strong’] he is brave, tion), the leader (of some group) a brave person both: nahnine both (persons) (e.g., ya:xoseh¬we: bread: de:diwi¬iq’ [=‘(dough-like object) that has been n-nahnine ‘they killed-both of them’); nahxe both put into the fire’] bread, baked goods (¶ Originally made things, (in) both ways (e.g., nahxe:-xa’a:ch’ilaw ‘in from acorn mush. Goddard L&C p. 29; Curtis p. 13.) both places-he did so’; nahxe:-xoxe’ ‘both-his feet’); • de:diwi¬iq’-¬ixun ‘baked goods-sweet’ cake, cookies, nah-xoh in two places, at both places; nah-xowe:-ding pastries located at both places, on both sides. See TWO • k’itust-de:diwi¬iq’ acorn bread bother: chwing-xo:whle:l I am bothering him, disturb- • sisil ‘what is hot’ fry bread ing him, messing with him; chwing-’o:le:l you are both- break: ’igyahs it (stick, tree limb, object) is breaking, ering it; do:-chwing-ch’o:wile:l he doesn’t bother it breaking off; sigya:s it broke, it has broken; ’i¬gyahs bottom: whit¬’a’ my buttocks, rear-end break it! (tree limb, stick, object) break it off!; seh¬gya: • mi-t¬’a’ the bottom of something s I broke it; ts’isgya:s he broke it • whit¬’a’-ch’ing’ [=‘his buttocks-towards’] the lower break apart: na:k’ixa:ch it (e.g., hair) hangs loose, part of my body, my bottom; mit¬’a’-ch’ing’ its (ani- something is broken apart, disarticulated (e.g., a mal’s) hind-quarters, the bottom end of something broken fish); ’i¬xahch break it apart!; ch’isxa:ch he bough: ’i¬ limb, bough of a conifer (me’ile’ or me:l’ its broke it apart (tree’s) limb, bough) break into pieces: yungwung break it to pieces!; bow: ts’i¬ting’ rifle, weapon xo’ji-ts’i¬ting’ ya:se:wa:n I broke it to pieces; ya:’aswa:n he broke • xo’ji-ts’i¬ting’ [=‘true-weapon’] it to pieces traditional (sinew-backed) bow break off: ’imich break it off, pull it off (string, grass); bow string: ts’i¬tin’-t¬’oh¬ [=‘bow- we:mich I broke it off strap’] bowstring, made of twisted • diwhqiwh I break (e.g., a tree limb) off at the fork; deer-sinew ch’idiwi¬qiwh he broke it off at the fork bowl: xayts’a’ (modern) dish, bowl; (traditional) mush • ’i¬dus break it off (branch, leaf, string, tip of plant)!; basket (Goddard, L&C, p. 29, and Plate 25, figure 3.) ts’isda:ts’ he broke it off • me’-sa’k’ixawh [=‘(from) in it-one spoons into one’s break the rules: ninis’a:n-chwin’da:’a¬tiwh mouth’] eating bowl, basket [=‘world-he spoils it (living being)’] he spoils the world, • me’-ch’iwa:t [=‘in it-one shakes’] small bucket or breaks the rules, does something sacrilegious; ninis’a: bowl for acorn flour n-chwin’da’wi¬te:n he spoiled the world • See also DISHES • milah opposite to it, in a contrary way; na:-milah box: kinch’e’ box [=‘again-opposite to it’] opposite to it (e.g., na:milah- • xo’ji-kinch’e’ [=‘true-box’] an elkhorn box or purse ’a:ch’idyaw [=‘opposite to it-he does it so’] ‘he does for keeping valuables things in a contrary way, breaks rules’)
  • 33. BREAK WIND/BUCKEYE 14 break wind: ’iwhtseh I’m breaking wind, farting; after the death of my sister; my husband’s brother, after ch’iwintse:t he broke wind; do:-ch’itse:t don’t break the death of my husband (¶ There was an expectation wind, no farting! that an unmarried woman would be married by her breast: whije:’xw at my breast, in front of me xoch’ich’inay’, although it was not a rule.) • whits’o:’ my (woman’s) breasts, milk brow: whina:do:se’ my eyebrows • whit’ahdiye’ my chest, breast brown: jung-nehwa:n [=‘muddy water-it resembles’] it breastbone: whije:’ginje’ my breast- is brown bone (the cartilage above the pit of the • diltsow orange-colored, brown, the color of summer stomach) whije:’xw deerhide breath: whe:ch’ (or whe:ch’e’, whiye’ch’) brush (for sweeping): mi¬-¬e:na:tsow [=‘with it- my breath, breathing they are swept together’] brush for sweeping up (acorn) breathe: na:tiwhdiye:wh I’m breathing; na:tindiye- flour (¶ Cf. Goddard L&C, p28: “She (i.e., woman at hwh breathe!; na’tidye:wh he breathes; na:te:sdiye: grinding) has a brush at hand to sweep up scattered meal wh (or na:te:sdiye:ch’) I breathed, took a breath; na: and to brush it from the mill when she has finished. This na’tehsdiye:wh (or na:na’tehsdiye:ch’) he took a brush is made of fibres taken from the sheath of the bulb breath again, he got his breath back of soap-root, Chlorogalum pomeridianum, bound with brick: tse:-¬e:d¬iwh [=‘rocks-put together’] bricks buckskin.” About 6" long with reddish bristles.) bride: no:na:whte:se:yay [=‘to settle (elsewhere)-going • me:chwilchwo:k brush used to sweep acorn flour off’] bride (older term) bridge: na:k’iniwilte:l (or na:k’ine:lte:l) [=‘(long brush, bush: ts’e:y brush, bush object) that is laid across’] bridge • xodita:n [=‘(place) which is thick’] brushy place • na:ning’ay ‘it extends across’ bridge, anything • xonchwe’n [=‘(place) is bad, ugly’] there extending across a gap is lots of brush, it’s a brushy place • tse:lishch’e’-na:k’ine:lte:l [=‘metal-bridge’] steel • k’itahxw [=‘amongst something’] in the brush, up bridge in the brush bridle: misah-me:q’-silay [=‘in (horse’s) mouth-inside brush dance: xon’-na’we [=‘fire-he carries it around, it-it (rope) lies’] bridle waves it around’] Brush Dance (general term); fire- bright: ni¬je:n it is bright, shining; wi¬je’n it got bright, waving medicine shiny; xowi¬je’n (the weather) brightened up • xon’na’we:-whing’ [=‘Brush Dance’s song’] Brush bring: niwh’awh I’m bringing it (e.g., stone); ning’awh Dance songs bring it!; ch’ining’a:n he brought it; na:nda’awh bring it • mi¬-yehk’i¬tul [=‘with it-they kick it in’] or mi¬- back!; na’nid’a:n he brought it back (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) yehch’ina:wh [=‘with it-they enter’] a “heavy” or brisket: k’ijiwe:xo-sita:n [=‘at something’s breast-it lies slow song at the Brush Dance there’] brisket (of deer) (¶ Forbidden for women to eat.) • miq’eh-me:na:k’iwiltiw [=‘following it-they sing’] brittle: ’ongqots’ it is brittle a “light” or fast song at the Brush Dance • k’iqots’ it is brittle, crunchy, crackling; k’iwingqots’ • k’ima:w-chi¬chwe [=‘medicine-she makes’] medi- it snapped off, made a crackling sound cine-maker or formulist at the Brush Dance • See also ELK • xoq’eh-na’way [=‘following her-she goes’] the broad: nite:l it is wide, broad, spread flat; niwhte:l I am girl who accompanies the medicine maker (k’ima: broad (across the chest, hips); ch’iwinteh¬ he became broad w-chi¬chwe) at the Brush Dance broken: sigya:s it (stick, tree limb, object) is broken, buck: mixo’osday’ [=‘its man’] male (of any species) broken off • mide’-xole:n [=‘its horns-there are plenty’] buck deer or • na:k’ixa:ch something is broken apart elk (¶ Archaic usage; now ordinarily used for “cow, cattle.”) broom: mi¬-ch’o’xoti¬chwo:k [=‘with it-one sweeps’] broom bucket: mi¬to:y any basket large enough to cook in; • mi¬na:xo’disow ‘with it- one scrapes, brushes’ (modern) pot, bucket (¶ Goddard, L&C, pp.28, 41:2, broom. See BRUSH (FOR SWEEPING) and Plate 15.) brother: whikil my younger brother • me’-ch’iwa:t [=‘in it-someone shakes’] small bucket • whingwoch (or whingoch) my older brother or bowl for acorn flour • xo¬tishch’e’ her brother, his sister (i.e., his/her sibling buckeye: la:whe’ buckeye (Aesculus califonica) of the opposite-sex) (¶ Found only in the mountains to the south of Hupa • xo¬ing his/her companion, brother, cousin territory, at the head of Redwood Creek and on the • ¬i¬ing brothers (cousins) to one another Trinity above Salyer. The large nuts were pounded brother-in-law: whiq’e:y my brother-in-law and leached like acorns. Believed to be a food of the • which’ich’inay’ my (woman’s) sister’s husband, pre-human immortals (k’ixinay).)
  • 34. 15 BUCKSKIN, TANNED/BY ITSELF, ONESELF buckskin, tanned: dichwil tanned deerhide, leather, • k’itin¬it start a fire! start it burning!; k’ite:seh¬it I buckskin started a fire; nun¬it burn it!; na’win¬it he burned it bug: See INSECT Burnt Ranch: tse:nin-ding (or tse:n-ding) [=‘rock build: ’iwhme’n I’m building (a house, fence, etc.); mountain-side place’] Burnt Ranch, principal village ’i¬ming’ build it!; seh¬me’n I have built it; ts’isme’n of the Tsnungxwe and Chimariko (¶ The name refers he built it to Ironside Mountain (tse:ning) across the Trinity River build a fire: ¬e:nawhliwh [=‘I am putting (several from the village.) things) together’] I’m building a fire; ¬e:na’nilay he burn incense root: ma:-de:diwh’awh [=‘for it-I built a fire; ¬e:nawilay fire that has been built put (round object) into the fire’] I burn incense root • ’i¬q’ung’ build a fire!; seh¬q’a’n I built a fire. See ROAST (angelica) in the fire and pray (at a ceremony); ma:- bulb (of plant): qus bulb, root de:ding’awh you burn incense root and pray!; ma:- bulge out: ch’e:nt¬’e:t’ (soft flabby material) bulges de’diwing’a:n he burned incense root and prayed out, flops out (as when squeezed) (e.g., xomit’-ch’e: burst: k’imut’ something bursts, a gun goes off; nt¬’e:t’ ‘his belly-is bulging out’) k’iwidmut’ it burst, water boils bulge up: ky’o:mo:t’ it bulges up (lump or knob on • k’i¬mut’ burst it! bust it up! (with your hands)!; one’s body, hill, mound, etc.); ky’o:wimo:t’ it has k’iseh¬mut’ I have burst it bulged up bury: ’iwhchway I bury it, cover it with dirt; xonchwa bull: michwoq’-xole:n [=‘its testicles-there are bury him!; ch’iwinchway he buried it; ya’xowinchway plenty’] bull they buried him; k’ichwa [=‘something that is buried, bull pine: na:de’t¬’ pine nuts; digger pine, bull pine covered with dirt’] grave (Pinus sabiniana) • no’xoschwe’n [=‘they made him out of sight’] they bullet: dinday bullet. See ARROWHEAD buried the corpse bullhead: sintil sucker; bullhead bush (types of): bullsnake: yiniw-na:way [=‘in the ground-it goes • k’int¬’its’ a type of bush, with fuzzy flowers around’] bullsnake, gopher snake (Pituophis mela- • tohxotawe willow bushes growing along the river noleucus) bushtit: See CHICKADEE bumblebee: See BEE business: wun-xole:n [=‘concerning (things)-there is bump: ky’o:mo:t’ [=‘what mounds up’] bump or knobby plenty’] business, affairs place on the flesh busy with: wun-na’way [=‘for that purpose-he goes • k’iqojin (or k’ijiqon, k’iqonjin) bumps, unevenness around’] he is busy with it, works on it, is occupied with (on the skin) it; wun-na:’asya’he was busy with it; wun-na’dil they bun (hair in a): wiloy’-wa:ky’a’a:n hair dressed in are busy with it, are occupied with it a doughnut shape butcher: na’si¬we he butchers (one animal); na’seh¬we: bunch grass: t¬’ohch [=‘grass (diminutive)’] bunch n he butchered it; na’si¬wa:-’a:’unt’e (or na’si¬we:- grass; lawn grass ’a:’unt’e) he is a butcher • t¬’oh-q’a’ [=‘grass-q’a’’] type of bunch grass • na’wa:n he butchers (several animals); na’winga:n • t¬’oh-ma’ch [=‘grass-ma’ch’] type of bunch grass [= from na’wingwa:n] he butchered them. See KILL burden basket: q’ay’timi¬ burden basket (¶ Goddard, • See also DRESS MEAT L&C, p.27; Plate 22, figure 1.) butter: miq’it-k’iwi¬iw [=‘on top (e.g., of bread)-it is • chwich me’na’we or me’-chwich-ch’i¬chwe [=‘in smeared’] butter it-firewood-someone gathers’] large burden basket, butterfly: k’idiwisch’e [=‘something that blows on the used for carrying firewood (¶ Goddard, L&C, p.41; wind’] butterfly Plate 22, figure 1.) buttocks: whit¬’a’ my buttocks •na:’a¬mohwhich small burden basket with a handle, buy: ’owhxe:t I’ll buy it, I’m buying it; ky’ongxeh buy like a purse or “suitcase” things! shop!; ’o:yxe:t I bought it; ch’o:wingxeh-te • diltsow-me’k’i¬wul [=‘summer deerhide-seed beat- he will buy it; ’o:dxe:t it has been bought ing basket’] summer deerhide seed-beating burden • nawh’ay [=‘I carry (round object) around’] I have basket (¶ Seed-beating baskets were not made of hide, it (e.g., stone), own it; na’ay he has it; na:y’a’ I came but of basketry. Hide baskets are only used in stories. If to have it, acquired it, got it, bought it; na’wing’a’ you go to places where there is an old camping ground, he came to have it; na:na’wing’a’ he came to have it you’ll run across a man-eater called t¬’ohkya’-t’e:n again, bought it back (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) [=‘someone who wears a grass dress’]. She has a leather by itself, oneself: ’a:da for one’s own benefit, by seed-beating basket.) oneself, by itself (e.g.,’a:da:-na:’asto’n ‘by herself-she burn: wilil (fire) is burning; te:lit it burned, started to danced’; ’a:da:-nat¬’its [=‘by itself-it runs around’] burn; na:wilit it burned up, got burned ‘automobile, train’)
  • 35. C cache: xaych’ing’-mina:k’iwilchwe:n [=‘winter- cane: tits’ cane, walking stick, staff time-things that are put away’] things put away for • k’itsa:y-xotits’e’ [=‘red-tailed hawk-his cane’] a cane winter use used to keep rattlesnakes away (¶ A stick which has had cake: de:diwi¬iq’-¬ixun [=‘bread-sweet’] cake, cookies, a medicine formula said over it. The red-tailed hawk is pastries considered to be the rattlesnake’s enemy, having taken • k’i¬iwh small round cake made from ground grass seeds all the rattlesnakes inland from the coast.) (archaic term) cane, walk with a: k’itiwhtits’ I’m walking with a California jay: tse:y-mitahxw-na:da’a’ [=‘brush- cane; k’ite:seh¬tits’ I walked with a cane amongst it-it sticks its head (tail-up)’] California jay; cannibal: xonist’e’-ya:n ‘body-eater’ cannibal, killer tse:y-dahna:da’ay [=‘brush-it upends (in it)’] another canoe: See BOAT term for California jay. See BLUEJAY can’t: do:-xoling [= adverbial use of do:-xole:n ‘there is calf: mide’xole:n-misxiy’ [=‘cow-its young (diminua- none’] it isn’t possible, one can’t, one shouldn’t (e.g., tive)’] calf do:xolin-na:whda:wh ‘I can’t come back’; do:xoling- • whilo:q’e’ [=‘my calf’] the calf of my leg ’idich’it ‘it’s impossible for us to die’; do:xolin-te: call: xongwhe give him a name! call him by name!; ch’o: siwh’e’n ‘I couldn’t look’) whe he names it, has a name for it; ch’ixo:ngwhe’ he • daw-sho’ it’s impossible! (slang exclamation); named him, called him by name; dixwe:di-ch’o:ya: • daw-sho’-ts’eh I can’t do it! (I feel that) it’s too hard whe [=‘how-they name it’] what do they call it? what for me (¶ These words are said to be of the people who is it called lived at tse’eh-ch’iqot, a place to the east of the mouth call (animal): ’a:diwung-na:niwhda’ay I’m calling it of Mill Creek.) (e.g., dog) back; ’a:diwung-na:ni¬da’a call it back!; cantalope: diq’a:n-me:ning’e:t¬’ [=‘ridges-are ’a:diwung-na:’a¬da’a’ he called it back. See INVITE stretched along it’] cantalope, muskmelon call (a bet): xwe:k’iliwh [=‘move your hand against canyon: tse:-me:q’ [=‘rocks-inside (of them)’] canyon him’] call his bet!; whe’k’iliwh he calls my bet; me: • xayah-me’ [=‘fishing claim-in it’] canyon near Sugar k’ine:ylay I called the bet Bowl (¶ The canyon between Sugar Bowl and the Willow called, to be: ’ulye it is called (such and such); daxwe: Creek valley. The First Salmon Ceremony was per- di-’a:nolye [=‘how-you are called’] what is your name?; formed here in the spring by the people of xahslinding.) John ’a:wholye my name is John, I am called John cap: q’osta:n (modern) hat, cap calm: na:sixun-ding place where the water is still • xo’ji-q’osta:n [=‘true-hat’] camas: qos camus (Camassia esculenta) traditional hat, basket cap camp: dun’-ts’isday [=‘(in) springtime-he stays there’] (¶ Usually worn by women; see fishing camp Goddard L&C, p. 20.) xo’ji-q’osta:n • k’ixahs-wun-ts’isday [=‘snaring, hunting-for-he stays • minin’ding-dahdiwing’ay [=‘at there’] hunting camp the face-it extends above’] or minin’ding-ch’e:ng’ay • ¬e:na:wilay [=‘fires are built’] the camps or “fires” [=‘at the face-it sticks out’] (modern) cap, with bill, where food is served and people stay overnight during baseball cap the White Deerskin Dance captive: k’ina:kil [= perhaps from k’ina:-kil ‘captured- camp, move: nawhying I’m moving (camp, boy’] slave, debt-slave; k’ina:kil xosehchwe’n I made residence) around; na:se:ye:n I moved around; ninyiwh him a slave move here!; ch’ininye:n he moved here; na:ndiyiwh capture: k’ixowhnay I capture him, he is my captive; move back here!; na:’undiye:n he moved back here; k’ixo¬na capture him!; k’iwhi¬nay he captures me na:ninyiwh move across (the river)!; na:ya’ninye:n car: See AUTOMOBILE they moved across; tinyiwh move off, away!; te:se:ye: cards: xo’ji-king [=‘true-sticks’] traditional gambling n I moved off sticks, “Indian cards” can (apples, berries, etc.): no:k’ingxa:wh [=‘one • yima:n’dil-mikine’ [=‘white people-their sticks’] puts it down in a container’] modern playing cards candy: See CAKE • See also SUITS; ACE
  • 36. 17 CARE FOR/CHEWING GUM care for: See LOOK AFTER center man: na’ky’a’aw or mine:jit na’ky’a’aw [=‘the carefully: xo’dzi-kyoh [=‘well-big (diminutive)’] care- singer’] the “center man” in the line of Jump Dancers fully, thoroughly (e.g., ch’ixoseh¬we:n-xo’dzikyoh ‘he (¶ This is the leader of the dance. Despite the name, the beat her up-thoroughly, he killed her/him’) na’k’a’aw does not himself sing; the two dancers on carrot: k’iqude’-nehwa:n [=‘a willow root-it resem- either side of him do the actual singing. The na’ka’aw bles’] carrot, or k’iqude’-xong’-nehwa:n [=‘root- leads the singing and dancing with verbal commands colored like fire’] and movements of his na’wehch (ceremonial basket).) carry along: tiwh’awh I’ll carry it (e.g., stone) along; • mine:jit-ts’isye:n [=‘in the center of it-he stands’] non- ch’ite:s’a:n he or she carried it along (CLASSIFICATORY technical term for the center man in the Jump Dance VERB) ceremony: See RELIGIOUS DANCE carry along: nawh’ay I’ll carry it (e.g., stone) around; certain: do:-’uná:ng’ [=‘not-it is not’] (e.g., “not neg- na:’as’a’ he carried it around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) ligible”) it is certain, it isn’t questionable; do:’aná:ng cartilage: whije:’-ginje’ my breastbone (the cartilage na:wilts’it he did (indeed) fall down above the pit of the stomach) chair: miq’i’esday [= from miq’it-ts’isday ’on it-he stays • mining-ginje’ the cartilage in (a fish’s) head there’ (originally ‘he sits’)] (traditional) stump-like cask: kin-na:lma:ts’ [=‘wood-encircled’] storage cask stool for men; (modern) chair (¶ Made out of split mock-orange sticks.) • me’-na’a’di¬wich [=‘in it-one wiggles oneself back cat: bo:se common house cat and forth’] rocking chair (from English pussy) chairman: miningxa’t’e:n [=‘its headman, boss’] the catch: ’i¬kit catch it (in your bo:se chairman, chief, leader (of a council, organization) hands)! grab it!; yi¬kit it (ani- charcoal: t’ewh charcoal; coals mal) catches it (with its claws); chase: mingwiwhyo:l or miwhyo:l I’m chasing along, k’i¬kit ‘he catches something’ sheriff, policeman; driving (animals, e.g., horses, cattle); ch’imiwingyo: ch’ixo¬kit he caught hold of him l he is chasing them along; ch’iwhiwingyo:l he • yits’e:k’ it (animal, bird) catches, grabs something is following me, stalking me; mintingyoh chase (in its claws); yiwints’e:k’ it caught it them! follow it!; ch’iwhintiyo:t he’s following me; catch fish: ’iwhxawh I’ll catch fish (in a net); ch’iwhintehsyo:t he followed me; k’intiyo:t it chases, ch’iwingxa:n he caught fish (in a net) stalks (deer); k’inte:se:yo:t I chased the (deer); • ch’iwingwha:l he caught fish (with a hook and line), na:xoniwhyo:t I’m chasing him around; na:whin- he hooked fish ingyoh chase me!; na:xone:se:yo:t I chased him; catch, to play: yiti¬tsil baseball; play catch na’whintehsyo:t he drove me away catch up: xwe:na¬xeh catch up with him! overtake chat: ¬o:q’-chwo [=‘salmon’s grandmother’] “mocking- him (on trail, road)!; xwe:na:neh¬xe’ I caught up with bird” or “nightingale,”chat (Yellow-breasted Chat) (¶ Yellow-breasted Chat him, overtook him; k’isdiya:n-me:na’ni¬xe’ [=‘old Comes up the river in May along with the first spring person-he caught up with’] he went ahead of an old run of king salmon.) person (on a trail) chatter, converse: ch’idilwa:wh they are talking, cattail: t¬’ohtse’ cattail, tule, flat tule (Typha latifolia) conversing, “chewing the fat”; ch’idiwilwa:wh they cave: yehky’a’a:n [=‘hole into something, penetrating talked, entered into conversation; dilwa:wh (animal) through something’] den, animal’s cave, hole makes a noise, “talks” (e.g., ch’ahl dilwa:wh ‘the • tse:-yeh [=‘rocks-under’] cave, hole dug along the frogs croak’) river for catching and holding fish cheap: mine:gits [=‘a little bit’] it’s cheap • tse:-me’-yehky’a’a:n [=‘rocks-in-hole into’] cave cheek: whise:tol’ (or whise:tot¬’) my cheeks cedar: ¬ixun-ni¬chwin ‘sweet-it smells’ Incense cherry: ningxosge cherry, chokecherry (Prunus cedar sp.); ningxosge-nehwan [=‘cherry-it resembles’] • xodist¬’o:n(’) White cedar, Coast cedar, Port Orford cherry plum cedar chest: whit’ahdiye’ or whije:xw my chest, breast • ’ile’-te:l [=‘(its) boughs-are wide’] red cedar chew: ’iwh’ul I’m chewing it; ’ing’u¬ chew it!; ch’a’ul celery: sulkyoh (or su¬kyoh) wild celery (¶ Resembles he’s chewing it; ch’iwing’a:t¬’ he chewed it a sunflower; grows on Trinity Summit.) chewing gum: ch’a’ul [=‘one chews it’] chewing • me:niwinch’e “Indian celery” (¶ Different from gum (modern); xo’ji-ch’a’ul [=‘true-chewing gum’] sulkyoh; about 6 inches high, with yellow flowers.) traditional chewing gum, made from dandelions (also center: mine:jit in the center, in the middle of it called ch’a’ul) or milkweed (dina’) cooked with sugar- • ninis’a:n-ne:jit ‘world-middle’ in the center of the world pine pitch • ta:ne:jit in the middle of the river
  • 37. CHICKADEE/CLEAR 18 chickadee: tintah-xixe:x [=‘in the woods-kids’] church, Indian: See BIG HOUSE chickadee, bushtit (Parus gambeli, Mountain chicka- cigarette: te:lma:s [=‘rolled up’] cigarette dee; P. rufescens, Chestnut-backed chickadee; and • whiwa:k’intiwh [=‘move (a specific stick-like object) Psaltriparus minimus, bushtit) toward me!’] give me a smoke! (cigarette, pipe, cigar); chicken: jikin chicken (from English) xowa’k’inta:n he gave him a smoke. See TOBACCO chicken hawk: See HAWK cinch: mich’e:k’e’-xwo-silay [=‘it’s (horse’s) gut-at-it chief: miningxa’t’e:n [=‘its headman, boss’] the (rope) lies’] cinch (on a horse) chairman, chief, leader (of a council, organization) • ¬in’tiloy’ he cinches it up, tightens the cinch on a child: ch’iwhxiy young person, saddle; ¬intiloy’ cinch it up!; ¬inte:se:loy’ I cinched it child up • xixe:x children, kids circle: nahsma:ts’ it is round, circular, looped • k’its’e:y (or ts’its’e:y) the around. youngest child in a family • na:mus-xw (or na:mis-xw) in a circle, around • ch’imisqiyits small baby (e.g., k’iwidits na:masxw no:nawhliwh [=‘rope- in a • ya:misqiyets little ones, circle - I lay (rope) back down’] ‘I’m coiling a rope’) children. See BABY ya:misqiyets • k’iti¬ma’ts’ put them in a circle! circle them around Chimariko: yinahch’in something!; k’ite:seh¬ma:ts’ I have put them in a [=‘coming from upriver’] circle; tse:-k’ite:lmats’-ding [=‘rock-put in a circle- Chimariko, Upper Trinity River or South Fork people, place’] a circle of rocks on top of a mountain; a place also Tsenungxwe and Wintu where Indian Doctors train • qultsahsn Indians from Weaverville, i.e., Wintu • mina:k’iwilt’ik’ (string) is stretched around it, (Archaic term) encircles it; mina:k’iseh¬ma:ts’ I made a circle around chin: whiwe:da’ [= from whiwe:-da’ ‘my we:-mouth’; it and whiwe:tse ‘my jaw,’ -we:- is an old term for “jaw,” circular: na:sma:ts’ round, circular, hoop-shaped now used only in compounds] my chin. See JAW civet cat: xolje:-xich [=‘skunk-spot- Chinese: me:da’ay-ne:s [=‘its head (i.e., hair)-is long’] ted’] (or xoljeh-ch) civet cat; small Chinese person spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis) • xotse:t¬’iwa’-ne:s [=‘his hair bunched up at back of civet: See RING TAIL head-is long’] Chinese person clam: tehnehsnoy [=‘they stick out xolje:-xich chinook salmon: chwulo:q’e’ Chinook salmon (in peaks) in the water’] clams, (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) (¶ Large king salmon mussels that follow the silverside salmon (xulo:q’e’) in the clamshell: xosits’mil mussel, clam, or abalone shell spring run.) (used as spoon by women) chinquapin: k’ila:jonde’-ch [=‘hazel nuts (diminua- clap: nila’-¬e:k’i¬mat’ [=‘your hands-slap them togeth- tive)’] chinquapin nuts, chestnuts er’] clap your hands!; xola’-¬e’k’iwi¬mut’ he clapped chipmunk: sulxose:ge chipmunk (Eutamias) his hands. See SLAP chisel: ’iwht’iwh I’m chiseling something; seh¬t’iwh I claw: mila’ke’ts’ its (front) claws. See FINGERNAIL chiseled it; k’iwht’iwh I’m mauling off a plank, driving claws, catch in: yits’e:k’ it (animal, bird) catches, it, splitting (slabs, shingles, etc.) with a wedge or chisel; grabs something (in its claws); yiwints’e:k’ it caught k’iseh¬t’iwh I mauled it off; mi¬-k’i¬t’iwh [=‘with it-he it mauls off’] chisel claws, scratch with: yitits’e:k’ it (animal, bird) choke: k’iniwhniw I’m choking on something; k’inilneh scratches, claws something; xotints’e’k’ scratch him choke on it!; k’ine:sniq’ I choked on something; (with your nails, leaving a mark)!; xote:se:ts’e:k’ I ya’k’ineh¬niq’ they choked on something scratched him • xoq’oskin’ding-nowhchwit [=‘at the base of his clay: ¬ehch-ma clay, grey-blue colored dirt. See GREY throat-I lay my arm’] I choke him; xoq’oskin’ding- clean: ’a:dinin’-na:k’i¬deh wash your face!; teh- nonchwit choke him!; whiq’oskin’ding-no’ninchwit na:na’k’iwi¬diw he has washed it, cleaned it someone choked me (with water) chop: yawhwul I’m chopping it, beating it (with an axe, • na:k’iwhla:wh I clean (dirt, sand) off of it; na: club, etc.); ya:’aswa:t¬’ he chopped it; ya:xoseh¬wa:¬’ k’ilahwh clean it off!; na:k’e:la:wh I cleaned it off; I beat him (with a stick, club, etc.); k’e:k’i¬wu¬ chop it na:k’iwidla:wh it has been cleaned off down! chop it off!; k’e:k’e:y¬wa:t¬’ I chopped it down clear: xonwho:n [=‘(place) is good’] it (area, space) is church: je:nahch’ing’-me’-ya’xine:wh [=‘upward-in clear; there is a clearing it-they speak (pray)’] church (Christian) • yo:-niwi¬tso’n it (sky, weather) cleared up
  • 38. 19 CLIFF/COME IN cliff: mis cliff; bank coat: miq’it-ch’ich’iwch ‘on top of it-he puts it on’ • mida:-q’it [=‘its lip-on’] on the edge of (the river); coat, jacket riverbank coat, put on: ’inch’iwh put it on (coat, dress)!; we: climb: me:siwha:wh I’m going up, climbing (a hill); me: ch’iwh I put it on; na’winch’iwh he put it on again; se:yay I started up, climbed (a hill); k’e’sina:wh he’s nunch’iwh wear it (coat, dress)!; na:se:ch’iwh I wore it climbing up along something, climbing a ladder, going cockeyed: xona:’-dehslin ‘his eyes-flow out’ he is upstairs; k’e:’isyay he climbed something; k’e’sindil cockeyed they climb something coffee: ta’na:n-¬iwhin [=‘water-black’] coffee clip (bullets): me’-na:k’iwilwe:l [=‘in it-one stores • na’k’ilqich [=‘parched’] old term for coffee (refers things’] clip, magazine (with bullets) to roasting of beans) clock: me’-widwa:l [=‘in it-it beats time’] clock; me’- • ka:whe coffee (from English) no:nundiwa:t¬’ [=‘in it-it strikes (the hour)’] clock coil: nu¬ma’ts’ coil it! put it in a circle!; na:seh¬ma:ts’ I strikes the hour (e.g., ¬a’-me’-no:nundiwa:t¬’ ‘it’s have coiled it; na:lma:ts’ something coiled up, a hoop one o’clock’) cold: siq’uts’ it is cold; siwhq’uts’ I am cold; • nayk’isdi¬ [=‘it rings again, rings repeatedly’] clock winq’ats’ it (thing) became cold, is becoming cold close: xunding it is close, near by; xa:nde’n it got close; • xosq’uts’ it (weather) is cold; xowingq’uts’ it xa’winde’n he got close; de:di-xunding close to here; (weather) got cold whe:xunding close to me; me:xunding close to it (e.g., • tosq’uts’ [= from to:-siq’uts’ ‘water-(which is) cold’] xontah-me:xunding ‘close to the house’) spring (of cold water), cold water • whixehsta:n’-ding close beside me, within my reach • k’isiwhdile:y I’m freezing, chilled to the bone; • whiwa:n close to me (archaic term); whiwa: k’isdile:y he’s freezing; whila’-k’isdile:y my hand is n-ch [=‘close to me-(diminuative)’] closer to me frozen; k’isiwhdile:-ts’eh I feel cold, freezing (archaic term) • ’asyah (or ’isyah) it’s cold! (exclamation) close: See SHUT cold (in the head): See COUCH cloth-like object lies: si¬kyo:s it lies there (e.g., a collapse: k’ixut it collapses, drops (e.g., deadfall, blanket, cloth, thin fabric) house); k’ingxut’ it collapsed cloth-like object, handle a: ch’iwi¬kyo:sil he collarbone: whina’k’idilyay’ [=‘my necklace’] carries it along (e.g., a blanket, cloth, thin fabric); my collarbone ya¬kyohs pick up (the blanket)!; ya’wi¬kyo:s he picked collect: ¬e:k’iwhlaw [=‘I finger things together’] I it up; nawhkyo:s I’m carrying (a blanket) around; gather (firewood), collect (things), bring (people) na:’askyo:s he carried it around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) together; ¬e:k’ilah gather them!; ¬e’k’ilaw he gathers clothes basket: me’-no:na’mil [=‘in it-one throws them; ¬e’k’ixolaw he gathers (people) together, col- things back down’] clothes basket lects a crowd; ¬e’k’iwilaw he has gathered them; ¬e: cloud: ’ah cloud na’k’iwilaw he gathered them up again (after they had • yiwi¬ki¬ (cloud, fog, smoke) moves along; yehyiwi¬ki¬ been thrown away) (cloud, fog, smoke) rolls in coltsfoot: ts’o:-mi¬-ch’iye:wh [=‘(on the) breast-with clover: toliwh type of clover it-one rubs’] coltsfoot (medicinal herb) (¶ Women rub • sa’liwh wild clover, watercress, edible greens of any this flower on their breasts while nursing to insure a sort steady flow of milk.) • na:xosch’e’ type of clover columbine: wi¬q’is-kiyiq’ [=‘on one side-a hollow • dingq’och’ sour clover tree’] wild columbine (Aqurlegsa truucata) (¶ A small club: ya:xo¬wu¬ beat him (with an axe, club, etc.)! club yellow or orange flower.) him!; ya:xoseh¬wa:t¬’ I clubbed him (¶ Kroeber and comb: mi¬-ch’a’a’dimil [=‘with it-someone combs, Barrett 1960:30.) brushes’] long-toothed Indian comb of elk-horn • k’e:da’ay-mi¬-ch’i¬we [=‘a fishhead-with it-he beats comb, brush: ch’a’a:na’dimi¬ she is combing her it up’] fishing club hair [=‘she throws herself back out; she cleans herself clubs: ’isqa:q’ [=‘clubbed, clumped’] clubs (suit in by throwing (e.g., lice) out’] based on ch’e:-na’-mil playing cards) [=‘she throws things back out’]; ch’a’a:na:dine:me: • bo:se:-mixe’ [=‘cat-its paw’] another term for clubs t¬’ I combed my hair clump: mino:k’ischwa’n it (plant) is growing in a come: ch’inehsyay he came, arrived, ninyahwh come!; clump or bunch ch’ininde:tdo:t¬’ they arrived, nohdi¬ come (you all) coal: t’ewh-¬iwhin ‘charcoal-black’ coal come in: ye’inyawh come in!; yehch’iwinyay he came coast: to:-no:ng’a:-ding [=‘water-reaches to there- in, entered place’] the edge of the ocean, beach, coast • xa’-xontah [=‘okay!-house’] come in
  • 39. COME TO/CORPSE PURIFICATION MEDICINE 20 come to: nilts’it [=‘it falls (hither)’] it comes to someone container, handle a: ch’iwixa:l he carries it along (as a gift, blessing), it befalls someone (e.g., a filled container, such as a bucket of water); come to find out: de:di-dé [=‘this here-(surprise)!’] yungxawh pick up (the bucket)!; ya’wingxa:n he come to find out..., it turned out that... picked it up; nawhxay I’m carrying (a filled container) command: -ne’ (you) must... (hortatory particle, around; na:’usxa’ he carried it around (CLASSIFICA- command) (e.g., k’inyun-ne’ ‘you must eat’; digyung TORY VERB) sinda:-ne’ ‘here you must stay’) content: ’iwhdin I’m content, I like it where I am; common, ordinary: ¬ah-xw [=‘once-at’] merely, just, ch’iwi¬de’n he became content; do:-ch’i¬din [=‘not-he only, (in an) ordinary (way) is content’] he is lonesome • teh¬q’it-ya’dilye [=‘on the ground-religious dancers’] conversation: diywho’-wung-xiniwidyewh [=‘some- ordinary dancers in the Jump Dance (¶ They are called thing-about-talking’] conversation teh¬q’it [=‘on the ground’] because when the dancers • ch’idilwa:wh they are talking, conversing, “chewing sit down between sets only the three “center men” have the fat”; ch’idiwilwa:wh they talked, entered into con- stone seats; all the other dancers must sit on the ground.) versation; wun’dilwa:wh they are talking, conversing companion: whi¬-na:dil [=‘with me-they go around’] about it my companion cook: k’iwhnay I cook something, prepare it for eat- • whi¬ing my companion, buddy, cousin ing; k’i¬na cook something!; k’e’wi¬na’ she cooked compensate: See PAY; BUY something; m’e’wi¬na’ she cooked it (particular thing); computer: See TYPEWRITER k’e:lna’ cooking concerning: wung concerning it, about it (in phrases): • ta’k’imil [=‘they throw things into water’] they are daydi-wung [=‘what?-concerning it’] why? for what cooking acorn soup; ta’k’iwime:t¬’ they have cooked reason?; whiwung-’a:dixudya:n [=‘concerning me-he acorn soup is ashamed’] my enemy; wung-xowidilik [=‘concerning cook in ground: ’inyeh-ky’a’awh [=‘in the ground-he it-what has been told’] a story about something, an ac- puts (some round object)’] he barbecues something by count of something burying it and building a fire over it; ’inyeh-k’ing’awh confluence: ¬e:l-ding reduced from ¬e:wilin-ding barbecue it!; ’inyeh-k’iwing’a:n (or ’inyeh-k’ing’a: [=‘they (streams) flow together-place’] confluence, n) he barbecued it where two streams come together (specifically, where cooked: k’iwint’e (or wint’e’) it is fully cooked, ripe, the Trinity and the South Fork join, near Salyer) ready to eat; k’ite’ it’s getting cooked, ripe conifer: ch’ime:-chwing [=‘ch’ime:-kind’] pine, conifer cooking basket: mi¬to:y any basket large enough to (general term for cedar, pine, fir) cook in; (modern) pot, bucket • ch’ime:-ya:wh [=‘ch’ime:-young] cooking utensils: ch’ide:-chwing (‘ch’ide-sort’) sapling of a conifer cooking utensils (baskets, paddles, other implements • ch’imehch [=‘small ch’ime’] used in cooking traditional foods) small conifer copulate: xowhq’eh I’m going to copulate with her; • nisking (or ’isking) tall, straight xose:q’e:t’ I copulated with her conifer (esp. one without low • ch’isixung (or ts’isixung) [=‘she lies there (as a filled ch’ime:-chwing branches, such as Douglas fir, container)’] she lies back ready to have intercourse Yellow pine) cork: yehwilt’ow [=‘what is slipped in, put in where it conscious: ch’ixoniwh he is awake, aware, conscious, fits’] it is corked; je’ni¬t’ow [=‘he slipped it out’] he has feeling (in his body); xowhniwh I am awake; pulled the cork out xwe:niwh-’ung are you awake?; ch’ixowe:niwh he corn: ka:n corn (from English) became awake corner: yiduq-¬e:da’a:-ding [=‘up (where)-it joins • k’ixoniwh awareness, feeling (in the body); together-place’] at the corner of the house whik’ixoniwhe’ the feeling in my body, my awareness cornet: See TRUMPET of things; whik’ixoniwhe’-do:xole:n [=‘my feel- corpse: ch’indin (or ch’int) corpse, dead person ing-is not’] I am numb, have no feeling in my body; • xo:’a:’udyaw corpse (polite term) whik’ixoniwhe’-do:xohsle’ I went numb. See HAPPY • no:na:ya’xo’awh [=‘they put him (a round object, consider: xowhte I consider him, find him to be (such); like a stone) back down’] they lay out a corpse xo:y¬te’ I have considered him (such). See FIND corpse purification medicine: ’a:dima:nch’ing’- constellation: See PLEIADES na’xine:wh [=‘opposite himself-he speaks again’] the container lies: sixa:n (or saxa:n) a filled container medicine man in a corpse purification ritual (¶ The lies somewhere (e.g., a bucket of water, cup of coffee, medicine man goes about visiting in search of medicine; lake) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) he talks for the one he visits, repeating his words.)
  • 40. 21 CORRECT/CROSSWISE correct: niwhongxwo-’owhts’it [=‘in a good way, well-I • dime:n-na’ay [=‘sharp(ness)-he carries it around, has know it’] I’m right, correct it’] he is cranky, quarrelsome • xo’ch (or xo’ji-, when before another word) in a crash: k’idol there is a loud, crashing sound (as of a moderate, correct way; true, real (thing) log falling); k’iwindol it crashed; k’i¬dol he makes it cottontail: t¬’oh-me:we [=‘grass-what is underneath crash, makes a crashing sound it’] cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) crave: See RELISH; WANT cottonwood: t’un’-na:k’idil cottonwood (Populus sp.) crawfish: See CRAB cough: xos cough, cold in the head; xos-whiwi¬we’ crawl: na¬qo¬ crawl around!; na:’asqol he crawled [=‘cough-beat me up, fought me’] I have a cold around • ch’iti¬xos he is coughing; te:seh¬xos I coughed • ch’iwilqol he is crawling along; wilqol it (baby, bug, • xunwheh cough it up worm) crawls along; tilqo¬ crawl off! creep off!; te:sqol count: ’o¬tuq’ count it!; ch’o¬tuq’ he is counting it; I crawled off ch’o:¬tuq’ he counted it; ky’o’wi¬tuq’ he counted; ’o: crazy: k’idi¬qits’ he is crazy, a crazy person; k’idisqits’ ltuq’ it is counted; ’o:nu¬tuq’ count it again he went crazy country: de:xwo-tah [=‘this place-around, among’] • do:-xwe:xolya:n [=‘not-he has sense, understanding’] hereabouts, in this country; k’ina’-tahxw amongst he is crazy; do:-whe:xowilya’n I got crazy the Yurok, in Yurok country. See EARTH • k’i¬jil he is crazy, in a daze, out of his mind cousin: whi¬ing my buddy, cousin, relative (archaic term) cover: me:k’ingxut’ it is covered up, it has a cover on creak: k’ik’e:t’ there is a creaking, squeaking sound it; me:k’i¬xut’ cover it up! hide it by covering!; me: (e.g., a squeaky door); k’iwink’e:t it squeaked k’e:¬xut’ I covered it up; wa:nungk’idi¬xut’ uncover create: seh¬chwe’n I made it, created it; ch’ischwe’n it! take the cover back off it!; wa:nun’k’idiwi¬xut’ he he made it; wilchwe:n it has been made uncovered it • xo¬chwe she gives birth to him, creates him cow: mide’-xole:n [=‘its horns-there are plenty’] cow, cattle • ch’ixolchwe create (the present world), transform the • mits’o:’-ch’i¬tik [=‘its udder-he pinches’] milk cow world to its present shape coward: See AFRAID credit: ’a:¬-sa’a:n [=‘with itself-it lies’] it is on credit; coyote: xonteh¬-taw [=‘the flats-the one that is ’a’di¬na’awh [=‘he puts it with himself’] he puts it around, among’] coyote on credit (Canis latrans) creek: nilin [=‘(where) it (water) flows’] creek, stream; • t¬’o:q’-nah¬’awh [=‘they go nilini-q’eh along the stream, where the stream flows around in prairies’] another creep: See CRAWL name for coyote (not common) cricket: jeh-ya:n [=‘pitch-eater’] a large greyish- crab: tehxa:ch’e’ (or tixa:ch’e’) brown cricket, found in the mountains among the freshwater crab, crawfish acorn groves crack acorns: k’iwhdik’ I’m xonteh¬-taw • sikilawh a type of cricket, tiny tree cricket cracking acorns, I’m pecking at • t¬’iwhxa:n-ma’a:disch [=‘eel-its ant’] a type something; k’i¬dik’ crack acorns!; k’iseh¬dik’ I cracked of cricket acorns; mi¬-k’i¬dik’ [=‘with it-she cracks acorns’] • xonin’ts’e:k’ (or xoni(n)k’e:ts’) cricket chirps, chirp- darkish rock, about 8 inches long, used to crack acorns ing cricket, cicada • jiwa:k’iwhliwh I’m cracking acorns open; jiwa:k’e: crippled: niwhyiw I’m crippled, bent over; ch’inilyiw lay I have cracked them open he is crippled; k’inilyiw [=‘something crippled’] cross- crack: k’i¬q’its’ he cracks it, makes it make a cracking hatched basket design noise; k’ixolq’its’ it is cracked back and forth; ji¬q’its crooked: niqits’ it (road, stick) is crooked, twisted; he cracks it open; je:y¬q’its’ I cracked it open; je:lq’its’ ningqits’ you are crooked, twisted it is cracked open • nahsqot’ it (stick, etc.) is bent, crooked crackle: k’iq’its’ it cracks, pops, snaps, crackles crosswise: na:k’ining’ay [=‘some one thing extends • k’iqo:n there is the sound of dry hide crackling back along’] something extends across, lies crosswise; • k’igich it makes a crackling sound on being eaten na:k’iniwh’ay I lay it across (arm, leg, stick, board); (e.g., carrots or gristle) na’k’iniwi¬’a’ he laid it across • k’iqots’ it is brittle, crunchy, crackling • ning’e:t¬’ [=‘several things extend along’] they cradle: See BABY BASKET lie horizontal, crosswise; niwh’e:t¬’ I extend them crane: See HERON along, lay them horizontally, crosswise (e.g., sticks, cranky: xoje’sa’a:n xoje:y’-sa’a:n [=‘(in) his mind- poles); ch’iniwi¬’e:t¬’ he extended them along, laid (something) lies’] he or she is cranky, mean them crosswise
  • 41. CROUCHED DANCE/CUT UP 22 Crouched Dance: no:ya’ultsil to dance about cup: See DISHES crouched down, the type of dancing performed by the cupboard: xayts’a’-me’-silay [=‘dishes-in it-they lie’] hook dancers (k’iwo’-me’) in the White Deerskin Dance cupboard crow: k’iwi¬da’u¬chwin perhaps cure: xoxiwhnay I saved him, cured him; whixi¬na from k’iwi¬da’u¬-chwing [=‘it save me!; ch’ixoxi¬nay he saved me; na’xoxe¬nay she carries (living things) along-sort’] (Indian doctor) cured him, saved him again crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, currant: dahchwing’ wild “currants”; scraggly goose- common crow) berries (Ribes diverlatum) • k’ist’ay’-kyoh (‘k’ist’ay’-big’; k’iwi¬da’u¬chwin curse: k’ido:niwh curse; hereditary disease; k’ido: See JAY) Clark crow (Nucifraga niwh na:xosxit’ [=‘curse-has touched him’] he is columbiana, Clark’s nutcracker) affected by a hereditary disease (¶ The result of an • See also RAVEN unacknowledged sin in a family’s history. It can be crow: dine it (chicken) crows; it squeals, buzzes, makes cured by an Indian doctor.) See SWEAR a sound; diwine’it crowed; it made a sound curtain: ma’a:nch’itehs’in’-ding-na:ng’e:t¬’ [=‘win- crowd in: yeh’i¬jeh crowd them in!; yehch’iwi¬je:w he dows-at-they hang’] curtains crowded them in custom: mi-na:sa’a:n [=‘with it-it stays’] there is a tradi- • yeh’idjeh they are crowding themselves in, flocking tion, custom(e.g., dining’xine:wh-mi-na:sa’a:n [=‘Hupa in; yehwidje:w they crowded in people-with them-it stays’] ‘there is a Hupa tradition’) • See also PILE UP cut: ’iwht’us I’m cutting it; se:t’a’ts’ I cut it; k’iwht’us crowd runs: te:digit it (flock, crowd, herd of animals) I’m cutting, sawing, slicing (with a knife); yunt’us cut ran off; tohdigit (you all) run off!; na:nohdigit (you it up!; ya:se:t’a:ts’ I cut it up; dahk’it’us he cuts it in all) come running back!; na:yundigit we came running two, cuts (e.g., finger) off; dahk’int’a:ts’ he cut it in back; widgil they are running about two, cut it off crown of head: whitsida’ the top of my head, my crown • ch’idi¬dow he’s cutting pieces (off of meat), he’s crown: See HOOKS making a cut in it; na’deh¬dow he cut something; crumble: ta:se:ye:wh I crumbled it into powder na:’xodeh¬dow he cut him crunch: ch’i¬qos he is cracking (something crunchy) in his • ’iwhqit I’m cutting, sawing it (log, stick, meat); se: mouth; crunching it; ts’isqots’ he cracked it, crunched it qit I cut it • k’iwot¬’ there is a crunching sound (esp. of rocks) cut hair: na:xowhde:s I’m cutting off his hair; na: crush: ’iwhye:wh I’m rubbing it in my hand (crushing whindehs cut my hair!; na:xwe:yde:s I cut his hair; it), I’m threshing seeds; ’inyehwh rub it in your hand!; na’k’ide:s someone who cuts hair, barber whinyehwh rub me!; we:ye:wh I rubbed it; tawhye: • nitiwhtsit’ let me cut off your hair!; ’a:diti¬tsit’ cut wh I rub it into a fine powder, crush it up fine; ta:se: off your hair!; ’a:dite:seh¬tsit’ I cut off my hair; xa: ye:wh I rubbed it into powder na:k’idi¬tsit’ cut someone’s hair!; xa:na’k’idi¬tsit’ he crutches: mi¬-na:’udiqot [=‘with them-he pokes cuts off someone’s hair, he barbers himself’] crutches cut up: (meat, fish): k’ini¬t’us cut it up (e.g., venison, cry: ch’ichwiw he (adult) is crying; yichwiw (or chwiw) salmon) for drying!; k’ine:seh¬t’a:ts’ I cut it up for it (baby, puppy) is crying (e.g., mije’e:din yichwiw drying; k’inilt’a:ts’ cut-up and dried venison or mije’e:din chwiw ‘a baby cries’); ’inchweh cry!; • ningk’iwh’ul I am dressing meat, butchering (ani- ch’iwinchwiw he cried mal), cutting up (fish); ningk’i¬’u¬ dress it!; ning’k’i¬’ul • ky’a’teh¬chwiw he screamed, cried out; ky’a:tilch- he is dressing it; ning’k’iwi¬’a:t¬’ he has dressed it weh cry out • ta:k’iwh’a:l I’m cutting (fish) up into pieces (for cook- crying: chweh crying, weeping ing)!; ta:k’i¬’ah¬ cut it up; ta:k’iseh¬’a:t¬’ I cut it up • chweh-xotile [=‘crying-he relishes’] cry-baby
  • 42. D daddy longlegs: tso:k’ine daddy longlegs the Jump Dance provides the background for the melo- dam: noleh [=‘it (fish) swims to that point’] falls, dies sung by the two singers in the center of the line.) waterfall, dam or obstruction in a stream. See FISH DAM • no:ya’ultsil to dance about crouched down, the type damp: ni¬ta:n it is soft, damp; wi¬ta’n it got soft; xo¬ta: of dancing performed by the hook dancers (k’iwo’-me’) n it (ground) is damp, soggy. See WET in the White Deerskin Dance dance step, types of: • ch’i¬tul [=‘one kicks it’] the way of dancing at a • na’a¬tul [=‘they stamp about’] stamp-dancing, the Kick Dance basic dance step • xotuq-ch’e’ninyay [=‘between them-she goes out’] • nin’sindil a dance step featuring dancing up and down for a woman to dance between two partners; a feature in place; also, modern dance of the Brush Dance • me’-na’dil [=‘inside-they go’] perform (a dance • ni¬ch’ing’-ya:’ulto’n [=‘towards each other-they step) inside a circle of dancers (a feature of the Brush jump up’] to dance towards and past another dancer; Dance) a feature of the Brush Dance • na:’a¬to’n [=‘he makes it jump around’] he dances • k’inasni-na’dil [=‘in front of it-they go’] to dance in jumping up and down (a general term for the frenzied front of a line of dancers; a feature of the War Dance dancing, as in doctor-training dances) • mino:’awhding practice religious dance, performed dance: na’a¬tul [=‘they stamp about’] they are stomp- to the side of dance area dancing (the basic dance step); ya:’a¬tul they are dance songs, types of: stamping in an Indian dance. See SPECIFIC DANCES • xon’na’we:-miwhine’ Brush Dance songs dance camp: ¬e:na:wilay [=‘they are laid together’] • mi¬-yehk’i¬tul [=‘with it-they kick it in’] (or mi¬- the open-air camps (where food is served and people yehch’ina:wh [=‘with it-they enter’]) a “heavy” or stay overnight) during the White Deerskin Dance slow song at the Brush Dance • no:ya:’ulxit’ [=‘they were swallowed up’] they • miq’eh-me:na:k’iwiltiw [=‘following it-they sing’] moved their dance camp a “light” or fast song at the Brush Dance dance, enter the: yehk’i¬tul [=‘they kick it in’] they • xonsi¬ ch’idilye:-miwhine’ [=‘White Deerskin file into the dance (Brush Dance, Flower Dance) Dance’s-song’] White Deerskin Dance song (¶ These dance, leave the: tahch’ina:wh [=‘one comes out of are sung by a trio of singers, ta:q’in-ya’k’ita:’a’aw the water, fire’] (the dancers) come out of the dance, quit ‘three men-(who) sing,’ consisting of a center man who dancing; tahts’isyay (dancers) came out of the dance kicks the ground and two helpers, k’ich’o:ya’ne’ ‘they dance, types of: help,’ one at each side. Others accompany with he’he’ • na’u¬tul [=‘they stamp about’] “ordinary” and yells of qeh qe:w! Time is kept by stamping. The dancing, the basic dance step songs have no words.) • ya’dilye [=‘they do a religious dance’] to participate • xay ch’idilye:miwhine’ [=‘winter dance song’] in a religious dance (ch’idilye) (or ya:xo:’awh-miwhine’ [=‘jumping-its song’]) Jump • ya:xo:’awh [=‘they leap up’] the Jump Dance style of Dance songs (¶ Sung by one singer at a time. No words. Time dancing (¶ The dancers raise their ceremonial baskets is kept by stamping and raising of Jump Dance Basket.) (na’wehch) in their right hands at the same time as they • ch’i¬tul-miwhine’ [=‘kick dance-song’] Kick Dance raise one of their feet (either right or left, sometimes songs alternately). When the foot is raised almost level with • xowah-na’k’ita’aw [=‘alongside them-he sings the other knee, the dancer brings it down forcefully. along’] a “light” or fast song at the Kick Dance This is done by the line of dancers in unison and in • mi¬-no:’ondil [=‘with it-they sit down’] a “heavy” time to the singing.) or slow song at the Kick dance • na:’u¬to’n [=‘they jump about’] a Jump Dance step • k’itse:-miwhine’ [=‘war dance-song’] War Dance • ditsik-¬e:na:ya’asow [=‘unshelled acorns-they scrape songs (¶ Sung in chorus. A man who has killed a together’] a dance performed with the ceremonial bas- person starts the song, and others join in. They stamp ket-quiver (na’wehch) during the Jump dance (¶ The the ground for beating time. Most of these songs are low rythmic sound made by the “ordinary dancers” in medicine songs.)
  • 43. DANCEGROUP PREPARER/DEER 24 dancegroup preparer: ma:-de’ida’awh [=‘for dawn maiden: xo¬iqay’tina:wh-k’eh¬tsa:n [=‘first them-he puts it in the fire’] man in White Deerskin light (of dawn) shows-girl’] Dawn Maiden Dance and Jump Dance who clears the danceground dawn: yi¬xa (or yi¬xay) it is dawning, day is breaking (¶ He throws incense root into the fire and prays for the • yisxa:n it has dawned, the day has arrived people.) See PRIEST • xoh¬iq’ay-tehsyay [=‘whiteness-goes along’] the first dancegrounds: ch’idilye:-ding [=‘religious dance- light of dawn showing in the sky place’] any danceground at which a religious dance is held day: je:nis day; ¬a’-je:nis [=‘one-day’] all of one day, • no’k’iwilta:t¬’-ding any danceground at which the all day, all day long White Deerskin Dance is performed • jingkyoh-ding daytime; jingkyo:wit during the day • tse:-mit’ah [=‘rock-its pocket’] a dance ground and • yisxa:n it has dawned, the day has arrived; nahdi- camping place during the White Deerskin Dance; where ysxa:n [= nahding-yisxa:n ‘twice-it has dawned’] (it the Boat Dance takes place lasted) two days, two days passed • ch’e:’indiqot’ding-mima:nch’ing’[=‘ch’e:indiqot’ • de:di-ding [=‘this here-place, time’] nowadays, these ding-opposite it’] White Deerskin danceground across days, today the Trinity from ch’e:’indiqot’-ding (¶ A resting camp, daybreak: See DAWN not a regular danceground: the two dance divisions dead: do:-xo’osday [=‘not-a man’] dead person camped on opposite sides of the river here, Hostler (polite term) Ranch people on the west side, Matilton people on the • ’a:ya’wine:l he has passed away (polite term) east side during the White Deerskin Dance.) • si¬te:n it (animal) lies there dead; ts’isi¬te:n he lies • tse:-k’iwot¬’-ding [=‘stones-crunch-place’] a dance- there stunned, dead (like an animal); ch’iwi¬te’ he fell ground on the river bar just to the west of ts’ilunding, over dead opposite the mouth of Beaver Creek; one of the main • ch’iwehswa:t¬’ he lies there (like a log that has been dancegrounds for the White Deerskin Dance thrown down), dead or unconscious • me’isdil-ding [=‘they always go up-place’] a trail to • See also CORPSE; DIE; KILLED Bald Hill deadfall: miq’it-k’ixut [=‘on it-it drops, collapses’] • ni¬tuq-lay’ [=‘black oak-point, hilltop’] a place half- deadfall trap (for fisher); also bird trap (popularly way up Bald Hill, where the concluding dances of the called “figure 4”) White Deerskin Dance are held death: ¬ungxo-’a:k’it’ing [=‘in many ways-it happens’] dancer: teh¬q’it-ya’dilye [=‘on the ground-religious death takes place (polite term) dancers’] ordinary dancers in the Jump Dance (¶ They • do:-niwhongxw-’a:k’it’e:n ‘not-a good way-what are called teh¬q’it [=‘on the ground’] because when the happened’ death (polite term) dancers sit down between sets only the three “center • See also DIE men” have stone seats; all the other dancers must sit death, wish someone’s: xono’xine:wh he overpow- on the ground.) ers him (with words), talks bad luck into him, wishes dandelion: ch’a’ul [=‘something that one chews’] him to death; whino:xiniwinye:wh you have overpow- dandelion; chewing gum (¶ Dandelions used to be used ered me; do:xoling-xono:xine:wh it isn’t possible to for chewing gum. They were mixed with sugar pine overpower him pitch and put in the fire in a pan.) decay: See ROT; SPOIL dangerous: niwilgit [=‘what is feared’] it is dangerous deceased: ne’in used to be, former, deceased • k’iyo:y anything strange, dangerous, poisonous (e.g., whima:lyo’-ne’in ‘my former friends’; which- mushroom wo:-ne’in ‘my late grandmother’) dark: chwa:xo¬wil it’s dark, getting dark; chwa:xo¬we: deep: xonsa:t [=‘it is far in the ground’] it (water) is t¬’ the dark of night; it has gotten dark deep; xonsah-ding [=‘water is deep-place’] where • dilwhin it is blackish, dark; xolwhin (or xo¬iwhin) the water is deep (old village site in Hoopa Valley); it (area, room, outside) is dark, there is darkness, xowinsa:t it got to be deep blackness deer: k’i¬ixun [=‘something • xi¬ dark, murky color that tastes good’] deer (general • See also NIGHT FALLS term), specifically blacktail deer dart: na¬dow it (animal) is darting along the road (Odocoileus hemionus); venison dart: me:ch’ine:s (or me:ch’in’ne:s) dart; a type of • dilqiwh-kyoh [=‘forked-big’] lizard (Gerrhonotus, alligator lizard) big forked-horned (deer) daughter: whiya:ch’e’ my (woman’s) daughter • ¬a’-k’itiyawh [=‘one-herd • whitse:’ my (man’s) daughter moves along eating’] a herd daughter-in-law: whiyawh’ut my daughter-in-law of deer dilqiwh-kyoh
  • 44. 25 DEERHIDE ROBE/DIFFICULT deerhide robe: t’e’ [=‘blanket’] (or xo’ji-t’e’ [=‘true- dentures: ch’indin-miwo’ [=‘corpse, skeleton-its teeth’] blanket’]) traditional deerhide blanket or robe, tanned false teeth with the fur left on (¶ Worn loose around the waist by depart: See LEAVE dancers in the Jump Dance. It is not tied on, but its ends descend: xohch’iwinyay he came down off a ridge; are grasped in the left hand.) he went down the bank (to the river); xohnahdi¬ come deerhide stretching frame: miq’it-k’i¬xa:l [=‘on back down, you guys! it-someone stretches it’ deerskin stretching frame] design: See BASKET DESIGNS, TATTOO DESIGNS deerhide, types of: desire (sexual lust): diwhdiniwh I have sexual • k’i¬xa:l [=‘what someone stretches’] freshly skinned desire, I lust for women, have an erection; ch’idehniwh (deer) hide he has sexual desire; ch’ide:winiwh he has gotten • diwa:n untanned deerhide (dried and ready for sexual desire. See WANT tanning) demand: See ASK • dichwil tanned deerhide, leather, buckskin despite: -heh despite, even if (e.g., hayi-heh ‘despite it, • diltsow [=‘orange-brown’] summer deerhide (¶ Sum- anyway, even so’; k’ehniwh-heh ‘even if it thunders, mer deerhide is thinner and easier to cut up, and is thus despite the thunder’; ch’iwi¬kidi-heh ‘even though they more highly prized.) got hold of me’) • t’e’ (or xo’ji-t’e’) deerhide robe or blanket, tanned dessicated: wi¬tsa:y something (e.g., plant) that has with the fur left on (¶ A deerhide robe is worn loose dried up, desiccated around the waist by dancers in the Jump Dance. It is destroy, spoil: chwin’da:’a¬tiwh he spoils, destroys, not tied on, but its ends are grasped in the left hand.) befouls it; chwin’da’wi¬te:n he spoiled it deerhoof: k’ixulo’ a (deer’s) hoof, deer-hoof rattle used devil: See INDIAN DEVIL by doctors (dried deer hooves, tied around a stick or bone) devour: ni¬yeh eat it up!; ch’ineh¬ya:n he ate it up, deer lick: k’inunq’ deer lick devoured it; ne:lya:n it’s been eaten up deerskin: dew: dahto:’ dew, there is a dew; dahwinto:’ dew • k’i¬ixun-¬iqay [=‘deer(skin)-white’] (or dilxich-¬iqay has fallen [=‘spotted skin-white’]) white deerskin (¶ Ornamented diagnose: xoq’it-ch’ite:ng’e’n an Indian doctor is and displayed on a pole during the White Deerskin “tracing” on someone, acting as diagnosing doctor Dance.) diamond: to: nehwa:n-k’iq’its’ [=‘obsidian-sparkling’] • dilxich-dilma:y ‘spotted skin-grey’ type of deerskin diamond (grey deer) diamonds: dime:n [=‘sharp’] diamonds (suit in deer snare: k’ixas deer snare (set to catch deer) playing cards) (archaic term) diaphragm: which’ing’ah-na:lma:l [=‘in front of me-it defecate: ’iwhchwing’ to discharge feces from the bowels; is stretched’(?)] my diaphragm I’m going to defecate, ch’iwinchwe’n he defecated diarrhea: ¬itsow-whinist’e’-yehk’inyo:xw [=‘something delicious: ¬ixun-ts’eh it tastes good blue/green-my body-it pours into’] diarrhea demand: See ASK dice: tse’i¬mut’ from [= tse-k’i¬mut’, ‘stone-slapping’] den: yehky’a’a:n [=‘hole into something’] den, animal’s women’s dice game (¶ One player slaps her hands to- cave, hole gether with shells between them, then drops them.) dentalia, Indian money: xo’ji-nahdiyaw [=‘true- die: dahxo:’a:ch’idiyaw [=‘in some way-he did it’] he money’] or xo’ji-mi¬ky’o:xe:t [=‘true-money’] died (commonest euphemism) dentalia, Indian money (¶ The traditional term was • ch’iwinje:w he died, passed away (polite term) nahdiyaw, now generally used for modern money.—In • ch’ich’it he died (direct term; very impolite). See DEATH order to be valuable, dentalia shells different: midi¬wa different from it, moving on to had to be long enough to reach another from it; xodi¬wa different from him, moving from the base of the finger to the on past him (e.g., midi¬wa:-’a:de:ne’ [=‘different from last joint, one and a half inches or it-she said something’] ‘she mentioned something else, longer. They were usually incised, she went on to talk about another thing’; whidi¬wa:- strung on necklaces, and kept in ch’e’ningyay [=‘moving on past me-he came out’] special elkhorn purses.) ‘he passed me on his way out’) xo’ji-nahdiyaw • mida’ch small dentalia shells, too • yo:-ch’in’-tah [=‘there-towards-among’] here and small for money, used for decorative necklaces there, in different places • ’o:wit’a:ts’ [=‘cut into, incised’] mida’ch that has difficult: me:tsah-ch’ixosin he is a difficult person been incised (like nahdiyaw) but not used as money to get along with, rebellious, won’t take advice; k’e: • ¬iqay-wint’e [=‘white-always’] plain white dentalia ts’ah-xowhsin I’m difficult, rebellious
  • 45. DIG/DO 26 dig: xa’k’iwhe he is digging a hole (e.g., well, post hole); disappear: ’idah it (e.g., ice, fog) is melting away, xa’k’iwingwhe’ he dug a hole; xa:k’iwidwhe’-ding dissipating, disappearing; ’isdaw it melted, disap- [=‘hole has been dug-place’] the area around Norton peared; k’isdaw (or na:k’isdaw) they (fish, eels) Field where there was extensive gold-mining activity vanished, stopped being caught; ky’o:dah let the fish • xa:na’winchway he dug it up stop coming • xa’winsow he dug it up; scooped it out • do:-xoliw [=‘not-it becomes plenty’] it is disappear- digger pine: na:de’t¬’ pine nuts; Digger pine, Bull ing; do:-xohsle’ it disappeared, it has gone, it got used pine (Pinus sabiniana) up; do:-xohsle’-te it will disappear, it will be gone dime: ts’it’ung’yehts [=‘the little thin one’ dime] disbelieve: ky’ondilung don’t believe it!; ky’owidila’n diminuative: -ch (or -ji) little, tiny, dear, in a small or he did not believe it gentle way (diminutive suffix, sometimes changed to - discharge: xis pus, discharge, infection ts, -dzi) (e.g., diniwh-ch ‘small manzanita’; q’ay’timi¬- • whina:-ts’e:t¬’e’ [=‘my eye-glue’] discharge from ch ‘small burden basket’; me:da’ay-wilchwili-ch [=‘its my eyes hair-grows-(diminutive)’] ‘boy just beginning puberty’; disease: k’ich’int disease, sickness me:da’ay-wiltsili-ts ‘small boy just beginning puberty’; • k’ich’int-tehsyay a disease, epidemic is going around ¬iwunin-ts [=‘alone-(diminutive)’] ‘all alone, all by • See also CURSE oneself’) disgust: ’ulush (or ’ilush) it’s dirty! it’s nasty! (excla- dip: ya’wingxa:n [=‘he raised up (a filled container)’] mation of disgust) he dipped up water (in a glass, dipper) dish: k’isinto’-k’iwa:t [=‘grease-pan’] wooden dish • yehk’imil she is dipping out (water) into (containers) on which meat was served (¶ Goddard L&C, Plate • See also DIP NET 16, figure 1.) dip net: k’ixa:q’ich [=‘A-frame net (diminutive)’] small • me’-k’isinto’-ch’i¬chwe [=‘into it-grease-someone dip net (¶ See Goddard makes, puts’] stone dish for catching oil of cooking L&C, p. 25; Curtis, p.15, eels or fish and illustration between dishes: me’-ky’a:n [=‘in it-one eats’] plates, cups and pp. 46-47.) other things one eats from • mi¬-no:’o¬wul [=‘with it- • xayts’a’ (modern) dishes; bowl; (traditional) one throws (a net) down’] k’ixa:q’ich mush basket dip net, plunge net (¶ • me’-sa’k’ixawh [=‘(from) in it-one spoons into one’s Probably equivalent to k’ixa:q’ich.) mouth’] eating bowl, basket • nowhwul [=‘I throw it down’] I’m throwing a dip-net; dismount: na’diwidyay he got back off (horse), no’ni¬wa:t¬’ he threw a dip net dismounted • ’iwhxa:wh [=‘I handle it (a filled container)’] I disperse: tahsyay the group went off, dispersed (each to catch (fish) with a dip net; ch’iwingxa:n he caught it; his or her own place) (e.g., hay k’ixinay tahsyay ‘the k’iwhxa:wh [=‘I handle something (a certain filled immortals went off, each to his own place’) container)’] I’m pulling a dip net to shore; k’iwingxa: dispute: k’ituq-na’way [=‘between-he goes’] go- n he pulled a dip net to shore between, mediator, one who settles a dispute dipper: xunis-ch’il’e:n [=‘xunis-people treat it like’ distant: See FAR (xunis is an archaic word originally meaning ‘canoe’)] distribute: xow’tiliwh he distributes them (e.g., regalia) dipper basket (¶ Goddard, L&C, Plate 15, fig 1, and to them Plate 25, figure 2.) dive: teh’iliw [=‘It swims off (underwater like a fish)’] • q’ay’te:l-miking’-xole:n [=‘plate-handle-there is It dives into the water; teh’ileh dive into the water!; plenty’] open work basket with a handle, used to dip tehwe:liw It dived in; tehch’iwiliw he dived in; teh- rocks out of the fire for cooking widliw diving dirt: nin’ dirt, earth, ground divide: mine:jit-dahna:k’e:t’a:ts’ I cut it in half • chwing filth, dirt • jiwhk’il I’m splitting it, tearing it in two • nin’-tse:lnehwa:n [=‘earth-red’] red dirt divorce: wha’ut-no:na:xoneh¬te:n [=‘my wife-I put • ¬ich’iwh sand, sandy dirt her back down, I put her back where I found her’] I left dirty: nichwe’n it is bad, ugly, dirty; ch’ini¬chwing’ he my wife, divorced my wife; no:na’xoni¬te:n he divorced is making it dirty her, she divorced him • chwin-ch’iliw he is dirty, gets dirty; chwin-se:le’n I dizzy: niwil dizziness, drunkenness; xoniwil’-na:way got dirty; chwin-siling’-xolung it’s all dirty! [=‘his dizziness-moves around’] he is dizzy, half drunk • ’ulush (or ’ilush) it’s dirty! it’s nasty! (exclamation do: ’awhniw I am doing it, acting thus; ’ayneh do it!; of disgust) ’a’t’e:n he is doing it; ’a:t’e:n it is doing it; ’a:t’ing
  • 46. 27 DO/DOUGH-LIKE OBJECT LIES (somebody) doing things (e.g., ’a:t’ing-xoseh¬chwe’n doe: miwhxe’x-xole:n [=‘its children- there are plenty’] doe ‘I made him do things’); ’a:diniw we do it; ’ahneh do • mitsumest¬’o:n’ [=‘its woman’] female (of any species) it (you all)!; ’a:ya’t’e:n they do it; ’awhdiyaw I did dog: no:k’ine:yo:t [=‘what it; ’undiyah-te you are going to do it; ’a:’udyaw he tells someone to stop (by did it; ’ahdiyaw it did it; ’a:ydiyaw we did it; ’ahdi- barking)’] dog yaw you all did it; ’a:k’idyaw what has happened; • ¬ing’dog, pet animal, horse ’awhne:l I’m doing so (right along); ’a’wine:l he does • ¬o:q’-ma:’a’ [=‘salmon- so (right along) its lice’] special term of dog • ’a:winiw the doing of it, how it is done (e.g., that must be used during White Deerskin and Jump no:k’ine:yo:t k’iwinya’nya:n-mi’a:winiw’ ‘people, Indians-their way of doing it’, i.e., ‘the Indian way of doing things’) Dances • ’awh’e:n I do it, make it, accomplish it; ’a:’u¬’e: dog salmon: da:jahl Dog salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) n he does it; ’awhlaw I did it; ’ullaw you did it; ’a: (¶ Small salmon that runs in the late fall.) ch’ilaw he did it; ’awhleh let me do it!; ’ulleh do it!; dogwood: dahma:’ dogwood (Cornus nuttalli) ’a:ch’o:leh let him do it!; ’a:wilaw it is done, made, doll: na:ne:l-ch [=‘(what) there is playing (with)- accomplished. See WRITE, MARK (diminutive)’] doll • ’a:xowh’e:n I do it to him, treat him thus; ’a’whi¬’e:n dollar: ¬a’-nite:l [=‘one-it is flat, wide’] one dollar (refers he does it to me; ’a:xowhlaw I did it to him; ’a:niwhleh to silver dollar coin); da:la dollar (from English) let me do it to you!; ’a:whiwilaw what is done to me, don’t: do- ...heh (with verbal noun) no ...-ing (ever)! don’t my way of being treated ever ...! (e.g., do:-k’iwidya’ni-heh ‘no eating! don’t ever • da’a:nawh’e:n I’m undoing, untying, erasing it; da’a: eat!’; do:ta:dna’ni-heh ‘no drinking!’) na:ch’ilaw he undid it; da’a:nulleh undo it! door: no:na:witse [=‘what is shoved back’] door doctor: k’ima:w-ch’i¬chwe [=‘medicine-he makes’] (modern door, or sliding door of traditional living an herbal doctor, modern medical doctor; the person house), gate (¶ The door of the traditional living house who recites the formula and prepares the medicine in was a small plank that slid up and down on the inside the Brush Dance of the circular entrance hole. Goddard L&C, p.13 and • k’ite:t’aw Indian doctor (general term); sucking doctor Plate 2.) • See SUCKING DOCTOR, TRACING DOCTOR, TA:N DOCTOR • min’-sowo¬ [=‘min’-throat’] the round exit door of doctor (in training): t’e:wing [= from t’e:wi-n ‘un- a sweathouse (¶ A round or oval opening located near cooked, raw-person’] a novice Indian doctor, one who the floor in the back of the sweathouse. Goddard L&C, has not yet been fully “cooked” by the Kick Dance. p. 16-17; Curtis p. 12): For min’- see BACK (OF HOUSE) See KICK DANCE door, close: no:nuntse close the door!; no:na’nintse Doctor Dance: xo¬-ch’idye’n [=‘with him- ?’] the he closed the door dance that an Indian doctor performs before sucking door, come to: mida’ninyay [=‘he came to its mouth’] out a pain (¶ The doctor stands in one place and dances he came to the door (but didn’t go in) (old word); mida: in an easy fashion, not lifting her feet but flexing her na:’undiyay he came back to the door knees and sweeping her right hand scoop-wise, palm door, open: na:tintse open the door!; na’te:tse he up, sometimes with a pipe.) opened the door; na:te:witse it (door) is open Doctor Dance, Dance: xo¬-’indiying dance the doctor- dotted: xa:lde:t¬’ it is dotted up (as in face-painting) dance!; xo¬-wiwhdiye’n I danced the doctor-dance double: nahding twice, double doctoring songs: k’ite:t’aw-whing’ [=‘sucking doc- • nahxa-le:n [=‘two-le:n’] large (and valuable) blanket tor’s-song’] sucking doctor’s training song (¶ These made from two (deer)hides sewn together; a ‘double’ are given to a doctor by the k’ixinay in dreams. blanket Accompanied by slow stamping. Some of the songs doubt: wung-k’ilah-xokyun-na:way [=‘concerning have words.) it-doubt-inside him-moves’] he or she is doubtful, • k’ite:t’aw whing’ mi¬ k’e:diwid’ay sucking doctor’s suspicious doctoring song (¶ These have no words. The doctor • do:-ch’ino:’unt’aw he didn’t believe it; do:-no:yt’aw sings while the patient’s people help with stamping.) I don’t believe it dodge: nawhdow I’m dodging something, I jump back • ky’owhdilung I don’t believe it; ky’o’widla’n he out of sight sneakily; nu¬doh dodge it!; whina:’u¬dow doubted it, scoffed at it; xowung-ky’ondilung don’t he dodges me, acts furtively so as to escape from me believe him! • na:’u¬wis he is dodging around; na:’uswis he dodged • See also SUSPICIOUS; WILD around dough-like object lies: si¬iq’ a dough-like, mud-like • See also LURCH object lies somewhere (CLASSIFICATORY VERB)
  • 47. DOUGH-LIKE OJBECT, HANDLE A/DRESS, WEAR A 28 dough-like object, handle a: wiwh¬e:l I’m carry- I’m going downstream in a boat; xoda:na:y¬qe:t I have ing a dough-like object along (e.g., a lump of dough, a gone downstream in a boat; xoda:na:dqe:t [=‘(a stick) piece of mud, a rotten apple); yun¬eh pick up (a dough- was shoved back downslope’] the boat moved downstream like object)!; ya’win¬iq’ he picked it up; de’di¬eh he downward: ninch’ing’ from nin’-ch’ing’ [=‘ground- puts (dough) into the fire (to bake); de’diwin¬iq’ he towards’] (moving) downward, down towards the put (dough) into the fire; de:diwi¬iq’ [=‘(dough-like ground; ninch’ing’-xw (lying) low, on the ground object) that has been put into the fire’] bread, baked doze off: ch’inehswil he dozed off, with his head falling goods (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) over; niwhwil I’m dozing off dove: ma:yo mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) drag: nawhlo:s I’m dragging it around; na:’uslo:s he • xonsi¬-chwiw [=‘(in) summer-it cries’] another name dragged it around; na:whilohs [=‘drag me around!’] for the mourning dove (¶Dove was a great gambler. lead me by the hand!; na:xose:lo:s I led him by the He used to gamble all winter. Once while gambling, hand; tilohs drag it away! (e.g., wood, brush), lead it someone told him his grandmother was dead. He said (e.g., horse) with a rope!; te:se:lo:s I dragged it away; there would be plenty of time to cry next summer, and ch’iwhite:lo:s he dragged me away kept on playing. When summer came he cried for his dragonfly: k’i¬we:-mitits’e’ [=‘evil spirit-its walking grandmother, and we hear him crying ’e:wa:k whichwo stick’] dragonfly ‘alas! my grandmother!’ every summer.) • me’ist-na:k’iditin [=‘mortar-it carries around’] type down: ninch’ing’ down to the ground (e.g., ninch’ing’- of dragonfly, bigger than k’i¬we:mitits’e’ ky’o:y¬chwit ‘I pointed downward’) draw: na:na’de:¬iw he drew a line across it; diwh¬eh I • yitse’n downhill, down towards the stream make a line running off down (of bird): miwa’ its (animal’s) fur, (bird’s) down draw (in fight): ¬e:lya’ [=‘it came to stand together, it • mits’isge:’ its (e.g., duck’s) fine feathers, down became equal’] there is a draw, tie (in a fight, game); ¬e: down (slope of the river): xoda:- down the slope, ya’wilya’ they came to a draw, tied. See REVENGE down to the river (verb prefix): xoda:’una:wh he is dream: sleep, drowsiness, dream; whimile’-tehsyay going down (to the river); xoda:na’widyay he went [=‘my sleep-went off’] I dreamed back down • k’inawhla:l I’m dreaming (about something); down: no:- down to a position of rest, to a limit (verb k’ina’la:l he is dreaming; whinullah¬ dream about prefix): nong’awh put it (e.g., stone) down (in a resting me!; k’ina:se:la:l I dreamed; k’ina:’asla:l he dreamed; position)!; no’ning’a:n he put it down; no:ninyahwh mina:se:la:l I dreamed about it; k’ina:dla:l dreaming, quit going! go to there and stop! that’s as far as you a dream go!; no:ne:yay I quit going; no’ningyay he quit go- dress: See SKIRT ing; no:wilin it (water) flows to there (i.e., the head dress (for dance): xo’ji kya’ [=‘true-dress’] ceremo- of a stream) nial abalone-shell dress worn by women at the Jump downhill: yitse’n downhill, down towards the stream Dance and on other special occasions • yisinch’ing coming from downhill, coming up from • k’e:lkya’ [=‘the specific thing that is worn as a skirt’] the stream, coming from the west; yisinch’in [= from another term for abalone-shell dress yisinch’ing-ni ‘coming from the west people’] Blue • t¬’oh-kya’ [=‘grass-dress’] ceremonial dress made of Lake Indians maple bark ripped into fringes, worn by the k’inah¬dang • yise:n’ch’ing’ [= from yitse’n-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘down- girl during the Flower Dance hill-side-toward’] on the downhill side, towards the dress meat: ningk’iwh’ul I am dressing meat, stream, towards the west butchering (animal), cutting up (fish); ningk’i¬’u¬ dress • xo-da:- downhill (verb prefix): xoda’na:wh they it!; ning’k’i¬’ul he is dressing it; ning’k’iwi¬’a:t¬’ he go down the hill; xoda’winyay he went down the hill; has dressed it xoda:na’widyay he went back down the hill (after hav- dress, wear a: miwhkya’ I’m wearing a dress; ing gone up); xoda’winde:t¬’ they went down the hill k’iwhkya’ [=‘I’m wearing a certain dress’] I’m wear- downstream: yide’ downstream ing an abalone-shell dress; me’wi¬kya’ she wore a • yida:ch’ing coming from downstream; yida:ch’in dress; na:wi¬kya’ she put a dress on; yehna’xo¬kya’ [= from yida:ch’ing-ni ‘coming from downstream- he put a dress on her; ma:-me:lkya’ [=‘ahead, first- person’] Yurok what is worn as a skirt’] slip, underskirt; k’e:lkya’ • na:yide’ (or na:yde’) back downstream [=‘the specific thing that is worn as a skirt’] abalone- • yide’e:n’ch’ing’ [= from yide’-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘down- shell dress stream-side-toward’] on the downstream side; • ’a:whwilaw [=‘it is done to me in such a way’] the whiyide’e:n’ch’ing’ on the downstream side of me way in which I am dressed • xoda:nawhqeh [=‘I shove (a stick) back downslope’] • See also WEAR
  • 48. 29 DRESS UP/DYE dress up: ’a:di¬’e:n I fix myself up, get dressed up (for • ch’isilwa:t¬’ [=‘he lies there (like a log that has been a ceremony); ’a’dilaw he fixed himself up; ’a:dileh thrown down)’] he lies there drunk, unconscious, dead; fix yourself up! ch’iwehswa:t¬’ he came to lie there drunk • xong’-na’a:diwh’e:nI’m dressing up, putting on my best dry: ni¬tsa:y it is dry, dried up; xo¬tsa:y dry ground clothes, regalia; xong’-na’a:de:law I dressed up; xong’- • nundil-ni¬tsa:y dry snow (i.e., small flakes which pack na’a:dileh dress up!; xong’-na:xo¬’ing dressing him into powder; does not melt quickly) up!; xong’-na:xowilaw someone dressed up. See PAINT • wi¬tsa:y plant that has dried up, desiccated; k’iwi¬tsa: dried: k’i¬tsay’ it is seasoned, dried; na:¬tsa:y they are y dried, seasoned (hide, acorns) dried (e.g., clothes hung on line) • k’iqo:n there is the sound of dry hide crackling; • k’inilt’a:ts’ cut-up and dried (venison, salmon) k’iwingqo:n there was a dry-hide crackling sound driftwood: dahyik’i¬je:w driftwood (has piled up) dry (something): k’iwhtsay’ I’m drying (deerhide, drill: ’iwhwis I’m drilling a hole; k’i¬wis he drilled a hole; salmon), seasoning (acorns, wood); k’iseh¬tsay’ I dried yehk’e:¬wis-te I’m going to drill a hole in it it; na:k’i¬tsay’dry it!; na:k’iseh¬tsay’ I’ve dried it; • k’idi¬wis he drills for fire; k’ide:y¬wis I drilled for fire k’iwiltsay’they (acorns) are getting dried (over a fire) drink: tawhdina:n I’m drinking; tundinung drink!; • k’i¬xa:l he is stretching a freshly skinned (deer)hide to ta’dina:n he’s drinking; taydina:n (animal) drinks; ta: dry on a drying frame; k’iseh¬xa:l I stretched a hide to dry whdina’n I drank; ta:ndina’n you drank; ta’wina’n he drying frame: miq’it-k’i¬xa:l [=‘on it-he stretches drank; ta:’awhdina’n I drink habitually, I’m a drinker; hide to dry’] frame on which deerhides are stretched ta:’una’n he is a drinker; ta:dinung drinking. See WATER to dry before tanning drinking: ta:wina’n drinking; do:-ta:dna’ni-heh • k’ixahle’ archaic term for miq’it-k’i¬xa:l no drinking! • miq’it-na:k’i¬tsay’ [=‘on it-one dries it out’] drying drip: nul’iwh it’s dripping down, water comes down drop frame for gill net by drop; na:l’iwh it dripped down duck: mida’-nite:l [=‘its mouth-is wide’] duck • milich it drips, leaks; miwilich it started dripping, (general term) leaking • na:t’awe (or na:t’iway) duck (older term, now archaic) drive (animal, person): See CHASE • na:t’awe:-sowolts [=‘duck-(with) diminutive neck’] drive (car): k’ite:si¬da:wh [=‘you make it run’] you ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis, North American are driving a car, spinning a top Ruddy duck) • whi¬-na:teh¬dida:wh [=‘with me-it runs back’] I’m • na:t’awe:-¬iqay [=‘duck-white’] diving duck (Mergus going home by car (sp.), Merganser) drive (stakes): k’iwhq’a:s I am driving stakes (with • miq’os-¬itsow [=‘its neck-is blue, green’] mallard a rock); k’isq’a:s he drove stakes (Anas platyrhynchos) drop: na:lts’it it drops, falls; na:na:ldits’it it dropped • ¬o’ya:wh-yiditile [=‘trout-it relishes’] duck (sp.) back down • ¬iwhin-mida’nite:l [=‘black-duck’] “mud hen,” black • ’ixut (several objects) drop, fall; ’ingxut’ they dropped duck (e.g., k’iloy ’ingxut’ ‘hail fell’); k’ixut it collapses, • tehch’iliw [=‘it dives under water’] diving duck drops (e.g., deadfall, house); k’ingxut’ it collapsed duck from something: ’iwht’a’n I flinch, jerk • na:na:dit’ah it (feather, leaf) falls, drops, away, duck, blink; ’int’ung’ duck!; ch’iwint’a’n he floats downward flinched, ducked drowsy: xonist’e’-ta:k’idehsne:ge’ his body feels sore, dull: dichwil it’s dull, blunted (e.g., knife) dull; he is drowsy from lack of exercise dumplings: tehk’iwilky’o:ts’ [=‘deer (meat)-stretched drum: miwhwul I’m drumming; me’wi¬wa’t¬’-teh¬ he is into the water’] “Indian dumplings” (boiled deer meat going to drum; me:na’wi¬wa:t¬’ he resumed drumming mixed with dough); tehk’i¬ky’ots’ put dumplings • ts’iswa:l he beat time (for a Flower Dance) (e.g., into water! xoq’it-tsiswa:l ‘over her-they beat time; they had a dung beetle: See BEETLE Flower Dance’) during: hit at the time that..., while..., when..., during... drum: miq’it-me:’i¬wul [=‘on it-he (e.g., ya’wehs’a’-hit ‘while he was sitting there’; xay- drums’] drum; mi¬wu¬ beat against hit ‘during the winter, in winter’) it, drum!; me’wi¬wa:t¬’ he drummed dust: ¬ich’iwh dust • miq’it-king-k’e:’i¬wul [=‘on it- • miwidwa:de’ [=‘its (sifted) acorn flour’] powder; the miq’it-me:’i¬wul stick-someone hits’] drum used in dust of something stick game • mich’iwhe’ta:wh bluish dust on acorns (due to mold) drunk: xoni¬wil [=‘it (drink) causes him/her to pass out’] dye: q’iwh-misits’-mito’ [=‘alder-bark-its juice’] dye he is drunk; whini¬wil I’m drunk; xoneh¬wil he got drunk made from alder bark
  • 49. E eagle: tismil large (black or golden) eagle by one (as I pick them); ch’ildil he’s eating them one • ¬o:q’-ya:n [=‘fish-eater’] Bald eagle by one; ch’iwilde:t¬’he ate them one by one • da:ch’aht-xa:yi¬tiwh [=‘suckerfish-it picks up’] • sawhjich [=‘I put (particles) into my mouth’] I’m eagle (probably second name for ¬o:q’-ya:n) eating seeds by the handful ear: whijiw’ (or whijiwe’) my ear • sa’xa:wh [=‘he puts (filled container) into his mouth’] earplug: xwe:de’t¬’-sa’a:n [=‘on his earlobe-(round he eats from a bowl, he eats with a spoon; sungxahwh object) lies’] ear plug (¶ A piece of wood or bone worn eat from a bowl, spoon!; sa’wingxa:n he ate from a bowl, in the earlobe to keep it open, so that an earring or other spoon; sa’k’ixa:wh [=‘he puts something (a specific ear ornament could be put in when wanted. Little plug filled container) into his mouth’] he eats acorn mush about 1/2 inch in length.) • xola:n-ky’a:n [=‘helping him-he eats’] he helps him earring: xojiwe’-na:ng’e:t¬’ [=‘his ears-they hang to eat, he eats with him from’] earrings eating medicine: mi¬-nikyahxwo-ky’a:n [=‘with it-in earth: ninis’a:n [= possibly from nin’-sa’a:n ‘ground- a big way-he eats’] medicine to “stretch your stomach” which lies’] country, land, world, earth so that you will be able to eat a lot at a feast (¶ During the • nin’ dirt, earth, ground White Deerskin and Jump Dances, Yurok people used to earthquake: ninis’a:n-me’a:dini¬chwit [=‘earth- give lots of acorns to Hupa people, and vice-versa. To pushes itself’] (or nin’-me’a:dini¬chwit [=‘ground- show that you were a good man you’d have to eat it all. pushes itself’]) earthquake You would use this medicine to stretch your stomach.) • ninis’a:n-’ildit¬’ the earth shakes, quakes; ninis’a: eating utensils: me’-ky’a:n [=‘in them-he eats’] n-wildit¬’ the earth shook plates, cups, eating utensils generally east: de:-noho¬-yinuq-yiduq [=‘here-with us-upstream- eclipse: no:xonyawh [=‘leave (the place) uneaten! (and) uphill’] east, in an eastward direction from the stop eating it!’] stop the eclipse! (¶ What used to be center of Hoopa Valley shouted during an eclipse of the sun. It was believed • yiduqa-to:-me’ [=‘uphill-water-in it’] (or yiduqa- that an eclipse is caused by the moon’s dogs, which to:-no:ng’a:-ding [=‘uphill-water-it extends to there- attack and start to eat the sun. People would pound place’]) the ocean to the east of the world boards and shout no:xonyawh to stop them.) • yo’n-yinuq [= beyond the fire-upstream’] eddy: nah¬mil eddy in a stream the east wall of a house • ta’na:n-na:naydits-ding [=‘water-where it swirls Easter lily: k’iwo’-dahyiwilxa:l [=‘tooth, tusk-is held around-place] eddy up’] Easter lily edge: mima:ts’e’ rim, edge of something (e.g. basket) easy: do:-na:lte’ [=‘not-work’] it’s easy, “no sweat” • mida:-q’it [=‘its lip-on’] at the edge of a stream, on eat: k’iwha:n I’m eating; k’inyung eat!; ky’a:n he is the riverbank eating; yiky’a:n it (animal) is eating; k’idiya:n we are • mingwah (or mingah, miwah) at the edge of it, bor- eating; ky’ohyung eat (you all)!; ya’ky’a:n they are dering it, beside it, (lying) next to it (e.g., xonteh¬-min- eating; k’e:ya’n I have eaten; k’e:yun’-te I will eat; gwah ‘at the edge of the flat, clearing’ (placename)) k’iwinyun’-’ung have you eaten?; k’iwinya’n he has eel: t¬’iwhxa:n [= possibly from t¬’iwh-sixa:n ‘snake-that eaten; k’iwhung’ I want to eat; ky’o:yung’ let him lies (caught) in a container’] eel, lamprey eat!; k’iwiyul what one eats (in general), food • tohna:y fish, eels, general term for all edible water • ni¬yeh eat it up!; ch’ineh¬ya:n he ate it up; ne:lya:n creatures it’s been eaten up • ts’a’kya:w (or ts’e’kya:w) small blackish eel • no:k’inyawh finish eating!; no:k’ine:ya’n I finished (¶ Found in creeks; not eaten.) eating; no:ya’k’iningya’n they finished eating • k’ida:ma:ts’e’ head, • ch’ita:n he is eating (by himself); yita:n (animal) is mouth part of an eel eating, feeding • k’ituqe’ [=‘some- • na’dilchwa’n they are eating together, having a feast; thing that is between’] na’diwilchwa’n they ate together the middle part of an eel, • ’iwhdi¬ I’m eating small objects (such as berries) one when cut up for eating t¬’iwhxa:n
  • 50. 31 EEL/EVEN IF • me:q’-xi¬-sile’n [=‘inside-dark-it becomes’] a part • ¬e:ya’dzidilay they hate each other, they are enemies of an eel, eaten when half-dry enough: q’ut enough! (exclamation) • miyehch’o’ eel’s “backstrap” or ”string” • min¬ung it is sufficient, enough for it. (see also TEN); • k’iq’aylosch’e’ eel’s liver me:win¬a’n it has become enough eel, prepare: k’iteh¬k’il he prepared eels to dry • wha:-wile [=‘for me-it is enough, filled’] I am satiat- (flattened them out) ed, my belly is full, I got enough to eat; xwa:-wehsle’ he eel string: See BACKSTRAP got satiated, he got enough to eat; na:-wehsle’-’ung did eel trap: t¬’iwhxa:n-mije:lo’ [=‘eels-their storage you get satiated? did you get enough to eat?; do:wile basket’] small circular basketry trap for catching eels [= from do:-wile ‘not-it is enough’] being poor, weak egg: miwe:whe’ its (bird’s, chicken’s) egg • whe:k’ine’ I have a (small) share, just enough • q’ong’ fish eggs, roe to get by; xwe:k’ine’ they have a share, just enough; egg sucker: k’iwina:liw [=‘it swims after’] male do:-me:k’ine’ there isn’t enough to go around; ’a: salmon; egg sucker k’ine’ there is no more food (archaic term) eight: ke:nim (or ke:num) eight, eight people; ke:nim- enter: ye’inyawh come in!; yehch’iwinyay he came ding (or ke:nin-ding) eight times in, entered eighty: ke:nimdimin¬ung [= ke:nimding-min¬ung entrance: min’-t’ah [=‘ming’-pocket’] the entrance ‘eight times-ten’] eighty passage into a living house (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 14. ejaculation: ¬iwhxung [=‘I am sweet’] I ejaculate; For min’, see BACK (OF HOUSE).) whilxung’ [=‘my sweetness’]my semen, ejaculation; • minin’-xunding [=‘its face-close to where it is’] roof- whixune’ tesya:-ts’eh I am about to ejaculate entry or smokehole of a sweathouse (¶ A rectangular elbow: which’ich’ my elbow opening on the side of the roof facing the river, covered elder bush, elderberr y: ch’iwhowh (or by a plank. Goddard L&C, p. 16.) ch’iwhiwh)elderberry (bush), elder sticks (Sambucus) e nv y : xowung-ky’a:xawhky’ow I’m envious elders: k’isdiya:n someone who is old, old person, elder; of him; ky’a’xa:wehsky’oh he gets envious (of k’isdiyun old people, elders (collectively) someone) eleven: min¬ung-na:¬a’ [=‘ten-again one’] (or • whiwung-ky’a’xa:wehsky’ow he got envious of me min¬ung-miwah-na:¬a’ [=‘ten-alongside it-again epidemic: k’ich’int-tehsyay a disease, epidemic is one’]) eleven going around elk: mik’iqots’e’ [=‘its brittle, cracking sound’], i.e., there epiphyte: dahk’ischwa’n plant growing on a tree, is the sound of brush cracking epiphyte (e.g., mistletoe) when it moves through the erect: See BUILD woods, elk (Cervus canadensis, erection, to get an: k’iteh¬niw he got an erection Roosevelt elk) [=‘I made something go that way’]; k’ite:seh¬niw I • gehs-kyoh [=‘gehs-big’] elk got an erection (Redwood dialect or archaic • xo¬-ya:tsa:s [=‘with him-it grows bigger around’] he term) mik’iqots’e’ has an erection • chwe:y yearling of elk; • diwhdiniwh I have sexual desire, have an erection; spotted hide of yearling elk (archaic term) ch’idehniwh he has sexual desire; ch’ide:winiwh he elk design: ¬e:na:t¬’o:n (or ¬e’na:k’iwit¬’o:n) has gotten sexual desire [=‘woven together’] basket design, equivalent to the escape: xiwhnay I escape, reach safety, am safe; Yurok “elk” design ch’ixinay he escapes, is safe; xinay it escapes, it is • See also BASKET DESIGN safe, there is safety. See IMMORTALS embrace: whina’siwe:nik he put his arms around me • mit’ah (getting) away from it, escaping from it, (stand- empty: sonsol empty, hollow ing) apart from it; ’i¬t’ah (or ni¬t’ah) separated from • ming-wha:ne (or minch-wha:ne) [=‘min(ch)-only’] each other, apart empty. See FULL esophagus: whiyehk’ilxit-q’eh [=‘my swallower- end: no:ng’a:-ding [=‘as far as it extends-place’] the along it’] my esophagus, throat farthest extent of something even if: -heh despite, even if (e.g., hayi-heh ‘despite it, • hayah-no:nt’ik’ [=‘there-it stretches to’] that’s the anyway, even so’; k’ehniwh-heh ‘even if it thunders, end of it (concluding formula for a traditional story) despite the thunder’; ch’iwi¬kidi-heh ‘even though they enemy: whiwung-’a:dixudya:n [=‘concerning me-he is got hold of me’) ashamed’] my enemy (i.e., he has shame for me, avoids • xoh...-heh even if, no matter how (e.g., xoh-xonist’e’- me); xowung-’a:dixa:niwhdiya’n [=‘concerning him-I xoniwh-heh ‘even if he is happy, no matter how happy become ashamed’] I make him my enemy he is’; xoh-¬a’-heh ‘even if only one’)
  • 51. EVEN UP/EYELASH 32 even up: See REVENGE exit: See DOOR evening: wilwi¬-ding [=‘it gets dark-at (time)’] evening explain: k’ide:ts’eh-na’k’i¬chwe [=‘understanding-he • ’e’ilwil-mi¬ [=‘it gets dark-when’] every evening, makes someone again’] he explains it, interprets it, is an whenever night comes interpreter; k’ide:ts’eh-ya’xo¬chwe [=‘understanding- event: k’iniwh news, events that are talked about he makes them’] he translates for them, explains it to them every so often: da:ywho’-ding-mi¬ [=‘somewhere- explode: k’iwimut’ there was a bursting sound; a at-from’] every so often, at intervals gun went off everything: ’aht’ing-q’a-’unt’e [=‘all-like-it is’] all extend (one thing): ning’ay it extends along (e.g., tin kinds of things, everything, every which thing ning’ay ‘a trail runs, extends somewhere’); na:ng’ay it everywhere: ’aht’in-ding [=‘all-places’] all places, extends down, hangs; na:k’ining’ay something extends everwhere; ’aht’in-ch’ing’ [=‘all-toward’] in all across, lies crosswise; ta:ng’ay it extends into the water directions, (to) everywhere (e.g., a pole sticking out from the bank, a point of land); e.g., land • ’un¬ung-xwe:-ding [=‘that many-at-places’] everywhere me:ning’ay it extends along against it, leans against it evidently: xola:n it is evident, there are signs extend (several things): ning’e:t¬’ that... (e.g., se:seh¬wing-xola:n ‘I had killed it-it was (or niwing’e:t¬’) several things extend along (e.g., tin evident’; me:nileh-xola:n ‘it (a fish) has gotten caught ning’e:t¬’ ‘several trails run, extend somewhere’); na: (in the net)-evidently’) ng’e:t¬’ they extend down, hang (e.g., fruit on a tree, evil spirit: k’i¬we [=‘they fight things, beat things curtains); ch’e:ng’e:t¬’ they extend out (of an enclosure) up’] evil spirits, little beings that live in the water and extent: no:ng’a:-ding [=‘it extends to there-place’] the cause sickness farthest extent of something, as far as it reaches, the excellent: ting-niwho:n [=‘very-good’] very good, edge (of a river, the ocean) excellent excellent: ting-niwho:n [= ‘very-good’]very good, exchange: ni¬di¬wa different from each other, moving excellent from one to the other (e.g., ni¬di¬wa:-sile’n [=‘mov- extinguish: See PUT OUT FIRE ing from one to the other-it became’] ‘they traded, eye: whina:’ my eye exchanged’) • whina:’-¬e:¬t’a’n [=‘my eyes-I stuck them together’] excrement: chwung’ excrement I closed my eyes • whichwa:n’ my feces eyebrow: whina:to:nse’ my eyebrows exhausted, get: sisil-whe:na:wh [=‘sisil-moves eyelash: whina:-t’ung’ [=‘my eye leaves’] my against me’; sisil is probably from sise:l ‘(there is) eyelashes heat’] I’m getting exhausted, giving out from fatigue; sisil-whingyay I got exhausted; sisil- xwingyay he got exhausted
  • 52. F face: whining’ my face nisa:t) nisa:t) my! it’s such a long ways!; ’u¬tsa:ch’ing’ far facing: -dinung facing... (in various phrases): away, distant; xo’ji-mi¬tsahch (or xo’ji-mi¬tsahts’) which’ing’-dinung facing toward me; yide’-dinung just so far, a middling distance, not too far. See DEEP facing downstream; whiq’eh-dinung [=‘(following) farewell: xa’gya’ne’ goodbye, farewell (old, formal after me-sloping, inclined’] facing behind me, lined up expression, avoided by some people because it sounds too behind me, agreeing with me; ni¬q’eh-dinung facing sad and final—it’s what you would say to a dying person) behind each other, lined up in one direction fart: tseh gas, flatulence, fart faint: whije:’e:nde’n [= from whije:y’-’e:nde’n ‘my • k’iwitmut [=‘it came to a boil’] or k’itimut [=‘it mind-became lacking, disappeared’] I fainted boils out’] a short, barely audible fart, gasser (pops fall: nawhts’it I’m falling (from a height), dropping; na: like acorns) lts’it it fell; na:whts’it I fell; na’wilts’it he fell • See also BREAK WIND • kingxits fall! fall over!; k’e’wingxits’ he fell; fashion: whe:-q’eh [=‘me-following after’] in my ch’idiwingxits’ he fell, dropped (off of something) way, after my fashion; yima:n’dil-miq’eh [=‘white- • ’ixut (several objects) drop, fall; ’ingxut’ they men-following after them’] in the white-men’s way dropped (e.g., k’iloy ’ingxut’ ‘hail fell’); k’ixut it fast: xolisch (or xolisji-) quickly, fast; hurry up! collapses, drops (e.g., deadfall, house); k’ingxut’ fat: whiq’ah my fat (on my body) it collapsed • ¬iq’a:w it is fat, hog; ch’i¬iq’a:w he is fat; fall (of year): t’unq’ (or t’unq’it) fall (season) ch’iwilq’a:l he is growing falls: noleh(-ding) [=‘(fish) swims to that point and fatter and fatter stops(-place)’] waterfall, dam, obstruction in a stream father: whita’ my father false Solomon’s seal: miq’is-nint’ik’ [=‘(along) • which’indine’ my deceased half of it-it stretches along’] false Solomon’s seal father (Smilacina sessilfolia) (¶ Medicinal herb. The bulb father-in-law: whiwhunch’e’ is boiled and crushed for a poultice to be placed on my father-in-law sores.) faucet: ta’na:n-me’-ch’e:wilin falsehood: See LIE [=‘water-(from) in it-it flows whita familiar with: no:whidi¬ta’n I am used to it, I’m out’] faucet familiar with it, [= it holds on to me]; nondini¬ta’n fawn: dilxich [=‘spotted’] you’re used to it; no:whidini¬tun’-te I’m going to fawn, yearling; hide of a young deer be used to it fear: niwhgit I’m afraid, I fear it, I’m a coward; family: e:na:wh people living together, cohabitants, ch’inilgit he is afraid; ch’ine:lgit he became afraid; family, villagers me:niwhgit I’m afraid of it, I fear it; me:ne:sgit I • whima:lyo’ my relative, kinsman, family member became afraid of it • whiing my buddy, cousin, relative • ch’iyo oh my! (exclamation indicating surprise, • ing-’xol’e:n [= ‘cousin-people treat him like’] he (mild) fear) is treated like family, called by a kinship term; ing- feast: no’k’ingxa:n [=‘he puts the (filled container) whil’ing treat me like family! call me cousin! down’] feast, picnic; specifically the Acorn Feast; family, kill someone’s: ch’e’whineh¬ya:n [=‘he noya’k’ingxa:n [=‘they put the (filled container) ate me out’] he (or they) slaughtered my family, did down’] feast, dinner, held for someone who has away with my people; ch’e:whini¬ya:n you ate up my recovered from an illness or injury, or for someone family, you cleaned me out going away or coming back famine: tima’ there is a famine; tiwima’ a famine • na’dilchwa’n they are eating together, having a came, there was a famine feast; na’diwilchwa’n they feasted • ’e:jin-sile’n there is a famine • See also ACORN FEAST • ’a:k’ine’ there is no more food (archaic term) feather: k’ich’il’ (or k’ich’ile’) feathers; mich’il’ far: nisah a long way, far; nisah-ding a distant place; (or na’diwi¬chwe’n) its (bird’s) feathers nisa:-ch’ing’ to a long distance; ’a:nisah (or ’a: • mits’isge:’ its (e.g., duck’s) fine feathers, down
  • 53. FEATHER, CEREMONIAL/FIND 34 feather, ceremonial: yehna:lqe:t [=‘stuck in’] (diminutive)’] Bracken (fern) eagle feathers stuck into headbands • da:chwingq’a’ (or da:chwingq’ay’) a type of fern • k’iwiloy’ doctor’s condor-feather and pipe (in (Pleridium aquiliunum) (¶ Used to keep fish and eels combination) fresh after they are caught.) feather an arrow: me’k’isloy’ [=‘he tied something ferry: yima:n-yehwhi¬xiwh [=‘across the stream- to it’] he feathered an arrow haul me in’] ferry me across the river!; yima:n- feather drops: na:na:dit’aw it (feather, leaf) falls, yehch’iwhi¬xe:n he ferried me across the river; na: drops, wafts downward xo¬xe [=‘haul him around!’] ferry him around (from feces: See EXCREMENT place to place)!; yima:n-na’xohsxe’ [=‘across the feeble: do:-wile [=‘not-it is enough’] to be poor; do:- river-he hauled him around’] he ferried him back and wile:-xw feebleness, poverty. See OLD WOMAN forth, hauled him around feed: wha:k’i¬kit [=‘catch something for me’] feed fetch: ’o:nchwit reach for it! fetch it!; ch’o:nchwit he me!give me food!; xwa’k’i¬kit she feeds him; ma: reached for it, fetched it; ’o:ne:chwit I reached for k’iwhkit I feed it it, went and got it • misungxawh [=‘put (a filled container) into its • whixa (come) after me (to fetch me), in pursuit of mouth’] feed it (baby, animal) with me; mixa (go) after it, in pursuit of it (e.g., mixa:- a spoon!; misa’wingxa:n he fed it: See POISON ch’itehsyay ‘he went after (the deer)’; whixa:-ch’ixe: feel: nu¬xit’ feel it!; touch it!; na:’usxit’ he touched it, ne:wh ‘she called out for me’ felt it; na’whisxit’ he touched me; do:-na:’a¬xit’ fever: ch’ise:l he is hot, has a fever; siwhseh¬-ts’eh I don’t be touching anything! feel hot; ch’iwinse:l he got hot feel (so): -ts’eh feel, taste, be perceived (so) (e.g., ¬ixun- • k’i¬we:-whiwi¬we’ [=‘evil spirit-fought me, beat ts’eh ‘it tastes good, sweet’; k’isiwhdile:-ts’eh ‘I feel me up’] I have a fever, I am sick with a disease that cold, freezing’; ch’iskis-ts’eh [=‘he knocked-it was per- causes a high fever (e.g., pneumonia, typhoid) ceived’] ‘someone was heard knocking (at the door)’) few: do:-¬a:n-ts [=‘not-many-(diminutive)’] a few, not feel good: me’-k’idilxuts he feels good (after drink- many, not much, just a little ing), he’s high fifty: chwola’dimin¬ung [=chwola’ding-min¬ang ‘five chwola’ding-min¬ang feeling: k’ixoniwh it (e.g., body, body-part) has times-ten’] fifty feeling, sensitivity (e.g., whila’-do:-k’ixoniwh fight: k’i¬ch’ixawh’awh I’m fighting; k’i¬ch’ixa’awh [=‘my hand-not-it has feeling’] ‘my hand is numb’); he’s fighting; k’i¬ch’ixa’wing’a:n he fought; k’ixowe:niwh it came to have feeling, it was felt there; k’i¬ch’ixa:nyay they are fighting, there is a fight whik’ixoniwhe’ the feeling in my body, my awareness going on of things (e.g., whik’ixoniwhe’-do:xohsle’ [=‘the • xwe’diliw they fight, attack (in a group) nehe’diwiliw feeling in my body-it became none’] ‘I went numb’) they attacked us; ¬e’di¬iw they are fighting (each other) • whikyun-tina:wh [=‘my mind-moves along’] my • ch’ixowi¬we’ he fought him, beat him up feelings about something file: ’ingq’a file, grind it (e.g., a knife)!; ch’iwingq’ay’ feels, it: xoliwh it feels, it seems like (e.g., ’a:k’ine:- he filed it, ground it xoliwh ‘there was a sound-it seemed’) fill: de:wiming’ it has filled up female animal: ¬inch’e’ mare, bitch • di¬ming fill it up!; ya’de:¬me:n they have filled it up • mitsumest¬’o:n’ [=‘its woman’] a female of filth: chwing filth, dirt any species fin: mijiwult’ung’ its fins fence: k’ite:witse fence • k’ije:’ding-xa:ng’ay [=‘at the front-what sticks • k’ite:lwe:l pickets in a fish-dam out’] belly fin (of salmon) fence, build a: k’itintse build a fence!; k’ite:se:tse • k’ida’di(ng)-nehsnoy [=‘at the mouth-what stands I built a fence up’] the two fins close to the mouth of a salmon (at its neck) fern: me:me tall fern (Woodwardia) (¶ Grow to be 5 or • k’iwhxe’x [=‘something’s sons’] navel fins (of a 6 feet high; their “sinews,” salmon) dyed by boiling with alder finally: yiwiding-hit (or yiwidingit) finally, after some bark, are used for the red- time; yiwidin-de’ finally dish designs in baskets.) finch: ’isq’o:ts’-yiditile [=‘blackberries-it relishes’] • miqe:king’-xi¬nehwa: finch (Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch) n [=‘its ankle-is dark find: na:’u¬tsa:n he got sight of it again, he found it; colored’] Maidenhair fern na:xowhtsa:n I found him (Adiantum) miqe:king’-xi¬nehwa:n • ’owhte I find it (easily); ch’oh¬te he finds it; ’o: • me:mehch [= from me: y¬te’ I found it; xowhte I find him to be (such); no: me:-ch ‘Woodwardia fern- y¬te’ I found you to be (such)
  • 54. 35 FIND OUT/FISH TRAP find out: gya’ finding out, being revealed to be, lo! fire drill: mi¬-k’idi¬wis [=‘with it-one drills for fire’] or (suffixed particle) (e.g., de:-gya’ ‘as I see, as I come k’idiwi¬wis [=‘what is drilled’] (traditional) wooden to find out’; xwe:di-gya’ ‘how...it looks!’) drill-like implement used to create a spark, fire drill; finger: whila’ my hand, finger (modern) matches • whila’-minikya:w’ [=‘my fire pit: xong’-ding [=‘fire-place’] fire-pit in a living hand-its big part’] my thumb house or sweathouse • w h i l a ’ m i n i k y a : w ’- • yo’n on the far side of the fire pit (in an Indian house). mich’ing’-na:da’ay [=‘my firewood: chwich firewood thumb-towards it-what ex- • ta:ysts’e:y’ [= from ta:kiwh-(mi)tse:y’ ‘sweathouse- tends’] my index finger (its) brush’] sweathouse firewood (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 38.) • whila’-tuq [=‘my hand whila’ first: tsit first (e.g., ’aht’ing-tsit-xola’-na:na’k’i¬diw (fingers)-between’] between ‘all-first-their hands-they wash’); dongq’a’-tsit my fingers [=‘before-first’] wait a minute! hold on! first let’s... • whila’-mimisGe’gitse’ [=‘my hand-its little things’] • ch’idung’ at first, to begin with; ch’idun’-ding the my fingers first place • whila’-mimisGiye’ts(-ding) [=‘my hand-its little • na:tse:-ding [=‘ahead-at’] in the first place, ahead thing (-place)’] my little finger of the others fingernail: whila’-ke’ts’ [=‘my hand-nail’] my fish: ¬o:q’ fish; salmon (general term) fingernail, claw • tohna:y fish, finish: mi¬xeh finish it!; me’ni¬xe’ he finished it; me: eels, general term lxe’ it is finished, ready for all edible fir: nisking (or ’isking) tall, straight conifer (especially water creatures ¬o:q’ one without low branches, such as Douglas fir, yellow fish (with hook pine). See CONIFER and line): fire: xong’ fire (also slang for ‘veneral disease’ ky’owhlaw I’m fishing (with hook and line, “white- • xong’-wilil fire is burning; xong’-te:lit fire started to man’s style”); ky’olah fish!; ky’o’law he’s fishing; burn ky’o’wilaw he has fished • k’itin¬it burn it! start a fire!; k’ite:se:¬it I started a fish (with A-frame net): da’usday [=from dah- fire ts’isday (or dah-ch’isday) ‘he stays above (the net)’] • k’idnot it (fire) blazes; k’ite:dinot it started to blaze; (or mi¬-dahya’wing’ay [=‘with it -he sits above’]) he ya:k’idnot it blazes up (in the air), flames up, flashes is fishing (with a net); dahnintsah [=‘sit down above fire, build: ¬e:nawhliwh [=‘I am putting (several things) (the net)!’] go fishing with a net!; dahch’inehsday he together’] I’m building a fire; ¬e:na’nilay he built a fire; went fishing with a net ¬e:nawilay fire that has been built fish dam: ’ehs fish dam, weir (¶ See Goddard L&C, fire goes out: k’initsis the fire is going out; k’inehtsis p.24.) the fire went out • ’ e h s - m a: • k’ini¬tsis put out the fire! blow it out!; k’ine:seh¬tsis ning’ay [=‘fish I put out the fire; na’k’ini¬tsis he puts out the fire that dam-its backbone had previously been lit (of salmon)’] the ’ehs (fish dam) fire lies: xong’-siwe:n [=‘fire-it lies there as a pack, “stringer” across load’] the fire lies there a fish dam (¶ The logs that are laid horizontally across fire, light: xon’-wun-nongwiwh [=‘fire-to it-move the supports of a fish dam.) (pack) down to there!’] light the fire!; xon’-wun- fish head: k’e:da’ay [=‘a head’] fishhead no’ninwe:n he lit the fire fish spear: mi¬-k’iti¬kis [=‘with it-he spears’] fishing fire, put into: de:-di- into the fire; (verb prefix): spear, especially the point (¶ See Curtus, illustrations de:ding’ahwh put it (e.g., stone) into the fire!; between pp. 4-3 and 48-9; Goddard L&C, p.25, and de’diwing’a:n he put it into the fire Plate 13, figures 2-3.) fire, take out of: tah- out of the fire, out of the water • nahxi-tehs’ay two-stick (verb prefix); tah’ing’awh take it (e.g., stone) out of out’ two-pronged fish spear the water! take it out of the fire!; tahts’is’a:n he took fish trap: no:l’qe:t fish it out of the water; tahna:’us’a:n he took it back out trap (¶ See Goddard of the water; tahch’ina:wh he comes out of the water, L&C, p.24-5. Curtis, fire; (the dancers) come out of the dance; tahts’isyay he p.16.) came out of the water; (dancers) came out of the dance mi¬-k’iti¬kis (fish spear)
  • 55. FISHER/FLOUR 36 fisher: ’ista:ngq’eh-k’itiqowh [= from nista:n-q’eh- flint, obsidian: to:nehwa:n [=‘water-it resembles’, k’itiqowh ‘log-along-it scampers’] fisher; pine marten i.e., ‘dark black’] black obsidian, in particular the (Martes pennanti) large, ceremonial blades of black obsidian carried by fishhook: mi¬-ky’o’wha:l [=‘with it-one hooks some- principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance thing’] fishhook • tse:l-nehwa:n [=‘blood-it resembles’, i.e., ‘red’] red fishing claim: xayah fishing claim, fishing place at an obsidian; the large, ceremonial blades of red obsidian eddy or other favorable spot that is owned by a man carried by principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance and his family (whixayaw’ my fishing claim) (¶ See flint, to work: k’iwht’oq’ I’m working flint; k’i¬t’oq’ Goddard L&C, p.26; Curtis, p.15.) work flint!; k’iseh¬t’oq’ I worked flint fishing hole: tse:yeh hole dug along the river for flint design: ni¬q’it-dahsa’a:n [=‘on top of each catching fish and holding eels (no water for fish, water other-it lies atop’] basket design for eels) equivalent to the Yurok “flint” fishing platform: ta:lqe:t fishing platform design (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 45-6 ni¬q’it-dahsa’a:n • dahk’iwe:wita:n [=‘(stick-like object) that is and Plate 25, figure 5.) put atop’] fishing platform (alternative term for ta: • See also BASKET DESIGN lqe:t); dahk’iwuntiwh build a fishing platform!; flip: na’k’i¬tso’n he flips (stones, marbles); na: dahk’iwe’winta:n he built a fishing platform k’iseh¬tso’n I flipped things about • miq’it-no:’o¬wul [=‘on it-one throws (a net) down’] float, to: wila:l it (single object) is floating along; dah- platform on fish dam for dip-netting wilah¬-ding [=‘it floats along on top-place’] Eureka; fishing pole: ky’o:law-king’ [=‘fishing with hook and ch’iwila:l he is floating along; na:la:t it’s floating line-stick’] fishing pole around; na:’usla:t he floated around; no:nila:t it fist, hit with: ’iwhkis I strike something (with my fist), floated to there I knock at the door; ch’iskis he struck it; na’ni¬kis he • wixi¬ they (plural object or mass, e.g., logs) float strikes at it; na’whineh¬kis he struck at me again along; tixiwh they’re floating off; tehsxe:n they fit: whi¬kyow it is my size; whe:¬kyoh it got to be my size, floated off; na:xe they are floating around (e.g., logs it fits me; ne:¬kyow what fits you. See SIZE in pond) (¶ chwung’-na:xe [=‘shit-floats around’], five: chwola’ five; chwola’n five people; chwola’-ding words to a song sung by women at the beginning of five times the Flower Dance.) flag: na:t’aw [=‘what floats, flaps around in the • na:t’ah it floats about in the air, waves (like a flag), air’] flag wafts about; nahst’aw it floated around flame: k’idnot it (fire) blazes, flames; k’ite:dinot it float: dahwixil [=‘what floats on top’] floats on a gill started to blaze; ya:k’idnot it blazes up (in the air), net, seine flames up, flashes flood: to:-tehsyay [=‘water-moves along’] flood, high flank: minin flank (of mountain), hillside water in the river • whitut¬’ my flank, the side of my body • to:-nikya:w [=‘water-big’] high water, flood; to:- flap: na:mut’ it (bird, bat) flaps its wings, flies around; wingkyah [=‘water-gets big’] the water is getting high xat¬’e’-na:mut’ bat [=‘nighttime - flapping its wings’]. (in the river), the flood waters are rising See SLAP • dahdiwilxit’ [=‘it has taken something away by swal- flat: xonte:¬ it (place) is wide, flat, open (as a prairie); lowing, swallowed it up’] the river has risen, flooded nite:l it (thing) is wide, broad, spread flat flop: k’ijut’ there is a wet, floppy sound; k’iwinjut’ flat, lie: silxut’ it (e.g., board, cloth) lies there flat, flat- it flopped tened out • ch’e:nt¬’e:t’ (soft flabby material) bulges out, flops • sid’ut it (cloth, blanket) has been thrown flat out (as when squeezed) (e.g., xomit’-ch’e:nt¬’e:t’ ‘his flea: xulto’n [=‘it jumps up out of the ground’] flea belly-is bulging out’); na’dit¬’e:t’ [=‘he flops himself flee: da’ayneh run away! flee!; da’a:yahneh ran away! around’] he walks along with his body flopping (a bunch); da’a:ch’idyaw he ran away, fled flop along: See WRIGGLE • tsinti¬kyoh run for your life! flee!; tsin’teh¬kyo:t he flour: widwa:t [=‘what is sifted’] acorn flour; modern flour ran for his life; tsintoh¬di¬ run for your lives (you all)!; • k’itust leached acorn flour, before cooking (¶ Cf. tsiyuntehsdilde:t¬’ we all ran for our lives Goddard L&C, p. 28.) flesh: whitsing’ my flesh, meat • ¬o’chwiwh seed flour flicker: minchwiwh-mil [=‘its nose-mil’] yellow- • diniwh-k’iwitsit [=‘manzanita-pounded up’] man- hammer, flicker (Common Flicker) zanita flour flinch: ’iwht’a’n I flinch, jerk away, duck, blink; ’int’ung’ • do:-witsit-widwa:t [=‘not-pounded-flour’] whole duck!; ch’iwint’a’n he flinched, ducked wheat flour
  • 56. 37 FLOW/FORK flow: nilin (water) flows; niwehsle’n it started to flow • ’a:k’ine’ there is no more food (archaic term) flower: k’ida:y’ flower (general term), it blooms; fool: xonowh’aw I’m fooling him, deceiving him; whik’ida:y’ my flower. See BLOOM whinong’ah fool me!; ch’iwhino:ng’aw he Flower Dance: ch’i¬wa:l [=‘they beat time with fooled me sticks, rattle sticks’] Flower Dance (girls’ adolescence foolishly: q’i¬we:q’its foolishly, not seriously, in a ceremony); xoq’it-ch’iswa:l [=‘on her-they beat time’] bantering or joking manner (e.g., q’i¬we:q’its-ch’ixine: a Flower Dance is held for her wh ‘he talks foolishly, talks crooked’) • kinah¬dung a girl for whom a Flower Dance is held, foot: whixe’ my foot; mixe’ (animal’s) foot, footprint, a girl at puberty track • xon’-na:na:’uswe’ [=‘fire-waving it around again’] foot, at the: miyeh under it, at the foot of it; whiyeh ceremony in the Flower Dance that is performed when under me, at my feet; xoyeh under him, them it rains during a girl’s first menses (¶ It was claimed • mikin’-ding (or mikine’-ding) [=‘its base-place’] at that she caused the rain. They made her go outside and the foot of something, at the base of it call for warm weather, waving something burning.) football: jiwolch-na’k’i¬tul [=‘ball- • xona:di-na:ya’teh¬di’its [=‘around her-they run one kicks it around’] football along back’] the married man and girl who run along for: wha for me, for my benefit; xwa with the girl in the Flower Dance race for him, her; ma for it (e.g., xwa:- Flower Dance stick: kinah¬dun-ts’e:y’ [=‘Flower k’e’wi¬na’ ‘for him-she cooked Dance girl’s- stick’] a decorated split stick that used as it’; wha:-ch’ischwe’n ‘for me-he jiwolch- a rattle during the songs in the Flower Dance made it’) na’k’i¬tul • k’inah¬dunts’e:y’-dahk’iswin-ding [=‘flower dance • ma:n for that reason, because of sticks-they carry them up atop-place’] places where Flow- that (e.g., hayi-ma:n ‘for that reason’) er Dance sticks are taken and left after the dance is over • wung concerning it, for that purpose (e.g., nahdiyaw- flute: milimil flute wung-no:l’qe:t [=‘Indian money-for that purpose-a • xosa:ng’ay-me’-ch’idi¬ne [=‘put in mouth-in it- trap’] ‘a trap for money, a trap to catch money with’; someone plays it’] flute wung-na:’usya’ [=‘for that purpose-he went around’] fly: mung’ fly ‘he busied himself doing it, he was occupied with it’; • mun’-kyoh-¬tsow [=‘fly-big-blue/green’] blowfly daydi-wung [=‘what thing?-for that purpose’] ‘what fly, to: yungxis fly up!; ya:ngxits’ it flew up into the air; for? why? for what purpose?’ te:xits’ it took off, flew off; (tree) fell forearm: whits’e:l’ my forearm, arm flying squirrel: xut¬’e’-ky’a:n [=‘(at) night-it eats’] • whina:de my forearms flying squirrel forehead: whits’int’a’ my forehead foam: miwowh its (e.g., beer’s) foam; k’iwowh foam • whik’iya:whe’ [=‘my birds’] my forehead (in general) foreigner: misah-k’itidlut’ [=‘its mouth-makes a ripping • k’iwowh-nesnoy [=‘foam-(where it) stands up’] sound’] foreigner, someone who can’t speak Hupa well “ “foam spot,” a bad-luck place in the river (¶ If the foreskin: tsehwilxit [=‘what is slipped around (penis)’] water does not know you there, it gets muddy, begins foreskin; tseh’i¬xit slip the foreskin skin back on your to rise, and foam deposits all around it.) penis!; tsehch’iwi¬xit’ he slipped the foreskin back fog: misjeh fog, mist, light haze on his penis • silkit (fog, smoke) lies there, hangs there forest: tin-tah [=‘trails-among’] out in the woods, in fog moves: noywi¬kil (fog) is settling; noyni¬kit (fog) the forest, back country settled, came down; dahyi¬kit (fog) hovers on top of • kin-tah [=‘trees-among’] among the trees, forest something; nay¬kit (fog) drifts around; xa:naysdikit • sikin-chwing [=‘sikin-kind’] pine forest (archaic term) (fog) rose back up • king-xo¬iwhin [=‘trees-dark place’] heavy forest foliage: mit¬’ow’ (a plant’s) leaves, foliage forget: mitis-na:xowinje:ye:y’ [=‘(moving) over it-his follow: whiq’eh-ch’iqa:l [=‘after me-he walks along’] mind passed again’] he forgot it; mitis-nuno:je:ye’ he is following me. See also CHASE [=‘over it-let your mind pass again’] forget it! following: whiq’eh (following) after me; miq’eh • minawhniw [=‘I swallow around it!’] I forget it; (following) along it, after it, according to it; tini-q’eh minu¬neh forget it!; mina:seh¬niq’ I have forgotten it; (following) along the road whina:’usniq’ he has forgotten me. See REMEMBER fond of: whitile [=‘something pulls me’] I relish it, am fork: mi¬-sa’qot [=‘with it-one forks into mouth’] fork fond of it, like to eat it; xotile he relishes it; yiditile • tin-¬e:na:ning’a:-ding [=‘road, trail-it extends [=‘something pulls (animal, child)’] it (animal) relishes together-place’] fork in a road or trail it, feeds on it; white:wile’-te I am going to relish it • je’wi¬qiwh he pulled it apart at the fork; jilqiwh food: k’iwiyul [=‘what one keeps eating’] food something forked, pulled apart at the fork
  • 57. FORKED/FUTURE 38 forked: ¬iqiwh it is forked, has prongs; dilqiwh forked- front, in: whije:’-ding (or whije:y’-ding, whije:’-xw) horn deer [=‘my breast-place’] (right) in front of me, facing me; former: ne’in used to be, former, deceased (suffix) (e.g., mije:’-ding in front of it whima:lyo’-ne’in ‘my former friends’; whichwo:-ne’in • whinahsni (passing) in front of me, in front of my ‘my late grandmother’) face (e.g., whinahsni-xe’e’wingyay ‘in front of me-he forty: dink’idimin¬ung [= dink’iding-min¬ang] ‘four passed by’); k’inahsni passing in front of someone (¶ times-ten’ forty refers to dancers in the War Dance, dancing in front of foundation: xontah-ma:-silay [=‘house-first-what lies the line of enemy dancers.) there’] the foundation of a (modern) house • which’ing’ah in front of me (as a protection), something four: dink’ four; dink’in four people; dink’i-ding shielding me; mich’ing’ah in front of it (as a protection) four times frost: ningxosting (or nungxosting) frost, ice on the fox: michwa:n’-tu¬ta:n [=‘its excrement-is very soft’] ground grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) • dahya:dze’ frost, ice on trees • yidahch’in-tse:q’iya:ng’ay [=‘coming from up- frown: nining’-¬intoldoh [=‘your face-let it bunch up, stream-ground squirrel’] silver-grey fox pucker’] frown!; xoning’-¬inteh¬dow he frowned freckles: k’ixich freckles, freckled (e.g., xoning’-k’ixich frying pan: me’-de’di¬iw [=‘in it-(dough) is put into the [=‘his face-freckled’] ‘he has freckles on his face’) fire’] frying pan; pan where you put bread to cook freeze: ningxosting it (water, ground) is frozen, there full: dehsmin it is full is ice; ningxowinte:n it froze • wha:-wile [=‘for me-it is enough, filled’] I am sati- • k’isiwhdile:y I’m freezing, chilled to the bone; ated, my belly is full, I got enough to eat; xwa:-wehsle’ k’isdile:y he’s freezing; whila’-k’isdile:y my hand is he got satiated, his belly got filled; na:-wehsle’-’ung frozen; yik’isdile:y it (animal) is freezing; k’isiwhdile:- did you get satiated?; did you get enough to eat? ts’eh I feel cold, freezing, really cold fun, amusement: ts’ila:n he’s playing (ballgame, frequently: ¬un-ding [=‘many-at (times)’] at many tag, some physical sport) times, frequently, a lot • na’ne:l he’s playing (with toys, etc.); na:dne:l fresh: xina:y fresh (e.g., mitsing’-xina:y ‘fresh meat’) children’s play, playing friend: whima:lyo’ my friend, relative fun of, make: xona:siwhlay I make fun of him, ridicule • whi¬ilyo’ (or whi¬ilyo’e’) my pal, friend him; xona’silay he makes fun of him; xona:se:la’ I fringe: ya:k’iwilt’a:ts’ something cut up into strips, made fun of him; whina’siwila’ he made fun of me; fringes (as in buckskin) xona:ya’siwila’ they made fun of him; do:-k’ina’silay frivolous: See JOKING one should not make fun of people. See TEASE frog: ch’ahl (or ch’ah¬, chw’ahl) funeral: no:na:ya’xoning’a:n [= ‘they put him (a round frog, toad (Rana) object, like a stone) back down’] they laid out a corpse • yulch’uq’ (frog) hops, jumps; • no’xoschwe’n [= ‘they made him out of sight’] they ya:lch’uq’ it hopped buried a corpse • ch’ahli-dilwa:wh [=‘frogs- ch’ahl • xona:’to’-na:wilin [= ‘tears-flow down’] mourning, chatter, converse’] frogs croak mourning songs frog’s hand design: ch’ahli-mila’ fungus: ’a:jiw’-michwo [=‘mushroom-its grand- (or chw’ahli-mila’) [=‘frog-its hand’]. mother’] yellow fungus on the ground (¶ Appears on Equivalent to the Yurok “foot” design ch’ahli-mila’ the ground before mushrooms sprout.) (¶ Goddard L&C, p.46, figure 9, Plate funny: See JOKING 25, figure 3.) fur: miwa’ its (animal’s) fur; its (bird’s) down • See also BASKET DESIGN fussy: dime:n-nay’ay ‘sharpness-it carries it around’ from: wung from, from it (leaving it behind), concern- it (child) is hard to please, fussy ing it, to it; whiwung from me, to me; xowung from futilely: xoh futilely, in vain (e.g., xoh-’a’t’e:n ‘futilely- him, to him (e.g., wun-te:sa:yay ‘I went off without he did it’ ‘he couldn’t do it’; xoh-xa’nite ‘in vain-he it, I went off from it’; xowung-dahna:da:’a:n ‘I took was looking for’ ‘he looked for it in vain’) (round object) from him’; whiwung-ch’iningyay ‘he future: -te will... it will happen (future tense) (e.g., te:se: came to (visit) me’; xowung-ning’awh ‘bring (round ya:-te ‘I will go off’; na’wa:-te ‘he will be going around, object) to him!’) living’; hay-xwe:diq’i-te ‘the way it will be done’; • mi¬ ‘with’ (starting off) from (e.g., hayah-mi¬- wha’ut-te ‘my wife-to-be’) xoda’winyay ‘there-from-he went downhill’; • -de’ if, when (in the future) (e.g., hayah-de’ ‘at that ’aht’inding- mi¬-ch’ininde:t¬’ ‘everywhere-from- time in the future’; dahungwho’-de’ ‘at some time in they came’) the future’; dahun’di-de’ ‘at what time in the future?’)
  • 58. G gall: whit¬’isch’e’ my gall, bile I gathered (acorns); ky’a:da’we:ne’ she gathered gallop: k’itiqowh (animal) scampers along; na:qowh acorns (horse) runs around, gallops; nahsqoch’ it galloped • ch’i¬chwe [=‘he makes, prepares’] (or na:’u¬chwe gambling: kin-na:way [=‘stick-goes around’] gam- [=‘he makes, prepares again’]) he collects, gathers bling, card game (traditional or modern) (wood, berries, etc.) (e.g., chwich-ch’i¬chwe ‘he • kin-nawhle [=‘sticks-I move them around’] I’m collects firewood’) gambling; kin-na:se:le’ I gambled; kin-na:’usle’ he • wun-na:ya:xolyiw they (animals) graze on things, gambled, there was gambling eat at things; wun-na:ya’xolyiw (people) gather • na:ne:lay [=‘I carried (several things) over’] I won things (food, basket materials, acorns, etc.); wun-na: (in gambling); na:niliwh [=‘carry (several things) ya’xohsyiw they gathered things across!’] win! generation: k’iniyiw a generation is growing up (the • whiwun-na:niwehsdilay [=‘from me-(several things) younger, still growing-up generation); k’inehsya:n a are carried over’] I lost (in gambling) generation has grown up (the grown-up, adult genera- gambling sticks: xo’ji-king tion); na:k’inidyiw another generation grows up [=‘true-sticks’] traditional gambling xo’ji-king genitals: whitso:l’ my vagina, female genitals sticks, “Indian cards” • whiwung [=‘concerning me]’ my female genitals game, play a: ts’ila:n he’s playing (ballgame, tag, (euphemism) some physical sport) • whinist’e’-me:q’ [=‘my body-inside it’] my female • jiwolch-na’k’iwul [=‘ball-he hits it around’] baseball genitals (euphemism) • jiwolch-na’k’itsil [=‘ball-he throws it around’] • whe:dze’ my penis, male genitals basketball gentle: xo’dzi-nehwa:n [=‘well (diminutive)-it re- • jiwolch-na’k’itul [=‘ball-he kicks it around’] football sembles’] slowly, easily, gently (e.g., xo’dzinehwa: gap: xo¬iqoch’ a gap between hills, a hollow between n-xiniwhye:wh [=‘gently-I speak’] ‘I’m speaking higher places softly, gently, whispering’) garden: no:k’iwijich [=‘what has been planted’] garden genuine: See TRUE • mitahxw amongst them, (amongst plants) in the get: ’o:nchwit reach for it! go and get it!; ch’o:nchwit garden; mitahxwo-ch’i¬chwe [=‘around (the garden)- he reached for it, got it; ’o:ne:chwit I reached for it, he makes, prepares it’] he hoes the garden, clears the got it; to-’o:nchwit go and get some water! garden of weeds • na:y’a’ [=‘I came to have (round object), came to gas: tseh gas, flatulence, fart be carrying it around’] I acquired it, got it, bought it gate: See DOOR (e.g., stone); na’wing’a’ he acquired it (CLASSIFICATORY gather: ¬e:k’iwhlaw [=‘I finger things together’] I VERB) gather (firewood), collect (things), bring (people) • weh¬’a’ [=‘I came to have (round object) lying together; ¬e:k’ilah gather them!; ¬e’k’ilaw he gathers motionless’] I got it, kept it, came into possession of it them; ¬e’k’ixolaw he gathers (people) together, col- (e.g., stone); ch’iwi¬’a’ he got it; get it! (CLASSIFICATORY lects a crowd; ¬e’k’iwilaw he has gathered them; ¬e: VERB) na’k’iwilaw he gathered them up again (after they had get lost: ting’iwha:wh I’m getting lost, going astray, been thrown away) losing my way; ting’inyahwh get lost!; tingwe:yay I • k’ime gather them! pick them up! collect them! (nuts, got lost; ting’ winyay he got lost; tiya’winde:t¬’ they acorns, etc.); na:k’iwhme I’m picking things up, gath- all got lost ering acorns; na’k’iwime’ he picked them up. get off (one): wundiwha:wh I’m getting off of it; wa: • k’ina:dinda pick, gather (nuts, berries, things to eat)!; nundiwhda:wh I’m getting back off of it; whiwun- k’ina’diday (or k’ina’dinday) he is picking, gathering; dinyahwh get off of me!; whiwa:nundindahwh k’ina’diwinda’ he picked, gathered get back off of me!; wun’dina:wh he gets off of it; • ky’a:dawhne I’m gathering, picking up (acorns, wun’diwinyay he got off of it; wa:nun’diwidyay he apples, round objects); ky’a:dayne gather (acorns)!; got back off of it ky’a:da’ne she is gathering (acorns); ky’a:da:ne:- get off (two or more): wa:nundohdi¬ get back off of it xosin acorn-gathering is happening; ky’a:da:yne’ (you all)!; wa:nun’diwinde:t¬’ they all got back off of it
  • 59. GET OUT (ONE)/GO IN (TWO OR MORE) 40 get out (one): ch’e:nawhdahwh I’m getting (back) give (a smoke): whiwa:k’intiwh [=‘move (a spe- out of it (e.g., boat, car); ch’e:na:ndahwh get out of cific stick-like object) toward me!’] give me a smoke! it!; ch’e’na:wh he gets out of it; ch’e:na:whdiyay I got (cigarette, pipe, cigar) give me a draw on your smoke!; out of it; ch’e:na:’undiyay he got out of it xowa’k’inta:n he gave him a smoke get out (two or more): ch’e:na:nohdi¬ (you all) get give out: See EXHAUSTED (back) out if it (e.g., boat, car)!; ch’e:na:ya:’unde:t¬’ glad: ts’ehdiyah I’m happy, glad, pleased they all got out of it glass: me’-ta’dina:n [=‘in it-someone drinks’] get up (one): ’inundiqe’ get up! get (back) out of bed, drinking glass chair!; ’ina:’usdiqe’ he got up glasses: xona:’xwo-sa’a:n get up (two or more): ’inahdi¬ (you all) get up!; [=‘at his eye-(round object) ’ina:’usde:t¬’ they got up lies’] eye glasses ghost: ch’indin ghost. See CORPSE • xona:’-na:wilchwe:n gift: nilts’it [=‘it falls (hither)’] it comes as a gift or bless- [=‘his eyes-it is made again xona:’xwo-sa’a:n ing, it befalls one; wilts’il [=‘it keeps falling’] it passes to be’] eye glasses (second on (through me; used of a gift that is transmitted) term) gills: misah-sa’a:n [=‘inside its mouth-(round object) • xona:’-tse:¬ch’e’ [=‘his eyes - metal’] eye glasses lies’] its gills; k’isah-sa’a:n salmon’s gills glove: whila’-yehk’iwilt’ow [=‘my hand-is slipped gill net: na’k’it¬’oy [=‘something that he weaves’] gill in’] my glove(s) net, seine (¶A wall-like net, 40 to 50 feet long, woven glue: ¬injeh glue them together!; ¬e’winje:w he glued from iris, and held down by sinkers. Put around a them together; na:na’k’iwinje:w he pitched, tarred deep hole in the river. Fish get “gilled” (caught by the something. See PITCH gills) in the mesh. Setting and pulling a gill net requires gnaw: wayk’idiyawh (dog) gnaws on (a bone) (pulls coordinated group effort.) something off bone); wayk’idiya’n it gnawed it • na’k’it¬’oy he sets a gill net [=‘he weaves some- go along (one): wiwha:l I’m going along, I’m on the thing;’] na:k’it¬’o set a gill net!; na’k’idit¬’oy we are road; winyah¬ be going along!; ch’iqa:l he’s going setting a gill net; na:k’isdit¬’o’n we have set a gill net along; qa:l it (animal) is going along • meh¬ seine, gill net (archaic, replaced by go along (two or more): we:dil we’re going along; na’k’it¬’oy) wohdi¬ be going along (you all)!; ch’iwidil they’re • miq’it-na:k’i¬tsay’ [=‘on it-one dries it out’] drying going along frame for gill net go around (one): na:whay I’m going around, mov- • tahch’ilo:s he pulls (gill net) out of the water, he pulls ing in no particular direction; nunya go around!; a net-load of fish to shore; tahts’islo:s he pulled (net) na’way he’s going around; na:way it (animal) goes out of the water; mi¬-tahch’ilo:s [=‘with it-he pulls around; na:se:ya’ I went around; na:sinya’ you went (net) out of the water’] line to pull gill-net around; na:’usya’ he went around; nahsya’ it (animal) ginger: xo¬chwi¬-tah-t’un’nahsma:ts’ [=‘in wet went around places-around-redbud’] wild ginger (Asarum caudatum) go around (two or more): naydil we go around; (¶ A small plant with heart shaped leaves.) nahdi¬ go around (you all)!; na’dil they go around; girl: t’ehxich young girl (before puberty) na:se:de:t¬’ we went around; na:sohde:t¬’ you all went • kinah¬dung a girl at pu- around; na:’usde:t¬’ they went around; na:ya:’usde: berty (¶ Specifically, a girl t¬’ they all went around; nahsde:t¬’ they (animals) undergoing the Flower Dance, went around or girls’ puberty ceremony.) go home (one): na:tindahwh [=‘go off back!’] • do:-kinah¬dung [=‘not go home!; na’tida:wh he’s going home; na:te:sdi- (yet)-a girl at puberty’] yay I went home; na:te:sindiyay you went home; preadolescent girl na’tehsdiyay he went home • k’eh¬tsa:n unmarried adoles- go home (two or more): na:te:dil we’re going home; cent girl, female teenager na:tohdi¬ go home (you all)!; na’tindil they are going girl, be with a: t’ehxich home; na:te:se:de:t¬’ we went home; na:te:sohde:t¬’ k’ingxits’ [=‘beside someone’] (sitting, walk- you all went home; na’tehsdi¬ they went home ing) beside a girl, woman, sweetheart go in (one): yeh’inyahwh go in!; yehwe:yay I came (e.g., k’ingxits’-ya’wing’ay ‘he was sitting with a girl’) in; yehwinyay you came in; yehch’iwinyay he came girlfriend: See SWEETHEART in; yehna’widyay he came back in; yehna:dyay it give: whiwung’awh [=‘move (a round object) towards (animal) went back in me’] give it to me!; xowa:na:’a:n I gave it to him; go in (two or more): yeh’ohdi¬ go in (you all)!; whiwa’ning’a:n he gave it to me; k’iwa’ning’a:n he yehwe:de:t¬’ we went in; yehna:yde:t¬’ we went back gave it to someone, he gave it away (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) in; yehya’winde:t¬’ they all went in
  • 60. 41 GO OFF (ONE)/GREASEWOOD go off (one): tiwha:wh I’m going off; tingyahwh go grandchild: whiyul my son’s child off!; ch’itina:wh he’s going off; te:se:yay I went off; • whikya:y my (woman’s) daughter’s child te:sinyay you went off; ch’itehsyay he went off • whitso:y my (man’s) daughter’s child go off (two or more): te:dil we’re going off; tohdi¬ go grandfather: whichwiwe my maternal grandfather, off (you all)!; ch’itindil they’re going off; te:se:de:t¬’ mother’s father we went off; te:sohde:t¬’ you all went off; ch’itehsde: • whima’ or whima’uchwing my paternal grandfather, t¬’ they went off father’s father go off (in a group): sahwinde’n they went off (to a grandmother: whichwo my maternal grandmother, distance), they left, departed (refers to a group only); mother’s mother sa’ohding’ (you all) go off! • which’in my paternal grandmother, father’s mother. go out (one): ch’e:wha:wh I’m going outside, I’m granular substance, handle a: ch’iwijijil he going to the bathroom; ch’e:ninyahwh go outside!; carries it along (e.g., a handful of some granular sub- ch’e’na:wh he goes outside; ch’e’ninyay he went out stance, such as seeds, salt); whiwunjich give me (e.g., go out (two or more): ch’e:nohdi¬ go outside (you sugar)!; whiwa’ninjich he gave it to me; nawhjich I’m all)!; ch’e:ya’ninde:t¬’ they all went outside carrying (e.g., sugar) around; na:’usjich I carried it go-between: k’ituq-na’way [=‘between-he goes’] around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) go-between, mediator, one who settles a dispute grape: daht¬’o:l’ [=‘rope above it’] goal: ch’e:dimi¬-ding [=‘it is thrown out-place’] goal wild grapes; grapevine in shinny game • xots’ine-mi¬-ya’mil [=‘his legs- • me:dimi¬-ding [=‘it is thrown to-place’] goal line with it-one throws (a rope) up’] God: yima:ne:-k’iwungxoya:n [=‘across-old man’] Oregon grape (Berberis nervosea) daht¬’o:l’ Indian God (creator) grape juice: daht¬’o:l’-mito’ • yima:n-tiw’winyay [=‘across-he got lost’] Indian [=‘grape-its juice’] grape juice; wine God (preparer of the world for human beings) grass: t¬’oh grass (general term) gold: mixa:-xa:k’iwidwhe [=‘in search of it-there is • t¬’oh-¬itsow [=‘grass-blue/green’] grass (general term) digging’] gold • t¬’ohdit’in sweet grass good: niwho:n it is good; ch’iniwho:n he or she is • sa’liwh edible grass (general term); clover, wild good, kind; she is pretty sunflower, salad • do:-niwho:n not good, bad, ugly, unlucky • me:niwinch’e [=‘wind blows against it’] a kind of grass • niwhong-xw well, healthy, in a good way (e.g., ni- • See also BEAR GRASS; BUNCH GRASS; IRIS whongxw-’a:wht’te [=‘I’m well, I’m feeling good’]) grasshopper: ’a:de’ts grasshopper • me:niwho:n it is good for it, it is fitting, required • k’i¬q’e:ts [=‘something that makes a noise’] large • See also RIGHT grasshopper, smaller than locust goodbye: xa’ okay, that’s it, goodbye (informal expression) grassy: t¬’o:q’ grassy place, prairie • xa’gya’ne’ goodbye, farewell (¶ Old, formal expression, grave: ts’e:y-ding [=‘brush-place’] grave avoided by many people because it sounds too sad and final.) • k’ichwa [=‘something that is buried, covered with • nuniwhtsis-te [=‘I will see you again’] goodbye, see dirt’] grave you! I’ll see you again • xudya:n-xosin (or xudyung-xosin) [=‘shameful-it goodnatured: xo’a:’unt’e honest, goodnatured is’] grave (¶ If the name of the person buried in a goods: See UTENSILS grave is mentioned in the presence of relatives, they are goose: ¬ehq’onch-yiditile [=‘salt-it relishes’] goose ashamed. You must pay them to wipe out the insult.) (Anser sp.) graveyard: ts’e:y-me’ [=‘brush-in’] grave- gooseberry: k’i¬qos [=‘what he cracks in his mouth’] yard (¶ Called this because traditionally surrounded gooseberries (Ribes sp.) by brush.) • dahchwing’ scraggly gooseberries; wild “currants” gravel: na:q’ gravel (Ribes divarlaatum(?)) • na:q’it gravel bar gopher: mida’-tehmil [=‘its mouth-(is) a sack’] gopher graze: k’itiyawh a herd (of deer) moves along grazing, (Thomomys, pocket gopher) eats as it moves along; k’ite:ya’n a herd started to move • xa:diniw [=‘it pops up’] gopher (less common • wun-na:ya:xolyiw they (animals) graze on things, term) eat at things; wun-na:ya’xolyiw (people) gather things gossip: xunis-chwing [= diminutive form of xine:wh- (food, basket materials, acorns, etc.) chwing ‘talk-sort’] gossip grease: misinto’ [= probably from mi-tsing-to’ ‘its-flesh- grab: See CATCH water’] its sap, grease, juice grain: t¬’ohday traditional grain and seed mixture (like greasewood: t’un’-ni¬we’ [=‘leaves-are greasy’] modern granola) greasewood
  • 61. GREASY/GUTS 42 greasy: ni¬we’ it is greasy, oily, shining; ninde:n it is grew; ch’iteh¬chwe:n he grew; na’teh¬dichwe:n rich, greasy, oily, shiny with grease; nindin-ts’eh it is he grew up; nolchwing it grew to a certain point, it rich-tasting, tastes greasy stopped growing; no:’olchwe:n he stopped growing; greatly: nikyah-xw in a big way, greatly, much; soundly no:’olchwin-ding when he has attained full growth (in sleeping) • nu¬chwe it increases, grows in size; nahschwe’n green: See BLUE it increased (e.g., nahdiyaw-nayischwe’n ‘money green, unripe: miloy (berries) are unripe, green increased’) greens: sa’liwh wild clover, watercress, edible greens grow up: ninyeh grow up! grow to full maturity!; of any sort ch’iniyiw he grows up; ne:se:ya:n I have grown up; grey hair: tse:-dilqay [=‘head-whiteish’] grey-haired k’iniyiw (a generation) is growing up; k’inehsya:n person; grey hair (a generation) has grown up; na:k’inidyiw (another grey: dilma:y it is grey; dilma’ it is turning grey; di- generation) grows up. See RAISE (CHILD) wilma’ it turned grey growl: ky’oywung it (dog) is growling at something; grief: xona:’to’-na:wilin [=‘tears-flow down’] mourning, ky’oywinga:n [= from ky’oywingwa:n] it growled; mourning songs yiwho:nga:n it growled at me grind: ’ingq’a file, grind it (e.g., a knife)!; ch’iwingq’ay’ • k’idila:n I’m growling, scolding somebody growling; he filed it, ground it dilung growl!; xodilung growl at him!; ch’ixodila:n grip: ch’ixo¬kit he caught hold of him, gripped him he’s growling at him; xode:se:la’n I growled at him; • yits’e:k’ it (animal, bird) catches, grips something ch’iwhidehsla’n he growled at me (in its claws) guess: xowh it seems, it must be, I guess (particle gristle: k’ining-gije’ [=‘something’s face-gije’’] indicating uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) (a fish’s) head-gristle (e.g., dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it grizzly: mikyow’ (or mikyowe’) [=‘its largeness, seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; the largeness of it’] grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis) diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, (¶ Mikyow’ shouldn’t be used around a grizzly, lest it I wonder?; da:ywho’-xwo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it get angry; you should call it something like whingq’ay’ seems’] ‘somewhere or another’; na’waye:-xowh-dó: ‘my aunt’.) ng’ [=‘he goes around there-it seems-indeed’] ‘he might grosbeak: diq’a:n-tah-k’iya:wh-kyoh [=‘ridges- be living around there’) among-bird-big’] grosbeak, finch (Pheucticus mela- guest: whiwung-ch’iningyay [=‘he came to (visit) nocephalus, Black-headed grosbeak) me’] visitor, guest ground: nin’ dirt, earth, ground gullet: whiqa:qe’ my throat, gullet; k’iqa:qe’ throat, • yineh (also ’ineh, ninyeh) in the ground, underground gullet (in a fish) group: ¬e:na:wh neighbors, people living together, gum (chewing): ch’a’ul [=‘one chews it’] chewing cohabitants, villagers gum (modern); xo’ji-ch’a’ul [=‘true-chewing gum’] grouse: diwh-kyoh [=‘diwh-big’] grouse (Dendraga- traditional chewing gum, made from milkweed (dina’) pus obscurus, Blue Grouse) cooked with sugar-pine pitch • xo¬idi-k’idi¬chwe (or xo¬ik’idi¬chwe) [=‘sudden gums: whida’-ginje’ [=‘my mouth-ginje’’] my gums noise-it makes it’] pheasant, ruffled grouse gummy: See STICKY grow: wiwhchwil I am growing, getting larger; gun: ts’i¬ting’ rifle, bow, weapon ch’iwilchwil he is growing; wilchwil it is growing • ts’i¬ting’-mi¬-yik’itichway [=‘weapon-with it-it • whe:lchwil [=‘it is growing to me’] I am growing (a scatters (shot)’] shotgun crop) (e.g., minde’i¬chwe:-whe:lchwil ‘I am growing gunny sack: dichwil-tehmil (or chwil-tehmil) ‘tanned tobacco’); xwe:lchwil he is growing it hide-sack’ gunny sack • tilchwing it (plant) is growing; teh¬chwe:n it guts: which’e:k’e’ my guts, intestines, soft belly
  • 62. H habits: wha’a:winiw’ my ways of doing things, my hand: whila’ my hand, finger habits • niwhonch’ing’-whila’ [=‘(on the) good side-my hail: k’ilo (or k’iloy) hail, ice; k’ilo:-’ingxut [=‘hail-it hand’] my right hand drops’] hail storm • nichwin’ch’ing’-whila’ [=‘(on the) bad side-my • t¬’iwhxa:n-mina:’ [=‘eel-its eyes’] hailstones hand’] my left hand hair: whiwa’ my body hair, fur hand lies: k’islay [=‘several specific objects lie • tsiwung’ head-hair; whitsiwun’ my head-hair somewhere’] a hand lies, hands lie somewhere • whitse:t¬’iwa’ my (esp. woman’s) long head-hair (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) • whe:da’ay tse:lnehwa:n [=‘my head is red’] I have red hand, move the: k’iwiwhle:l [=‘I move (several hair (¶ The same construction used in referring to other specific objects) along’] I move my hand along; ya: hair colors; e.g., whe:da’ay ¬iwhin ‘I have black hair.’) k’iliwh [=‘move (several specific objects) up!’] raise • na:na:wiloy’ [=‘tied up’] woman’s hair, wrapped back your hand!; ya’k’ilay he raised his hand; no:k’iliwh of ear and hanging down, tied [=‘move (several specific objects) down to there!’] put with a buckskin strap (tsiq’) your hand down!; no:k’ine:lay I have put my hand (¶ See Goddard L&C, Plate 5.) down; na:k’iwhle [=‘I move (several specific objects) • whitsest¬’o:n’ [=‘my (hair) around’] I feel around with my hand, move my hand tied in a braid’] my braided around; na’k’isle’ he has moved his hand around hair (in na:na:wiloy’ style) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) • wiloy’-wa:ky’a’a:n hair whitse:t¬’iwa’ hand, on the other: yowi-’e:n [=‘for that one’s part’] dressed in a doughnut shape on the other hand, for instance • je:na:k’iliwh [=‘put (several objects) apart again’] handkerchief: xonchwiwh-mi¬-wun’dichwit [=‘his part your hair (in the middle)!; je:na’k’ilay she parted nose-with it-he wipes off’] handkerchief her hair • xoning’-mi¬-wun’dichwit [=‘his face-with it-he • See also PUBIC HAIR wipes off’] handkerchief hair, cut: na:xowhde:s I’m cutting off his hair; na: handle: nu¬xit’ feel it! touch it! handle it!; na:’usxit’ whindehs cut my hair; na:xwe:yde:s I cut his hair; he touched it, felt it; na’whisxit’ he touched me; do:- na’k’ide:s someone who cuts hair, barber na:’u¬xit’ don’t be touching anything! hair, singe off: k’iwhde:s I’m singing off hair, I am handsome: See BEAUTIFUL cutting hair; k’e:yde:s I singed off hair; k’ide:s game hang: na:ng’ay [=‘it extends downward’] it is hanging with hair singed off down, extends downward hair plug: xwe:de’i¬oy’ hair-plugs (used in fighting) • na:ng’e:t¬’ [=‘they extend downward’] they are hair tie: tsiq’ hair tie (¶ String of mink fur or otter skin hanging down, extend downward; na¬’e’t¬’ hang them used by women for tying hair. Goddard L&C, p. 20 up!; na:seh¬’e:t¬’ I have hung them up and Plate 5.) • nah¬tsis it is hanging (attached to a string or rope); haircut: white:ltsit’ my hair cut na:¬tsis it hung; na¬tsis hang it up (on string, rope)!; half: miq’is half of it, one of a pair na:’ustsis he hung it up • wi¬q’is on one side, half • ni¬xut’ it (e.g., curtain) is hanging; ne:¬xut’ I have • whine:jit-’u¬tsahhalf of me; half the distance around me hung (the curtain) • miwung’ half, part of something (e.g., miwung’-k’e: • nah¬mowh it is hanging, swinging from something; lna’ ‘half-cooked’) nahsmowh it has swung; ti¬mowh carry it along half-pounder: See SALMON TROUT hanging (from your hand)!; ch’iteh¬mowh he carried halfbreed: yima:n’dil-miwung’ [=‘white man-half’] it hanging halfbreed happen: ’a:k’it’e:n something happens; ’a:k’idyah hammer: k’iwhtsi¬ I’m pounding it lightly, hammer- something happened; ’a:winiw it always happens ing it, hitting it (with a stone maul); k’i¬tsi¬ pound it!; • nahsdile’n it became again, it happened again k’iseh¬tse:t¬’ I have pounded it; mi¬-k’i¬tsil [=‘with • ’a:k’idiwhlaw I’m treated thus, things (unexpectedly) it-one pounds’] hammer, maul happen to me; ’a’k’idilaw he is treated thus
  • 63. HAPPY/HEADDRESS 44 happy: whinist’e’-xoniwh [=‘my body-is aware, has hazel: k’ila:jonde’ hazel, hazelnuts (Corylus california) feeling’] I am happy; xonist’e’-xwe:niwh he became • t¬’ohsch’il’e:n [= from t¬’oh¬-ch’il’e:n ‘a strap- happy people treat it like’] hazel brush switches, hazel bush • ts’ehdiyah I’m happy, glad, pleased • miq’ik’it¬’oy’ [= from miq’it-k’it¬’oy ‘on it-she hard: nit¬’its’ it is hard, solid (like stone); xont¬’its’ hard, weaves (baskets)’] hazel sticks solid ground; wint¬’its’ it got hard, hardened, solidified • k’iq’e:n he is twisting a hazel withe (to make it harvest: ky’a:dawhne I’m gathering, harvesting flexible); k’iwingq’in-te he will twist a hazel withe (acorns, apples, round objects); ky’a:da:ne:-xosin he: xong he, she, him, her (emphatic pronoun); xong-’e: acorn-gathering time, acorn harvest n’ he for his part, she for her part hat: q’osta:n (modern) hat, cap. See CAP head: whe:da’ay [=‘it extends against me’] my head hat, wear a: ’iwhch’ah I’m wearing a hat, cap; • k’e:da’ay [=‘something’s head’] head of a fish or ch’i¬ch’a:t he’s wearing a hat; weh¬ch’a:t I wore a eel, when cut up for eating hat; nawhch’a:t I’m wearing a hat (again) • whitse’ my head (¶ Archaic, used now only in hate: me:dziwhlay I hate it; whe’dzilay he hates me; compounds.) me:dze:se:la’ I got to hate it; me’dzehsla’-te he will • whitse:-king’ [=‘my head-base’] the back of my head hate it; k’e’dzilay he hates people, he is a misanthrope • whitsida’ the top of my head haul: tiwhxiwh I’m going to haul it off; te:se¬xe:n I head (of a stream): no:wiling [=‘it stops flowing’] hauled it off; ch’iwi¬xil he is hauling it along; nu¬xe head of a creek, river haul it around!; na:’usxe’ he hauled it around. See headache: whe:da’ay dinch’a:t [=‘my head is sore’] FERRY I have a headache have: nawh’ay [=‘I carry (round object) around’] I have headband: te:lma:s-wilchwe:n [=‘rolled up-made it (e.g., stone), own it; na’ay he has it; na:y’a’ I came to be’] a cylindrical buckskin headband stuffed with to have it, acquired it, got it, bought it; na’wing’a’ grass, with redheaded woodpecker scalps sewn on he came to have it; na:na’wing’a’ he came to have it (¶ Usually with ornamented prongs (k’i¬ts’os-nehwa: again, bought it back (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) n) stuck into it. Worn by doctors and by men at the • seh¬’a:n [=‘I have (round object) lying motionless’] Kick Dance.) I own it (e.g., stone), possess it; weh¬’a’ I got it, kept it, • me:wi-na:sita:n [=‘underneath-a long object lies’] came into possession of it; ch’iwi¬’a’ he got it; ’i¬’a’ headband, “roll” (¶ The distinctive headdress of the get it! (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) Jump Dance. It consists of a large piece of buckskin • siwhda’ung [=‘I have made (round object) lie onto which are sewn large red-headed woodpecker motionless’] I have it (e.g., stone) in my possession scalps in decorative patterns along with a narrow edging (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) of white deer-hair. It is attached to the dancer’s head • xowh¬e:n I have plenty (of something); ch’ixo¬e:n by a strap.) he has plenty • k’itsiwung’-t¬’oh¬ [=‘the hair-strap’] headband have a pet: nawhte [=‘I carry (living object) around’] worn by doctors, made of buckskin with yellowhammer I keep, own (an animal); na:’u¬te he keeps, owns it feathers attached • seh¬day I have (a pet) living with me, I own (a pet); headdress: xoq’it-dahsa’a:n [=‘on him-it sits ch’i¬day he has a pet above’] headress worn by men at the Kick Dance (¶ hawk: k’itsa:y large bird hawk, Red hawk (Buteo jamai- Made of fringed buckskin, with tail feathers attached censis, Red-tailed hawk) to each fringe, and sewn to a cap so that the feathers •k’itsa:y-¬iwhin stand up.) [=‘bird hawk- • xoq’it-dahk’is’a:n headdress (¶ Buckskin strips black’] Chicken hawk fringed, with one tail-feather attached to each fringe. • k’ist’ay’-mili-ch [=‘blue- This is sewn to a cap so that feathers stand up and partly jay-mil (diminutive)’] hang over.) small bird hawk (Accipiter • ky’oh headdress of porcupine quills, worn by women ¬o:q’i-ya:n cooperii, Cooper’s hawk) in the Jump Dance • ta:dehch small bird hawk, Sparrow hawk (Falco • wiloy’ [=‘tied up’ a small grass bundle headdress tied sparverius, American kestrel) at the back of the head with buckskin, strung around • k’iya:wh-nayni¬wul [=‘birds-it strikes them’] large the head; worn in the religious dances (¶ It serves as speckled hawk (Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon) the base for the eagle plume (yehna:lqe:t). In the Jump • da:ch’ahdi-ya:n [=‘sucker-eater’] fish hawk (Pan- Dance the wiloy’ is worn under the woodpecker scalp dion haliaetus, Osprey) headdress (me:w-na:sita:n).) • ch’ahli-ya:n [=‘frog-eater’] a type of fish hawk • k’ida:ma:ts’e’ a wreath of myrtle twigs worn as a • ¬o:q’i-ya:n [=‘fish-eater’] fish hawk (general term) headdress haze: misjeh light haze, mist, fog
  • 64. 45 HEADDRESS/HERE AND THERE • k’iq’eh-na:diwul [=‘behind-it swings around’] heel: whixe:-tul’ [=‘my foot-stamper’] my heel “blind,” headdress made of wolf-skin worn around the hell: ch’indin-tahxw [=‘dead people-amongst’] (or head by dancers in the White Deerskin Dance ch’indin-tah-ding [=‘dead people-among-place’]) headman: See LEADER Hell, land of the dead headrest: k’e:tse:’i¬’ul [=‘(where) he (customarily) • do:xo’osday-tah-ding [=‘dead people (polite term)- rests his head’] wooden headrest, used by men in the among-place’] Hell, land of the dead sweathouse • he’ile:n spirit who rules Hell (¶ His name should not be headwater: mida’ [=‘its mouth’] headwaters, source spoken, so that he won’t hear you and pull you to him.) of river hello: he:yung hello! heal: k’ilwhot’ a scar formed, it healed. See SCAR help: xoch’owhne I’m helping him; k’ich’owhne I’m healthy: niwhong-xw well, healthy, in a good way helping someone, I’m a helper; which’oyne help me! (e.g., niwhongxw-’a:wht’e ‘I am well’) come to my aid!; nich’o’ne’ he helps you; which’o: • k’ich’indi-’e:din without disease, healthy ne it helps me, I’m being helped by something; xoch’o: hear: whe:da’ay-yehwinyay [=‘my head-it ran into’] yne’ I helped him; which’o’we:ne’ he helped me; I heard it k’ich’o:dne’ help, helping someone (which’o:dne’ help hear about: ch’iniwh he hears about it; niwhniwh I that I get, whik’ich’o:dne’ my help for someone else) hear about you; k’iwhniwh I hear about something, • xoq’it-’iwhdine I’m helping him; whiq’it-’indine I hear the news; k’iniwh he hears the news, the news help me!; whiq’it-ch’iwine’ he helped me that he hears; k’iniwh-’a:diwhchwe [=‘(aware of) the • whila:n helping me out, joining me at a task; nila:n news-I make myself’] I listen, I hear the news (let me be) helping you out!; xola:n-na:ste’ [=‘helping heard, be: nayts’a’n there is a sound, something is him-I worked’] I helped him (to do a job), I helped him audible (in the distance); naywints’a’n there was a out; whila:n-nulte’ help me out!; xola:n-ky’a:n he sound, something was heard helps him to eat, he eats with him • ts’eh feel, taste, be perceived (so), be heard (e.g., helper: k’ich’o:ya’ne’ the two who help the lead singer ¬ixun-ts’eh ‘it tastes good, sweet’; ch’iskis-ts’eh [=‘he in the White Deerskin Dance knocked-it was perceived’] ‘someone was heard knock- • hay na’xo¬te’ the helper who takes care of the doctor ing (at the door)’) (k’ite:t’aw) during the Kick Dance heart: whikyun-sa’a:n [=‘my insides-(round object) lies her: xong he, she, him, her; xong-’e:n’ he for his part, there’] my heart; k’ikyun-sa’a:n something’s heart, a she for her part salmon heart. See INSIDES • xo- (possessive prefix) his, her (e.g., xo-xontaw’ ‘his, hearts: mikyunsa’a:n [=‘its heart’] hearts (suit in her house’) playing cards) herbs, medicinal (unidentified): heat: xonse:l it (weather) is warm, hot, sunny, there • ch’imulkyoh type of medicinal herb (¶ Has 5 leaves is heat and a hollow stem, blossoms like sweet peas—purple • nawhtse:l I’m warming it up, heating it; na¬tseh¬ heat and white; stands about 3 feet high; found mostly in it!; na:y¬tse:l (or na:seh¬tse:l) I heated it valley flats. Used as a medicine for babies.) • See also EXHAUSTED • mit’ung’-¬iqiwhich [=‘its leaf-is forked (diminu- heaven: ch’idilye:-wint’e:-ding [=‘religious dancing- tive)]’ type of medicinal herb continually-place’] land of the immortals (k’ixinay), • k’iwahday’ type of medicinal herb located on the periphery of the world, beyond the sky herd moves: k’itiyawh a herd (of deer) moves along • je:nah-ch’ing’ [=‘above-toward’] upwards, to grazing, eats as it moves along; k’ite:ya’n a herd Heaven started to move heavy: nida:s it is heavy; niwhda:s I’m heavy; ch’inda: • te:digit it (flock, crowd, herd of animals) ran off s he is heavy; windahs it has gotten heavy (having been startled); tohdigit (you all) run off!; na: heavy song: mi¬-yehch’ina:wh [=‘with it-they enter’] nohdigit (you all) come running back!; na:yundigit we (or mi¬-yehk’i¬tul [=‘with it-they kick it in’]) “heavy” came running back; widgil they are running about or slow song at the Brush Dance here: digyung here (in this location), this place • mi¬-no:’ondil [=‘with it-they sit down’] a “heavy” • de here, this; de:-ch’ing’ to here, hither or slow song at the Kick Dance • de:n’ch’ing’ from de:-e:n’-ch’ing’ [=‘here-side- heed: miq’eh-nawh’ay [=‘after it-I carry it around’] toward’] on this side (of the stream) I mind it, heed it, pay attention to it; miq’eh-nung’a • jo’ here! take it! (exclamation) mind it!; miq’eh-na:’us’a’ he minded it; whida’-q’eh- here and there: yo:-ch’ing’-tah [=‘there (nearby)- na:’us’a’ [=‘my mouth (i.e., words)-he minded’] he towards-among’] here and there, in different places, minded me, paid attention to me one after another
  • 65. HEREDITARY DISEASE/HOOF 46 hereditary disease: k’ido:niwh shot it, hit it (with an arrow) hermit thrush: k’isi¬xo-k’ino:na:wh • na:ni¬tsong’ hit, bang against it!; na:ne:y¬tso’n I heron: xahslin-taw [=‘riffles-the one that is around, banged against it among’] “crane,” heron (Ardea herodias, Great • See also STRIKE Blue heron) hoard: whida:n’-sa’a:n [=‘my store of food-which hiccup: whiwhday’-no:k’inilts’it [=‘my throat-fell lies’] I have a hoard; I am stingy down’] I hiccupped hobo: t’e’-naywe [=‘blanket-it carries it around’] • whiwhday’-wing’a’ [=‘my throat-stayed there’] tramp, hobo I hiccupped hoe: mi¬-mitahxw-ch’ixo¬chwe [=‘with it-around (the hide: k’e:w-’iwh’awh [=‘underneath something, in a garden)-he makes, prepares’] hoe hidden place-I put it’] I’m hiding it; k’e:w-’ing’awh hog: na:k’iqot [=‘it roots around’] hog, pig hide it!; k’e:w-ch’iwing’a:n he hid it • ¬iq’a:w [=‘it is fat’] hog • ’o:niwhsin I keep it (knowledge, the facts of some- • See also PIG thing) hidden, keep it secret; xowung-’o:ninsing keep hold: ch’onta’n he’s holding on to it; ’ontung’ hold on the facts hidden from him!; ch’o:ne:nse’n he kept the to it! hold it!; whontung’ hold on to me!; xo:yta’n I facts hidden held on to him; ch’o:nta’n he held on to it hide: misits’ its skin, hide hold a feast: no’k’ingxa:n-na:nta’n [=‘feast-it got • k’i¬xa:l freshly skinned hide, stretched out to dry laid back down’] a feast was held (on drying frame) hold on!: dongq’a’-tsit [=‘before-first’] wait a minute! • k’iwilma’ tanned hide hold on! first let’s... • k’iqo:n there is the sound of dry hide crackling; hole: ky’a’a:n there is a hole, it is empty, hollow; wa: k’iwingqo:n there was a dry-hide crackling sound ky’a’a:n there is a hole through it, it is perforated; hidden: k’e:w [=‘under something’] hidden away, in xa:ky’a’a:n there is an open hole, pit in the ground; secret (e.g., k’e:w-ch’itehsyay ‘in secret-he went off’ yehky’a’a:n there is a hole in it, there is a den, cave ‘he sneaked off, hid’) • tse:-yeh [=‘rock-under’] cave; hole dug along the • mino’ (hidden) behind it, out of sight; whino’ (hidden) river for catching fish behind me; k’ino’ (hidden) behind something, in hiding hole, make a: mino:k’i¬dik’ put a hole in it! peck high: to:-nikya:w [=‘water-big’] high water through it!; mino:k’e:¬dik’ I put a hole in it • je:nah-ch’ing’ [=‘sky-towards’] up high hollow: k’isol it is hollow, makes a hollow sound high water: See FLOOD • me:q’-ky’a’a:n [=‘inside it-there is a hole’] it is hill: nin’-dahsa’a:n [=‘ground-lying on top’] hill hollow, empty inside • xodina:n sloping place; side hil • ¬iqoch’ it is hollow, empty, gaping (e.g., xona:’- • dahdimot’ little bare hill; knobby rise ¬iqoch’ [=‘his eye-is hollow’] ‘he is blind in one eye’) • ky’o:mo:t’ it bulges up (lump or knob on one’s body, • See also GAP a hill, etc.); ky’o:wimo:t’ it has bulged up hollow tree: kiyiq’ hollow tree hillside: minin flank (of a mountain), hillside holly: bahshe:l (or bahshil) holly (berries) him: xong he, she, him, her; xong-’e:n’ he for his part, (¶ Not a Hupa word; possibly from another Athabaskan she for her part language.) hip: whiqe:ch’e’ my hip, pelvis honest: xo’a:’unt’e honest, goodnatured • whiq’ay’ my hip, thigh, inside of my leg honey: kinsinto’ [= from king-sinto’ ‘tree-juice’] the • whit¬’a’-ts’ing’ [=‘my bottom bone’] my hip, pelvis sweet sap of the sugar pine or maple; sugar; honey • whi-ts’idaqi-ya:ng’ay [=‘my-upside down-which honeysuckle: ’ist’ik’ honeysuckle sits’] my hip hood: k’ise:qot a woven hood or head-net worn by hire: xo¬chweh hire him!; ch’iwho:¬chwiw he hired important dancers in the religious dances (¶ The k’ise: me; ky’o’wi¬chwiw he hired someone; k’ima:w- qot is a closely woven piece of knotless netting which ky’o¬chwiw [=‘medicine-he hires’] he hires someone is tied about the head by a thong running along its up- to recite a medicine formula per edge. It hangs down the back about to the waist. his: xo- (possessive prefix) his, her (e.g., xo-xontaw’ It usually has painted designs and its bottom edge is ‘his, her house’) fringed with a line of feathers. In the White Deerskin hit: whi¬kis hit me! (with fist); ch’iwhiseh¬kis he has hit me Dance it is worn beneath the crown of sealion tusks • na:niwhwul I’ll hit it, drum on it (with a stick); (k’iwo’) by the obsidian bearers. In the Jump Dance, na’neh¬wa:t¬’ he hit it it is worn by the three center men (the dance leader and • na:¬tsi¬ hit it (with a rock)!; na’neh¬tse:t¬’ he hit it. the two singers). • ya:whi¬wu¬ hit me! (with a stick, club); ya:xoseh¬wa: hoof: mixulo’ (deer’s, pig’s) cloven hoof; k’ixulo’ a t¬’ I hit him (deer’s) hoof, deer-hoof rattle used by doctors (dried • xoq’it-dahna’diwi¬’a’ [=‘on it-he stuck it atop’] he deer hooves, tied around a stick or bone)
  • 66. 47 HOOK DANCER/HUNGRY hook dancer: k’iwo’-me’ [=‘“hooks”-in’] the hook feel I’m getting hot; na’winse:l he warmed up again dancers in the Boat Dance (after getting cold) hook: ky’ongwhah¬ hook for something! catch some- • xonse:l it (weather) is warm, hot, sunny; there is heat thing with a hook!; ky’o’wingwha:l he hooked for it; • ’uloh it’s hot! (exclamation) tahna:se:wha:l I hooked it out of the water; mi¬-na: • tos or tosi¬ hot water, water that has been heated on a fire na’k’i¬wha:l [=‘with it-he hooks things down’] wooden hot (tasting): dinch’e:k’ it is hot-tasting, peppery, gingery; hook, used to break limbs off trees. See FISHHOOKS diwinch’e:k’ it has gotten hot-tasting, it has gone sour hookbill: qehs Hookbill salmon (¶ Fall run of king house: xontah house (modern) salmon.) • xo’ji-xontah [=‘true-house’] Indian house, living hooks: k’iwo’ [=‘the teeth’] house (¶ Goddard L&C, p.13, “The xonta was the home “hooks,” a crown of sea-lion of the family, the sleeping place of the women, and the tusks (¶ Worn by the obsidian storehouse for the family possessions.”) bearers in the White Deerskin • ’iwhme’n I’m building (a house, fence, etc.); seh¬me’n Dance with a woven hood (k’ise: k'iwo' I have built it qot) beneath, and worn without a • na:’usxut’ he hood in the Boat Dance and the took it all apart, Flower Dance.) he tore (the k’iwo’ hoop: na:lma:ts’ [=‘what has been house) down coiled, circled’] a hoop • xontah-me:w- xontah • ma’ts’ (or ma:ts’e’) half-hoop that holds the net in a na:na’k’isqot dip net [=‘house-underneath it-he poked around again’] he Hoopa Valley: na:tini-xw [=‘trails (leading) back- tore down his house, moved his residence (old idiom at’] Hoopa Valley (i.e., where the trails lead back). in stories) See HUPA house (temporary): See HUT hop: yulch’uq’ (frog) hops, jumps; ya:lch’uq’ it how: daxwe:di (or xwe:di, xwe:t) how? in what hopped way?(interrogative adverb); xwe:di-q’ in what hopper: q’ay’k’ist [= probably from q’ay’-k’itsit way? (e.g., xwe:di-q’ ’a:’udyaw ‘how did he do it’) ‘basket-pounding’] hopper or mill basket (¶ Lacks a how are you?: xwe:di-whung ’a:nt’e [=‘how-only- bottom. Set over the mortar while pounding acorns. you are’] how are you? how are you doing? (greeting) Goddard L&C, p.27-8 & Plate 24, figure 1.) how many: dun¬undi how many? how much? (inter- horn: mide’ its horn, antler; k’ide’ a set of antlers rogative quantifier); dun¬undi-ding how many times?; (detached from the animal). See POINTS dun¬undin how many people? hornet: ts’a:-dilqay (or ts’e:-dilqay) [=‘ts’a-whitish’] huckleberry: chwi¬ch huckleberries (Vaccinium ovatum) hornet huge: tin-nikya:w [=‘very-it is big’] very big, huge horse: miq’it-dahch’idi¬tse [=‘on top of it-they sit’] horse human being: k’iwinya’n-ya:n [=‘acorn-eater’] person, • mitse:t¬’owa’-xole:n [=‘its head-hair (i.e., mane)- man, people; Indian (as opposed to yima:n’dil, White there is plenty’] horse (less common term) person); human being (as opposed to k’ixinay, immortal) • ¬ing’ dog, pet animal, horse hummingbird: q’o:so:s hummingbird (Selasphorus Hostler Creek: tse:mit’ah-nilin’-q’eh [=’tse:mit’ah- sp.) (¶ The hummingbird was a man-bird. His bill was creek-along’] Hostler Creek long like a needle or spear, and he used it to pierce his Hostler Ranch side: ta’k’imi¬xwe the people of the enemies. Once he told another village of Hostler Ranch. (Ta’kimi¬ding) and more bird to start flying from one end generally the people of the downstream half of Hoopa of the world and he started from Valley (¶ In the Jump Dance and White Deerskin Dance the other; they met in the middle the ta’k’imi¬xwe “side” alternates with the me’dilxwe and danced.) “side” (i.e., dancers from the Matilton (Me’dilding) or hundred: ¬a’-dikin [=‘one- downstream half of Hoopa Valley) in performing sets of dikin’, cf. king ‘stick’] one q’o:so:s dances. The two sides are ceremonially equal, but since hundred, one counting stick the dances begin at the Sacred House in Hostler Ranch • nahx-dikin [=‘two-dikin’] two hundred the me’dilxwe must play the role of guests, allowing hungry: me:diwhchwing I’m hungry for it, want the ta’k’imi¬xwe to have the first and last dance sets. it (e.g., ¬o:q’i-me:diwhchwing ‘I want fish’); On the last day of the Jump Dance the ta’k’imi¬xwe me’diwinchwe’n he got hungry for it and the me’dilxwe dance a “grand finale” together.) • chwing-me:do:whle [=‘chwing-I am weak for it’] I See MATILTON SIDE am hungry; chwing-me’do:wile he is hungry; chwing- hot: sise:l (object is) hot, (water) is warm; siwhse:l I me’do:wehsle’ he got hungry am warm, hot; winse:l it got warm; we:sehi¬-ts’eh I • ’a:dixin [=‘eating off oneself’] hungry, starving
  • 67. HUNT/HUT 48 hunt: k’iwunay’iwhday I am hunting, pursuing some- hurry up: xolisch (or xolisji-) quickly, fast; hurry up! thing; k’iwinay’day he is hunting, he’s a hunter; hurt: dinch’a:t it aches, hurts, is sore k’iwunay’winda’ he hunted; k’iwuna:yay’dil they are • ’ugeh ouch! it hurts! (exclamation) hunting; k’iwuna:yay’winde:t¬’ they hunted • ch’iyah he’s hurt, wounded; ts’isya:t he got hurt; se: • na’ninyo:t he chased, hunted (quarry) ya:t I got hurt; xo¬yah I’m hurting, wounding him (with hunting, go: k’iwunayda:-ch’itina:wh he goes a stick, knife, etc.); xoseh¬ya:t I hurt him; ch’ixosyah hunting; k’iwunayda:-te:se:yay I went hunting; he hurt someone k’iwunayda:-ya’tehsde:t¬’ they went hunting husband: whixung’ my husband hunter: k’iwinay’day he is hunting, he’s a hunter hustle: me’so:sin he wants to do it; k’e’so:sin he wants Hupa: na:tini-xw Hoopa Valley [=‘trails (leading) to do things (in general), he’s ambitious, he’s a willing back-at’], i.e., where the trails lead back worker, he’s a hustler • na:tinixwe [=‘those of Hoopa Valley’] Hoopa Valley hut: min’ch menstrual hut Indians • k’ila:dosch’e’-xontah [=‘bark-house’] temporary • dining’xine:wh Hupa-speaking people, Hupa shelter, camping hut, made out of bark (¶ Built mainly Indians at acorn-gathering claims (t’unq’-no:’ondil).) • de:di-me:q’ [=‘here-inside it’] here in this valley, in • me’nus’ay (?), brush house; wind-break; lean-to (¶ Hoopa Attested only in Merriam’s notes.) hurl: See THROW
  • 68. I I: whe I, me, as for me (emphatic pronoun); whe:-’e:n in: me’ in, in it (e.g., whila’-me’ ‘in my hand’; me’- as for me no:’iw’awh ‘I put (round object) in it’) ice: ningxosting it (water, ground) is frozen, there is ice • yeh- in, into (an enclosure)(verb prefix): yeh’ing’awh • dahya:dze’ frost, ice on trees put it (e.g., stone) inside!; yehch’iwing’a:n he put it in; • k’ilo hailstone, ice yehnung’awh put it back in!; yehna’wing’a:n he put if: -de’ if, when (future conditonal tense) (e.g., ’ayniwinsin’- it back in; yeh’inyahwh go in!; yehwe:yay I came de’ ‘if you want it’; na:de:y¬wa’t¬’-de’ ‘if I had poured it’) in; yehch’iwinyay he came in; yehya’winde:t¬’ they ignorant: do:-’owhts’it I don’t know, I’m ignorant of all went in it; do:-ch’oh¬ts’it he doesn’t know in order to: ming in order to (e.g., te:se:ya:-te xini- ill, be: k’ise:ge’ he is ill, incapaciated, sick in bed, a whye:wh-ming ‘I will go in order to talk’) doctor’s patient; k’iwhse:ge’ I am ill; k’e:se:ge’-ts’eh in the water: te:w in the water, underwater I feel that I’ve become ill in-law: whi¬-qa:l [=‘with me-walking along’] my in-law. illegitimate: tintah-ts’isla:n [=‘in the woods-he was See terms for specific in-laws born’] illegitimate child, bastard in vain, futilely: xoh futilely, in vain (e.g., xoh-’a’t’e:n • tintah-k’i¬chwe [=‘in the woods-she gives birth’] [=‘futilely-he did it’] ‘he couldn’t do it’; ina’diqe’-xoh- mother of an illegitimate child wuna’way [=‘he gets up-in vain-he busied himself’] ‘he illness: k’ich’int disease, sickness, illness tried to get up but couldn’t’) imitate: me:nawhdile I’m imitating it; xwe:na’dile he’s incense root: See ANGELICA imitating him; whe:na’widle’ he imitated me inchworm: qo:-qot’ [=‘worm-bent’] inchworm • me:k’inowhye I imitate someone; whe’k’inolye he increase: nu¬chwe it increases, grows in size; imitates me; whe’k’ino:wehsye’ he imitated me nahschwe’n it increased (e.g., nahdiyaw-nayischwe’n immediately: ¬a’ay-xw immediately, at once, right ‘money increased’) then; nothing but, only (e.g., ¬a’ayxw-ya’wingxits’ increasingly: dahdi-ding more and more, increas- ‘right then-she fell over’; ¬a’ayxw-di¬xich-¬iqay ingly (e.g., dahdi-ding xowiwhding’il ‘I’m loving her ‘nothing but-white deerskins’) more and more’) immortals: k’ixinay [=‘the ones who escape, the ones indeed: dó:ng’ (or do’óng) indeed, for sure, it is so (em- who are safe’] immortals, spirits, “angels” (¶ The phatic particle) (e.g., ts’iseh¬we:n-dó:ng’ [=‘he killed people who inhabited this world before human beings it-indeed’] ‘he killed it for sure, without a doubt’; de:- arrived to claim it. They had no fire, and didn’t know q’i-dó:ng’ [=‘this-way-indeed’] ‘in this very way’) death. They now live in Heaven—a world across the index finger: whila’minikya:w’-mich’ing’-na: eastern ocean, beyond the sky—and are prayed to. da’ay [=‘my thumb-towards it-what extends’] my Equivalent to Yurok wogey, Karuk ikxareeyav.) index finger impossible: do:-xoling, do:-xole:n [= adverbial Indian: k’iwinya’n-ya:n [=‘acorn-eater’] person, man, use of ‘there is none’] it isn’t possible, one can’t, one people, Indians shouldn’t (e.g., do:xolin-na:whda:wh ‘I can’t come • mining’-wiltuch’ [=‘its face- back’; do:xoling-’idich’it ‘it’s impossible for us to die’; tattooed’] (or xoning’-wil- do:xolin-te:siwh’e’n ‘I couldn’t look’). See CAN’T tuch’ [=‘his face-tattooed’]) improper: daxo:q’i-’a’dilaw [=‘in some way-one acts’] Indians from upstream (¶ doing something improper during a religious dance, “Wild” Indians along South such as joking or blaspheming Fork Mountain and to the south • ting’xine:wh [=‘he speaks astray’] he uses bad and west; Lassik, Nongatl, language, swears, speaks improperly, “speaks against and others. Remembered in the rules” stories and legends as liv- immature: do:-kinahdang [=‘not (yet)-a girl at puberty’] ing on the mountains to the k’iwinya’n-ya:n preadolescent girl, girl who is not yet mature south. They would raid Hupa • kile:xich boy before puberty villages, steal valuables, and carry off women.) important: ningxa’t’e:n rich and important person, • See also: HUPA; KARUK; KONOMIHU; REDWOOD CREEK; leader, boss SHASTA; TOLOWA; TSNUNGWE; YUROK
  • 69. INDIAN DEVIL/ITCH 50 Indian Devil: k’idongxwe (or k’idongxe) Indian Devil, insides: whikya:ne (or whikya:n, whikyung) my witch, sorcerer abdomen, belly, insides, guts (also used abstractly for • xongqot [=‘poke him (with a stick)’] devil him!; “mind,” “attention”) ch’iwhisqot he deviled me; ya’xosqot they deviled instance, for: yowi-’e:n [=‘for that one’s part’] on the him; do:-xowidqot-heh [=‘not-deviling him-hear!’] other hand, for instance don’t devil him! insulting gesture: kiwh an insulting gesture with the Indian Devil bird: dinday-michwo [=‘arrowhead-its hand (e.g. kiwh-no’awh [=‘kiwh-he puts it down’] ‘he grandmother’] Indian Devil bird (¶ Normally found in makes a kiwh gesture’) the high mountains; Indian Devils (sorcerers) mock interpret: k’ide:ts’eh-na’k’i¬chwe [=‘understanding- its cry.) he makes someone again’] he explains it, interprets Indian doctor: k’ite:t’aw Indian doctor; sucking it; he is an interpreter; k’ide:ts’eh-ya:xo¬chwe doctor: See SUCKING DOCTOR; TRACING DOCTOR; TA:N [=‘understanding-he makes them’] he translates for DOCTOR them, explains it to them Indian paint brush: k’i¬ts’os intestine: which’e:k’e’ (the tubular part of the canal that [=‘what one sucks’] Indian paint- extends from the stomach to the anus), my guts, intestines brush (Castilleja wightii) (¶ Red • k’imit’ [=‘something’s stomach’] tripe flowered bush, resembling a • whichwa:n’-dahyiwixa:l [=‘my excrement-what huckleberry, that is sucked by holds it up’] my intestines hummingbirds. Indians used to into: me’-ch’ing’ [=‘in-toward’] into, towards the inside suck honey out of it, and children of it (e.g., me’ch’ing’-no:de:ta:t¬’ ‘I stepped into it’) would attach the flowers to sticks k’i¬ts’os intoxicated: See DRUNK and put in their hair, as a toy.) inverted: yiwi-dimit [=‘under-bellied’] (glass, etc.) inexpensive: See CHEAP inverted, with its open end down, (animal, person) with infant: q’un-’isla:n [=‘recently-it was born’] baby its belly down, (hand) with palm down during the first ten days of life invisible: do:-xol’e’n [=‘not-it is visible, in view’] it • mije’-’e:din [=‘mind-it is lacking’] baby after the is invisible, can’t be seen; do:-whe:-xol’e’n [=‘not- first ten days of life to me-it is visible’] I can’t see it, it is out of my view; infection: xis pus, discharge, infection do:-’o:wehs’e’n it became invisible; do:-’o:we:ys’e’n inheritance: whitahna:wilay’ my inheritance I became invisible injure: ch’iyah he’s hurt, wounded, injured; ts’isya:t he invite: yehna:xowh’ay I’m inviting him in; yehna: got injured; xoyah I’m injuring, wounding him (with a whi¬’a invite me in!; yehna’whiwi¬’a’ he invited me in; stick, knife, etc.); ch’ixosya:t he injured someone na:xowh’ay I invite him around (to different places, insect (types of): te:w-na: here and there). See CALL (ANIMAL) k’ixo’a:n [=‘under the water-it iris: mehsch’il’e:n [= from meh¬-ch’il’e:n ‘net-people moves around’] bugs that walk treat it like’] blue-flag grass, around under water iris (Iris) (¶ Used for netting.) • xa:xowilwa:t¬’ digging bug (sp.) iron: tse:¬ch’e’ (or tse:lische’e) • mun’-ts’isge [=‘fly-downy, [= possibly from tse:-lische’ feathery] mosquito ‘stone-plank’] knife, iron • mung’ fly iron, to: miq’i(t)xwo-na: • mun’-kyoh-¬tsow [=‘fly-big- nawh’ay [=‘around on top-I blue/green’] blowfly mehsch’il’e:n move (round object) back and • ’a:disch ant forth’] I’m ironing (clothes); mehsch’il’e:n • See also: BEE; BEETLE; DRAG- miq’i(t)xwo-na:na:sa:’a’ I ONFLY; GRASSHOPPER; FLEA; MOTH; specific names for ironed;mi¬-miq’i(t)xwona:na’ay ironed; insects [=‘with it-one irons’] an iron insects, unidentified: te:w-na:k’ixo’a:n [=‘under is: ’úng’ it is (e.g., hayúng’ [=’hay-’úng’ ‘that-it is’] the water-it moves around’] insect that walks around ‘that’s the one’; de:dá:ng’ [= de:di-’úng’ ‘this-it is’] under water ‘this is the one’) • xa:xowilwa:t¬’ type of digging bug island: minahsto:y [=‘what water has moved around, inside: me:q’ inside it, the inside (of anything); de:di- surrounded’] island me:q’ [=‘here-inside it’] here in this valley, in Hoopa; it: ming it (animal) whixe’-me:q’ [=‘my foot-inside it’] the inside of my itch: xixe:s it itches; xiwingxes-te it will itch; ch’ixixe: foot, my sole s he itches, is itchy
  • 70. J jack pine: na:de’t¬’-tse’ch [=‘digger pine- tse’ pine-tse’ Jump Dance: xay-ch’idilye [=‘winter-religious (diminutive)’] Jack pine, small Sugar pine dance’] Jump Dance held in the fall following the White jacket: See COAT Deerskin dance jackrabbit: na:q’itah-k’i¬ixun • t’unq’-ch’idilye [=‘fall-religious dance’] older term [=‘on the gravel bar-deer’] jack- for the (fall) Jump dance rabbit (Lepus californicus) • misq’it-ch’idilye [=‘Miskut-religious dance’] a Jump January: ¬a’-na:ng’a’ [=‘one-the Dance formerly held during the spring at Miskut (misq’it) moon has gone through a cycle’] • ya:xo:’awh [=‘they (a group) jump up and down’] the the first month of the (traditional) Jump Dance style of dancing (¶ The dancers raise their lunar calendar, (modern) January ceremonial baskets (na’wehch) in their right hands at jaw: whiwe:ts’ing’ [= from whiwe:- the same time as they raise one of their feet (either right ts’ing’ ‘my we:-bone;’ -we:- is na:q’itah-k’i¬ixun or left, sometimes alternately). When the foot is raised an old word for “jaw” found only almost level with the other knee, the dancer brings it in compounds] my jaw, jawbone, down forcefully. This is done by the line of dancers in chinbone unison and in time to the singing.) jay: See BLUEJAY • na:’u¬to’n [=‘they jump about’] a Jump Dance step jaybrid: ts’e:y-mitah-xona:da’a’ [=‘brush-in amongst • xay-ch’idilye:-whing’ [=‘winter-dance’s-song’] (or it-it flies head first’] common jaybird (Aphelocoma ya:xo:’awh-miwhine’ [=‘Jump Dancing-its song’)] coerulescens, Scrub jay) Jump Dance song (¶ Sung by one singer at a time. jealous: k’iwhliwh [=‘I watch something, keep an eye No words. Time is kept by stamping and raising of the on something’] I am jealous; xowung-k’iwhliwh I am ceremonial basket, na’wehch.) jealous of him; whiwung-k’e’liwh he is jealous of me; • na’ky’a’aw [=‘the singer’] the “center man” in the k’e:yliwh I got jealous. line of Jump Dancers (¶ This is the leader of the dance. job: na:lte’ work, job; whina:lte’e’ my job; na:ste’ I Despite the name, the na’k’a’aw does not himself sing; have a job. See WORK the two dancers on either side of him do the actual joint: See KNEE singing. The na’ka’aw leads the singing and dancing joking, frivolous: ¬ahxw-hayah ‘just-there’ just for with verbal commands and movements of his na’wehch nothing, for no reason, as a joke (ceremonial basket).) • k’i¬we:-q’ (or q’i¬we:-q’, q’i¬we:-q’its) [=‘evil • mine:jit-ts’isye:n [=‘in the center of it-he stands’] spirit-in the manner of (diminutive)’] in a funny, joking, non-technical term for the center man in the Jump frivolous way (¶ Prohibited type of behavior during a Dance religious dance.); k’i¬we:q’idz-na:k’iwid’aw funny, • teh¬q’it-ya’dilye [=‘on the ground-dancers’] ordinary frivolous way of singing dancers in the Jump Dance (¶ They are called teh¬q’it • See also IMPROPER BEHAVIOR because when the dancers sit down between sets, the Judas tree: See REBUD three “center men” have stone seats while all the other judge: xine:wh-mixa:-k’iniwh’a’di¬chwe [=‘talk-at- dancers must sit on the ground.) tending to it-he listens’] judge (in modern courtroom) • ditsik-¬e:na:ya’usow [=‘unshelled acorns-they scrape juice: mito’ water, juice of something together’] a dance performed with the ceremonial jump: yawhtong’ I’m jumping (up); yultong’ jump!; basket-quiver (na’wehch) during the Jump dance (¶ ya’wilto’n he jumped; ch’iltong’ jump out!; ch’e:’ilto’n The low rythmic sound made by the “ordinary dancers” he jumped out in the Jump Dance provides the background for the • yulch’uq’ (frog) hops, jumps; ya:lch’uq’ it hopped melodies sung by the two singers in the center of the • ya:xo:’awh they (a group, line of dancers) jump up line.) and down in the Jump Dance style of dancing; ya:xo: • ¬a’-yehch’iwinyay [=‘one-going in’] a set of ten wida’a:n we (group of dancers) jumped up and down; dances in the Jump Dance (¶ It is against the rules to ya:xo:ng’a:n they jumped up and down break up the set.)
  • 71. JUMP DANCE/JUST NOW 52 • xonin’-na:na’ule’ [=‘his face-he moves back and jump up and down, dance: na:’a¬to’n [=‘he forth’] looking right and left during Jump Dance makes it jump around’] he dances jumping up and Jump Dance basket: na’wehch probably [= from down (a general term for frenzied dancing in place, as na’we:-ch ‘he carries it in doctor-training dances); nu¬tong’ dance jumping around-(diminutive)’] up and down!; na:lto’n jumping up and down style ceremonial basket-quiv- of dancing er, used only at the Jump junco: See SNOWBIRD Dance (¶ Each dancer juneberry: miq’it-k’ildil [=‘on it-they eat berries’] car-ries a na’wehch in na’wehch juneberry his right hand, raising juniper berry: xeh¬juq’ dried cedar or juniper berries and lowering it during the singing. The basket, a foot (¶ Used for decoration, sewn to fabrics. Holes are or more in length and a few inches in diameter, has a already found in these when they are collected from long slit-like opening along one side and somewhat anthills.) resembles the elkhorn purses in which wealthy men just: ¬ah-xw ‘once-at’ merely, just, only, (in an) ordinary used to keep their valuable dentalia shell money. Noth- (way) (e.g., ¬ahxw-’e:n’-’a:xo¬diwhne [=‘just, merely- ing, however, is kept inside a na’wehch, although it is it was-I was telling her’] ‘I was merely telling her a sometimes stuffed with straw to keep its shape.) story, I was just talking’) Jump Dance fence: xontah [=‘house’] the wooden just as if: ¬ahxw...sile’n [=‘just...it becomes’] just as back-board for the Jump Dance if, as though (e.g., ¬ahxw-xontah-ch’iwinga:s-sile’n • kinjiwolch-ne:s [=‘pole-wide’] the cross-piece on the [=‘just-house-it scratched-it became’] ‘just as if some- Jump Dance back-board thing had scratched the house’) just for nothing ¬ahxw-hayah [=‘just-there’] just for xontah (Jump Dance fence) nothing, for no reason, as a joke just now: jit just now (e.g., jit-do:’o:wdilung’ ‘just now-we quit work’) kinjiwolch-ne:s
  • 72. K Karuk: k’inusni [= possibly from k’inahsni ‘passing them (people) in front of someone’] (¶ Referring to the War Dance, • ¬iydiliw it (animal) kills something (as prey); ¬e’diliw when warriors dance boastfully in front of the line of he kills something, he murders someone; ¬e:dileh kill enemy dancers.) Karuk Indian something!; ¬e:de:liw I killed something, someone. See • yidahch’in [=‘person coming from uphill’] Karuk, ATTACK Konomihu, Shasta or other Indians on the Klamath and • ch’e’whineh¬ya:n [=‘he ate me out’] he (or they) Salmon Rivers slaughtered my family, did away with my people keep: weh¬’a’ [=‘I came to have (round object)] lying killed, get: k’i¬te’ he gets killed; k’iwi¬te’ he got motionless’ I kept it, got it, came into possession of it; killed; yik’iwi¬te’ it (animal) got killed; k’e:y¬te’-te ch’iwi¬’a’ he kept it; ’i¬’a’ keep it! I’ll get killed keep an animal: nawhte [=‘I carry (living object) • whits’ine’-winta’n [=‘my bones-came to lie there around’] I keep, own (an animal); na:’u¬te he keeps, owns it (still)’] I got killed kelp: See SEAWEED kin: See FAMILY kick: ky’o¬tu¬ kick! kick at something!; ky’o’wi¬ta:t¬’ king salmon: xulo:q’e’ Silverside salmon (¶ The first he kicked; nu¬tu¬ kick it around!; na:seh¬ta:t¬’ he part of the spring run of king salmon.) kicked it around • chwulo:q’e’ Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshaw- Kick Dance: ch’i¬tul [=‘he taps his foot, stamps’] Kick ytscha) (¶ Large king salmon that follow the silverside Dance, the way of dancing at the Kick Dance (¶ The salmon in the spring run.) initiation dance for Indian doctors.) • qehs hookbill salmon (¶ Fall run of king salmon.) • ninis’a:n-me’-yitiliwh [=‘the world-in-it carries them kingbird: t¬’o:q’-da’kya:w [=‘prairie-oriole’] kingbird along’] “pains” which are only shown in the Kick- (Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird) Dance, not sucked out of people • je:nah-na:lah [=‘it floats around up in the air’] second • t’e:wing from t’e:wi-n [=‘uncooked, raw-person’] name for kingbird a novice Indian doctor, one who has not yet been fully kingfisher: tehk’ixis [=‘it dives into the water’] king- “cooked” by the Kick Dance fisher (Megaceryle alcyon, Belted kingfisher) Kick Dance regalia: xoq’i-dahk’is’a:n ‘on him- kingsnake: ni¬ch’ing’-who:wh (or ’i¬ch’ing’-who: some (round object) lies above’ fringed buckskin strips, wh) [=‘to each other-parallel’] (refers to the kingsnake’s with one tail-feather attached to each, sewn to a cap ring-like markings) kingsnake (Lampropeltis sp.) so that the feathers stand up and partly hang over kinsman: whima:lyo’ my relative, kinsman, friend (¶ Regalia for the Kick Dance.) •whi¬ing my buddy, cousin, relative Kick Dance songs: ch’i¬tul-whing’ [=‘Kick Dance- • ¬ing-’xol’e:n [= from ¬ing- song’] Kick Dance song ch’ixol’e:n ‘cousin-people treat • xowah-na’k’ita’aw [= ‘alongside-he sings along’] a him like’] he is treated like a rela- ‘light’ or fast song at the Kick Dance tive, called by a kinship term; ¬ing- • mi¬-no:’ondil [=‘with it-they sit down’] a ‘heavy’ or whil’ing treat me like a relative! call slow song at the Kick dance me cousin! • ch’o:na:niwichwil [=‘they keep reaching for it’] a Klamath River: k’ina’-tahxw-hun’ type of singing at the Kick Dance [=‘Yuroks-amongst-river’] Klamath whima:lyo’ kidnap: tingxo¬tiwh [=‘take (living being) away so that River he is lost’] kidnap him! steal him away!; ting’whiwi¬te: knee: whiqot’ my knee, joint n he kidnapped me knife: tse:¬ch’e’ (or tse:lische’e) [= possibly from tse:- kidney: whijonjo¬ my kidneys lische’ ‘stone-plank’] knife, iron kill: si¬we kill it (one animal)!; se:seh¬we:n I killed it; • yehwilxit’ [=‘something inserted’] flint knife for ch’iseh¬we:n he killed it; ch’ixoseh¬we:n he killed him. cutting fish or roots (¶ Goddard L&C, Plate 3, figures • ’ingung [= from ’ingwung] kill them (several 4-5.) animals)!; we:wa:n I killed them; ch’iwinga:n from knob: ky’o:mo:t’ [=‘what mounds up’] bump or knobby ch’iwingwa:n he killed them; ch’ixowinga:n he killed place on the flesh
  • 73. KNOCK/KONOMIHU 54 knock: ’iwhkis I’m striking it with my fist, knocking (at the know, don’t: do:-’owhts’it I don’t know door); dundi-ch’i¬kis [=‘who-knocks’] who is knocking • xowh it seems, it must be, I guess (particle indi- (at the door)?; ch’iskis-ts’eh [=‘he knocked- it was cating uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) (e.g., perceived’] someone was heard knocking (at the door) dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it • nu¬xat I’m knocking it down (something previously seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; built, like a trap); na:seh¬xat’ I knocked it down diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, knoll: dahdimot’ little bare hill; knobby rise I wonder?; da:ywho’-xwo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it • kyo:mo’ch-ding lumpy knoll on Bald Hill seems’] ‘somewhere or another’; na’waye:-xowh-dó: knot: no:lye:ts’ [=‘what is tied in a knot’] common knot ng’ [=‘he goes around there-it seems-indeed’] ‘he might • no:ltsit’ bow knot be living around there’) • jime:li-mike’ [=‘lizard-its tail’] braided knot, used know, how: whi¬-dini¬’ay I know how to do it, I un- on the fringe of a woman’s traditional apron (tsung) derstand it; xo¬-dini¬’ay he knows how to do it; whi¬- knot, tie a: no¬ye’ts’ tie a knot!; no:’o¬ye:ts’ he’s ty- diniwi¬’a’ I have learned how to do it ing a knot; no:neh¬ye:ts’ I tied a knot; ch’e:nu¬ye’ts’ know (place): ninis’a:n-who¬ts’it [=‘the world, untie the knot!; ch’e:na:neh¬ye:ts’ I untied a knot; ¬e: country-knows me’] I know the country, I’m familiar k’iniwhye:ts’ I’m tying them together (with a knot); with the area ¬e’k’iniwi¬ye:ts’ he tied them together knowledge: xwe:xolya:n he has sense, understanding, knotted: siltsit’ it is knotted knowledge of things; k’e:xoya:n one who understands know: ’owhts’it I know it; nowhts’id I know you; things ch’oh¬ts’it he knows it; ’o:y¬ts’it I got to know it, I • whi-dini’ay I know how to do it, I understand it; xo- found out about it; ninis’a:n whoh¬ts’it [=‘the country dini’ay he knows how to do it knows me’] I know the country; ky’owhts’it I know knuckle: whila’-qot’ [=‘my hand-joint’] my knuckles about something, I’m acquainted with it; ky’o’wi¬ts’it Konomihu: yidahch’in [=‘people coming from uphill’] he got acquainted with it; ’o:lts’it it is known, it has Karuk, Konomihu, Shasta or other Indians on the become known Klamath and Salmon Rivers
  • 74. L lacking: ’e:din it is lacking, missing; ’e:nde’n it came late: miq’i-sile’n [=‘on it-it became’] it has gotten late; to be lacking, it disappeared. See WITHOUT whiwung-miq’isilin’-te [=‘toward me-it gets late- lacking, make: ’i¬ding’ make it be lacking! make it (future)’] I will be late, delayed disappear! (e.g., xona:’-’i¬ding’ [=‘his eyes-make later: de:-q’ung-hit [=‘here-recently-at that time’] a them be lacking!’] ‘blind him!’); ’e:y¬de’n I made it be short time afterwards, later on lacking (e.g., xona:’-’e:y¬de’n ‘I blinded him’) laugh: ¬o’ laugh, laughter; whi¬o’ my laugh ladder: miq’it-k’e’sindil [=‘on it-they climb up’] (or • wha:’a¬o’ [=‘laughter moves me’] I laugh; wha:n¬o’ miq’it-na:na:ndil [=‘on it-they go down’]) ladder I laughed, burst out laughing; xwa:n¬o’ he laughed; (¶ A ladder, made from a single piece of wood, was whiwun-na:n¬o’ you laughed at me positioned at the inner entrance to a living house, lead- • ¬o’-ch’i¬chwe [=‘laughter-he makes’] he laughs; ¬o’- ing down into the house-pit, as well as inside the (roof) ch’ischwe’n he laughed door of a sweathouse. Goddard L&C p. 14.) laurel: t’un-chwing California lau- • k’e’sina:wh he’s climbing up along something, climb- rel, pepperwood (Umbellularia ing a ladder, going upstairs; k’e:’isyay he climbed cali fornica) (¶ Sometimes called something; k’e’sindil they climb something myrtle. Pepperwood leaves are used ladyslipper: yima:ne:k’iwingxoya:n-xoyehch’itul’ to relieve sinus congestion.) [=‘Indian God-his shoes’] ladyslipper (Cypripedium lawyer: ky’o’di¬xit [=‘he asks ques- fasciculatum) tions’] lawyer t’un-chwing lake: minq’ lake • whiq’i-ch’ixine:wh [‘for me-he • sixa:n (or suxa:n) [=‘a filled container lies some- speaks] my lawyer where’] there is a lake or pond; wingxa’ a lake or pond lay (it) down: nongh’awh put it (e.g., stone) down!; forms, takes shape; na:sixa:n the water, lake lies still, no’ning’a:n he put it down; no:na’ning’a:n he put it quiet back down (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) lame: nawhdiqe:ch I am lame, limping; na:’usdiqe:ch’ lazy, unenthusiastic: miwhtsa:s I am lazy, un- he became lame, started limping enthusiastic about something, don’t want to do it; lamprey: See EEL k’iwhtsa:s I am lazy, unenthusiastic (about things land: ninis’a:n country, land, world, earth in general); k’e’tsa:s he is lazy, unenthusiastic; k’e: land (a canoe): me’ninta:n [=‘he brought (long object) witsa:s laziness against it’] he landed his canoe, brought his canoe in leach acorns: k’itawhtsit I’m leaching acorns (by to shore; me’nilay [=‘they brought (several objects) pouring water over them); k’itu¬tsit leach acorns!; against it’] they landed their canoes k’ita’wi¬tsit she leached acorns • yeh’i¬qeh [=‘shove (a stick) in’] shove the canoe in! leaching pit: k’ita:ltsit shallow pit in riverbank sand land the canoe!; yehch’iwi¬qe:t he landed the canoe used for leaching acorns, “dirt pan” • me:da’ay [=‘it extends against it’] (canoe) is beached, • me’-k’ita:’u¬tsit [=‘in it-she leaches acorns’] acorn pulled to shore (still partly in the river) leaching pit (alternative term) land, by: nuqit (or na’qit) (coming) by land, (travelling) lead: tiwhloy’ [=‘I’m dragging it off’] I’m leading it along the bank of the river (as opposed to travelling (e.g., horse) with a rope; te:se:loy’ I led it; ch’ite: by boat) loy’ he led it language: xine:wh language, speech, talk • na:whilohs [=‘drag me around!’] lead me by the • na:tinixwe:-mixine:we’ [=‘Hupa people-their hand!; na:xose:lo:s I led him by the hand language’] the Hupa language leader: ningxa’t’e:n leader, boss, rich and important large: nitsa:s it is large in diameter, thick; niwhtsa:s person; miningxa’t’e:n’ the boss (of some organiza- I’m large around the waist. See BIG tion), the leader (of some group) larkspur: k’ima:w-¬iq’a:w [=‘medicine-which is fat’] • ma:-na’way [=‘ahead-he goes’] Dance Leader (¶ The wild larkspur; a medicinal herb (¶ Fat medicine.) man who leads the Hostler Ranch or Matilton side dur- last: na:miq’eh following along behind, last (e.g., ing the religious dances. As “boss” of the dance, the ch’itehsde:t¬’-na:miq’eh they went off last, they were ma:na’way also sponsors the feasts that accompany the the last to go) ceremonies.)
  • 75. LEADER/LIGHT (FIRE, MATCH) 56 • ma:-ch’iqa:l [=‘ahead-he walks along’] the one who legs around, put: mina:k’idi¬q’ay’ straddle it! put leads the moving of the White Deerskin Dance from your legs around it!; mina’k’ideh¬q’ay’ he straddled it danceground to danceground, carrying the fire leggings: See PANTS • ma:-k’itsit [=‘ahead-pounding’] the woman who leads length: me:k’int’e it is the length of it, it is as long as the acorn pounders in the Acorn Feast it; xwe:k’iniwht’e I am as long (tall) as he is leaf: k’it’ung’ leaf, leaves; mit’ung’ its (tree’s, let it: xa:t’aheh let it! let him, her! let them! (e.g., xa: plant’s) leaf t’aheh-yehch’ondi¬ ‘let them come in!’) • mit¬’ow’ (a plant’s) leaves, foliage let me, let’s: keh let me! let’s! (e.g., keh-niwh’ing’ • k’iwint’a’n leaves have come out, (tree) has come ‘let me look!’) into leaf let go: na:dinchwit let go of it! release it!; na:whidinch- leak: wults’a’ water soaks through, leaks out wit let me go!; na’diwinchwit he let go of it • milich it drips, leaks; miwilich it started dripping, Lewis woodpecker: See WOODPECKER leaking liar: ch’ixoch’e:t liar, one who lies lean: diq’a:n it (e.g., board) leans against some- lichen: dahmine’ hanging moss, tree lichen (Ramalina) thing; di¬q’ung lean it up (against something)!; (¶ Used for dye.) ch’idiwi¬q’a’n he leaned it up lick: ’iwhna:t I’m licking it; ’i¬nah lick it!; yi¬na:t it • me:ning’ay [=‘it extends along against it’] it is lean- (e.g., dog) licks it; weh¬na:t’ I licked it; ch’iwi¬na:t’ ing against it; whe’ning’ay he’s leaning against me; he licked it; sawhna:t I lick it in my mouth, I taste it; me’niwing’a’ he leaned against it; k’e:ni¬’a lean it against sa:y¬na:t’ I tasted it; sa’wi¬na:t’ he tasted it something!; k’e’niwi¬’a’ she leaned it against something lick (deer): k’inunq’ deer lick lean-to: See HUT lie: sa’a:n [=‘(round object) lies motionless’] it (e.g., leather: dichwil tanned deerhide, leather; dichwil- stone) lies there, is located there; wing’a’ it has come tehmil (or chwil-tehmil) [=‘tanned (buckskin)-sack’] to lie there; seh¬’a:n ‘I have (round object) lying (traditional) leather sack, (modern) gunny sack motionless’ I have it, possess it, own it; weh¬’a’ I came leave: sahwinde’n they went off (to a distance), they into possession of it, I kept it; siwhda’ung ‘I have made left, departed (refers to a group only); sa’ohding’ (round object) lie motionless’ I have it (e.g., stone) in (you all) go off! my possssion (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) leave behind: no:na’ky’a’awh [=‘he puts (some round • site:n it (e.g., animal) lies there; ts’iste:n he or she object) back down’] he leaves some behind (e.g., food); lies there; siwhte:n I lie there wha:-no:na:k’ing’awh leave some behind for me!; no: lie (two or more): site:ch’ they (animals) lie there; na:k’ina:’a:n I left some behind ts’iste:ch’ they (people) lie there; ya:sidite:ch’ we leave (uneaten, unused): no’yawh he leaves some all lie there over (food uneaten on his plate, supplies unused); non- lie dead: si¬te:n it (animal) lies there dead; ch’iwi¬te’ gyawh leave some over!; no:ne:ya’n I have left some he fell over dead over; no:yawh leaving things over; nondiya’n what • ch’iwehswa:t¬’ he lies there (like a log that has been has been left over (food, supplies, etc.) thrown down), dead or unconscious leave (spouse): xwa’ut-no:na’ni¬te:n [=‘his wife-he lie down: nintiwh lie down!; ch’inehste:n he lay down; put her back down, returned her to where he found her’] ne:se:tin-te I’m about to lie down; niwhte’ let me lie he left his wife, he divorced is wife down! I want to lie down!; na:ntiwh lie down again! leavings: k’e:sde’ coarse leavings (of acorns) after go (back) to bed!; na’nehste:n he went to bed sifting • nohtech’ lie down (you all)!; ch’inehste:ch’ they lay left: nichwin’-ch’ing’ [=‘bad (side)-towards’] left (side), down; ya’nehste:ch’ they (all) lay down; ya:nehsdi- on the left tech’-te we (all) are about to lie down. • nichwin’ch’ing’-whila’ [=‘on the left-my hand’] my lie, tell a: xonch’eh you are lying!; xowhch’e:t I’m left hand lying, I’m a liar; ch’ixoch’e:t he’s lying, he’s a liar; leftovers: nondiya’n what has been left over (food, xowich’e:t [=‘what has been lied’] a lie, falsehood, supplies, etc.) lying. (nixowich’e:de’ your lie); do:-xowich’e:di-heh • xono:yawhe’ his leftovers, leavings after eating (old- don’t lie! no lying! fashioned term) light (fire, match): xon’-wun-nongiwh (from leg: whits’ine’ (or whits’in’, whits’ing’) my bone, leg -nongwiwh) [=‘fire-to it-carry it to there’] light the • whiqe:-kin’ [=‘my leg-base’] my lower leg fire!; xon’-wun-no’ninge:n (from -no’ningwe:n) he • whiq’ay’ my hip, thigh; the inside of my leg lit the fire • whilo:q’e’ [=‘my salmon’] the calf of my leg • me:di¬’a [=‘extend something against it!’] light it!; • mits’e:l’ its (animal’s) leg me’diwi¬’a’ he lit it
  • 76. 57 LIGHT (IN WEIGHT)/LOAN light (in weight): xaxa:nt’e it is light (in weight), lion (mythical): xo¬tsay-taw [=‘dry ground-the one not heavy; xaxa:’unt’e he is light, he’s a lightweight; that is around, among’] “lion,” mythical animal with xaxa:wht’e I am light a ruff of fur around its neck, like a lion’s mane light shines: k’ininde:n it shines (e.g., a light bulb, • teh-k’its’a [=‘in the water-it roars’] mythical “lion” star, sun), there is a light; k’ine:nde’n it lit up; lip: whida’ my mouth, lips k’ini¬ding light it up! shine a light on it! turn the light • whida:-sits’ [=‘my mouth-skin’] my lips on!; k’ine’wi¬de’n he lit it up • whiwe:sits’ [= from whiwe:-sits’ ‘my we:-skin’; -we:- light song: miq’eh-me:na:k’iwiltiw [=‘following it- is an old word for “jaw” found only in compounds] my they sing’] a “light” or fast song at the Brush Dance lips • xowah-na’k’ita’aw [=‘alongside-he sings along’] a listen: k’iniwh-’a’di¬chwe [=‘(aware of) the news-he “light” or fast song at the Kick Dance makes himself’] he listens, he hears the news; k’iniwh- lightning: k’iqiwh [=‘it forks’] lightning flashes, there ’a:diseh¬chwe’n I listened; whixa:-k’iniwh’a:di¬chwe is lightning; k’iwingqiwh lightning flashed [=‘following me-listen!’] listen to me! like: ’iwyo’ I like it; xowhyo’ I like him, her; ch’ilyo’ • xwe:da’ay-na:da’ay [=‘his head-extends out, sticks he or she likes it; ch’ixolyo’ he or she likes him, her; out’] he’s listening; ne:da’ay-na:do:’a’ [=‘your head- ¬idilyo’ we like one another; ch’i¬ilyo’ they like one let it extend out!’] listen!; xwe:da’ay-na:diwing’a’ he another; wehsyo’ I started to like it; ch’ixowehsyo’ listened he or she started to like him, her little: misGiy’ts (or misGiye’(ts)) it is little, small; like to eat: whitile [=‘something pulls me’] I relish it, ts’imisGiy’ts he or she is little, young; simiwhGiy’ts am fond of it, like to eat it; xotile he relishes it; yiditile I am little, young; simiwe:Giy’ts I became lit- [=‘something pulls it (animal, child)’] it (animal) rel- tle; misGe’gits they (things, children) are little; ishes it, feeds on it; white:wile’-te I am going to relish it simidiGe’gits we are little like (resemble): -q’ in such a way, like... (adverb • mine:gits a little bit formant) (e.g., xwe:di-q’ ‘in what way?’; de:-q’ ‘in • mike:l’-ch’ing’ [=‘its (fish’s) tail-toward’] the tail- this way’; hayi-q’ ‘in that way’; k’ida:y-q’ ni¬chwin end of something, the smallest part of something ‘it smells like flowers’; ’aht’ing-q’i-’unt’e ‘all-in such little bit: mine:qits a little, slightly, easily (e.g., mine: way-it is’ ‘all kinds of...’) qits-sise:l ‘it is slightly hot, lukewarm’) lilac: See MYRTLE little while: tse’ehdzi-ding for a little while, for a short lily: k’iwo’-dahyiwilxa:l time; tse’ehdzi-mi¬ after a short time [=‘hook-is held up’] Easter lily live: siwhday I’m living, staying there; ts’isday (or • chwa:kin Tiger lily ch’isday) he or she is staying there; siday it (animal) limb: miky’a:ng’ay [=‘its stays there; ts’isda:-ding [=‘he stays there-place’] arm’] limb, branch (of any where he stays, his residence tree) live oak: See OAK • ’i¬ limb, bough of a conifer liver: whisit’ my liver; k’isit’ [=‘something’s liver’] • na:k’ila:t ‘it floated down’ k’iwo’-dahyiwilxa:l salmon-liver, fish-liver a limb falls from a tree; na: • k’iq’aylosch’e’ the liver of an eel k’iwila:t a limb fell lizard: jime:l (or dzime:l) a type of lizard (Sceloporus, limit: no:- down to a position of rest, to a limit (verb scaly lizard) prefix): nong’awh put it (e.g., stone) down (in a resting • tse:-me:w-na:k’ixo:’a:n [=‘rocks-under them-they position)!; no’ning’a:n he put it down; no:ninyahwh run about’] a type of lizard quit going! go to there and stop! that’s as far as you • mike’-¬itsow [=‘its tail-is blue/green’] Blue-tailed go!; no:ne:yay I quit going; no’ningyay he quit go- lizard ing; no:wilin it (water) flows to there (i.e., the head • See also DART of a stream) lo!: gya’ finding out, being revealed to be, lo! (e.g., limp: nawhdiqe:ch I am lame, limping; na:’usdiqe:ch’ de:-gya’ ‘as I see, as I come to find out’; xwe:di-gya’ he became lame, started limping ‘how...it looks!’) line: mi¬-tahjilo:s [=‘with it-one pulls it ashore’] line load: xeh¬ pack, load (in a basket) to pull gill-net • ¬a’-xe:l a basketful, one basketload line up: tiwhchwe I’m lining them up, putting them in • whiq’eh-k’i¬chwit [=‘behind me-push something!’] a line; te:seh¬chwe:n I lined them up push my load up on my back! help me with my load! • whiq’eh-dinung [=‘(following) after me-sloping, load (a gun): yehna’wilay [=‘he put (several objects) inclined’] lined up behind me, facing behind me, back in’] he loaded the gun, put bullets in agreeing with me; ni¬q’eh-dinung lined up in one loan: whiwa:-mi¬chwit [=‘to me-push it’] loan me some direction money!; whiwa:-me’ni¬chwit he loaned me some lion: See MOUNTAIN LION money
  • 77. LOCATED, BE/LOUSE 58 located, be: sa’a:n [=‘(round object) lies motionless’] look after: miwhliwh I’m looking after (something), it (house, place) is located there (e.g., ta:kiwh sa’a:n ‘a watching it; miliwh watch it! keep an eye on it!; sweathouse is located there, there is a sweathouse there’) me’liwh he’s watching it; miyliwh it (animal) watches locust: xonin’-q’e:ts [=‘its face-makes noise’] locust; it; yayliwh they (animals) watch it; xwe:wiliwh-te you a short-horned grasshopper will look after him, watch him log: nista:n log, fallen tree • xowut-xowhya:n I’m carefully watching him, looking lonely: do:wilde’n loneliness after him; wut-ch’ixolya:n he is watching it; niwut- • ’ayge I’m lonely, lonesome for something! (exclama- xowiwhya’n I have watched you; wut-ch’ixowilya’n tion expressing loneliness, wistfulness, nostalgia; e.g., he kept watch on it ’ayge whima:lyo’ ‘I’m lonesome for my friend! I miss look for: xa:nte look for it, hunt for it (something you my friend!’) have not had before); xa’nite (or xa’nte) he’s looking lonesome: do:-ch’i¬din [=‘not-he is content’] he is for it; xa’niwinte’ he looked for it; xa:na:nte look for lonesome; do:-weh¬de’n I got lonesome; niq’eh-do:- it (something that has been lost)!; xoxa:na:whte I’m ch’iwi¬de’n he got lonesome for you; do:-wilde’n looking for him; xoxa:na:ne:te’ I looked for him lonesomeness • xa:na:te:s’e’n I’m looking for it; whixa:na:te:sing’ing’ long: ne:s it is long; niwhne:s I’m long, tall; ch’e:ne:s he look for me!; whixa:na’te:ng’e’n he looked for me is long, tall; we:ne:s it got long; ch’iwe:ne:s he got tall look like: me:xot’e:n it looks like it, it is like it; xwe: • me:k’int’e it is the length of it, it is as long as it; xwe: xowht’e:n I look like him k’iniwht’e I am as long (tall) as he is • nehwa:n it resembles, looks like (something); • whi¬nehs [=‘it is as long as me, it’s my length’] ch’inehwa:n he or she resembles (something, someone); alongside of me, on my side, along the length of me ne:ysdiwa:n I resemble it; ne:sindiwa:n you resemble it long ago: da’ne long ago • xwe:xowht’ing I look like him/her; whe’xowint’ing’ long object lies: sita:n a long, stick-like object lies he came to look like me somewhere (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) loose: na:k’ixa:ch it (e.g., hair) hangs loose, something long object, handle a: wiwhtil I’m carrying it along is broken apart; ’i¬xahch break it apart!; ch’isxa:ch (e.g., a stick, something long); yuntiwh pick up (a he broke it apart long, stick-like object)!; ya’winta:n he picked it up; loose-jointed: na’dixe he is loose-jointed, loosely nawhtin I’m carrying (a long, stick-like object) around; built; nawhdixe I’m loosely built; na:’usdixe’ he na:’uste’n I carried it around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) loosened up long time: sa’a it is a long time; winsa’a’ it has been lose: whiwun-nixohsle’ [=‘from me-it got lost’] I lost a long time (e.g., sa’a:-na’way ‘long time-he walks’; it; xowun-nixohsle’ he lost it do:-sa’a:y-mi¬ [=‘not-long-with, after’] ‘it wasn’t long • whiwun-na:niwehsdilay [=‘from me-(several things) until...’); sa’a:-dung’ [=‘long time-in the past’] a long are carried over’] I lost (in gambling) time ago; sa’a:-teh¬ [=‘long time-in the future’] it will • whiwun-na:’ustiw [=‘from me-he ran fastest’] he be a long time beat me in a race, he ran faster than I did long way: See FAR lost: nixo:se:le’ I got lost; ch’inxohsle’ he got lost; look: te:siwh’e’n (or te:ys’e’n) I’m looking, taking a nixohsle’ it (animal, thing) got lost; whiwun-nixohsle’ look, looking on; te:sing’ing’ take a look!; ch’itehs’e’n [=‘from me-it got lost’] I lost it he’s looking; te:y’e’n I have looked; ch’ite:ng’e’n • ti-ng- away, out of sight, lost (verb prefix): ting’awh he looked; ch’ite:te:’e’n he looked around; na:te: take it (e.g. stone) away so that it is lost! steal it siwh’e’n I’m looking back; na’tehs’e’n he’s looking away!; ting’wing’a:n (or tiw’wing’a:n) he took it back; na’te:ng’e’n he looked back away; ting’iwha:wh I’m getting lost, going astray; • niwh’e:n I’m looking at something; xoniwh’e:n I’m ting’inyahwh get lost! go astray!; tingwe:yay I got looking at him; whini¬’ing look at me!; ch’iwhini¬’e:n lost; tiw’winyay he got lost, went astray; tiya’winde: he’s looking at me; ¬ine:dil’e:n we’re looking at each t¬’ they all got lost other; xone:y¬’e’n I looked at him; ch’ixoneh¬’e’n he lots, a lot: ¬a:n many, there is a lot; win¬a’n it became looked at him; do:-ne:l’e’n-heh no looking at any- lots; ¬un-ding [=‘many-at (times)’] at many times, thing! frequently, a lot • naywe:se:’e’n I’m looking all round; nay’wehs’e’n • xole:n there is plenty, there is a lot of it; ch’ixo¬e:n he’s looking all around he has lots of it • yeh’iwhde’iwh I’m looking in (to see what’s inside); louse: ya’ louse (specifically head louse), parasite; yeh’inde’iwh look in! ma:’a’ [= contracted from mi-ya’e’] its parasite look!: hé: look! (e.g., hé:, ch’ixoch’e:t! ‘look! he’s lying!’) • ya’u¬qay White louse • ni¬’in-de:gya’ look at this! see here! • ya:’usq’ong’ lice eggs
  • 78. 59 LOVE/LYNX love: niwhdin I’m in love with you; whi¬din you’re in love lukewarm: tosi¬ (sometimes reduced to tos) warm with me; xowhdin I’m in love with him or her; ¬idi¬din water, lukewarm water we are in love with each other; xwe:y¬de’n I fell in love lump: k’iqojin (or k’ijiqon) lumps (on the body, as on a with him or her; ch’iwhiwi¬de’n he or she fell in love frog); miqo(n)jine’ its (sturgeon’s) lumpy backbone. with me; k’iwi¬de’n he or she fell in love (with someone) • ky’o:mo:t’ it bulges up (lump or knob on one’s body, love medicine: mi¬-k’idi¬din [=‘with it-he is loved by hill, mound, etc.); ky’o:wimo:t’ it has bulged up someone’] love medicine lung: whidisqay’ (or whidisq’e’) my lungs lover: whi¬ilyo’ my boyfriend, girlfriend, sweetheart lupine: k’i¬we:kyoh-mila’ [=‘spider-its hand’] lupine • whiky’o’niwa:n my lover (not spouse). See ADULTERY (Lupinus) low: ninch’ing’-xw [=‘downward-at’] (lying) low, on lurch: tiwhwis I lurch, duck, dodge; ch’iteh¬wis he the ground lurched; xokyun-teh¬wis [=‘his insides-lurched’] his lower part: xot¬’a’-ch’ing’ [=‘his buttocks-towards’] the stomach turned, he was revolted. See DODGE lower part of his body, his bottom; mit¬’a’-ch’ing’ its lust: See DESIRE; WANT (animal’s) hind-quarters, the bottom end of something lynx: See BOBCAT lucky place: tim a bathing spot for menstruating women; any place you train for good luck
  • 79. M mad: See ANGRY • xowh¬a:n (or xowh¬un) there are many people; do:- xowh¬un) madrone: ’isde:w madrone (Arbutus menziesii) xowh¬a:n (or do:-xowh¬un) not many people, a few magazine (of bullets): See CLIP people; ya:xowhdi¬un we are many; ya:xo:wh¬a’n maggot: k’iwinya’n-ma:’a’ [=‘acorn-its parasite’] they became many maggot that feeds on acorns. See WORM manzanita: diniwh manzanita (Arctostaphyolos viscida) maidenhair: See FERN • diniwh-k’iwitsit [=‘manzanita-pounded up’] manza- maize: See CORN nita flour make: ’i¬chwe make it!; ch’i¬chwe he makes it; • diniwhch [=‘manzanita (diminutive)’] small manza- seh¬chwe’n I made it; ch’ischwe’n he made it; nita bush (Arctostaphylos patula) ch’oh¬chwe’ let him make it!; wilchwe:n it has been maple: k’it’ung’ [=‘leaf’] ma- made; na¬chwe make it again! make it over!; na: ple (Acer macrophyllum) seh¬chwe’n I made it again march: yehna’k’iliji-wha:’ [=‘they • xo¬chwe she makes him, gives birth to him; urinate (on their way) inside-moon’] k’iseh¬chwe’n she gave birth Late winter month; March (¶ So k’it’ung’ • (used as causative): ni¬chwing-seh¬chwe’n I made it called because it was so cold they stink; nite:l-na:seh¬chwe’n I made it flat again; k’ik’e: often had to hurry back to urinate.) t’-ch’i¬chwe he makes it squeak; ’a:t’ing-xoseh¬chwe’n mare: See FEMALE ANIMAL I made him do things; ’a:de:y-xoseh¬chwin’-te I will mark: ch’iti¬iw [=‘he rubs, smears (paint) along’] he’s make him my own, claim him marking something, drawing a line; te:se:¬iw I made a make a bed: na:k’i¬teh¬ spread (the blanket) again! mark; nawh¬eh I’m making marks (all over), drawing make the bed!; na:k’iseh¬te:l I made the bed lines in all directions; na:se:¬iw I made marks male animal: mixo’osday’ [=‘its man’] male of any species • ’a:k’iwh’e:n [=‘I’m doing something, making some- mallard: miq’os-¬itsow [=‘its neck-blue/green’] mallard thing’] I’m marking it with a design (paint, tattoo, (Anas platyrhynchos) etc.), writing; ’a’k’i¬’e:n he is marking it, writing; man: xo’osday (or xwe’esday) man (male) ’a:k’iwhlaw I marked it, wrote; ’a’k’ilaw he marked • k’iwungxoya:n old man it, wrote; ’a:k’ileh mark it! write!; ’a:k’iwilaw it is • k’iwinya’n-ya:n [=‘acorn-eater’] person, man, Indian marked, written; a book man-eating monsters: t¬’oh-kya’-t’e:n [=‘grass- married: ’ud-t’e:n [=‘(with) wife-being’] married skirt-wearer’] female man-eating monster who lurks man; ’udt’e:n se:le’n [=‘married man-I became’] I got about old camping places; she carries a leather-seed married (man speaking) beater (me’k’i¬wul), and is also called me’k’i¬wul- • xung’-t’e:n [=‘(with) husband-being’] married wom- na’we [= ‘seed beater-she carries it around’] an; xung’t’e:n se:le’n I got married (woman speaking) • xahslintaw-nehwa:n [=‘crane-it resembles’] man- marrow: whe:we’ my bone marrow eating crane-like bird that inhabits the head of Horse- marten: See FISHER Linto (xahslinding) Creek) mat: k’iwilte:l [=‘what is spread out’] mat, traditional manner, in such a: -xw in such a way, in such a Indian bed; k’i¬teh¬ spread out a mat! spread a blanket! manner, being so, while doing so (adverb formant, ge- prepare a bed!; k’iseh¬te:l I spread it out rundive particle) (e.g., hayi-xw ‘in that way’; niwhong- matches: xong’-min [=‘fire-what is (used) in order to xw ‘in a good way, well’; ye’i¬xa’-k’iwa’ah¬xw [=‘day (make it)’] matches. See FIRE DRILL breaks-while he is singing’] ‘he sings until dawn’) Matilton side: me’dilxwe the people of the village of • -q’ in such a way, like... (adverb-forming suffix) (e.g., Matilton (Me’dilding) and more generally the people xwe:di-q’ ‘in what way?’; de:-q’ ‘in this way’; hayi-q’ of the upstream half of Hoopa Valley (¶ In the Jump ‘in that way’; k’ida:y-q’ ni¬chwin ‘it smells like flow- Dance and White Deerskin Dance the me’dilxwe “side” ers’; ’aht’ing-q’i-’unt’e [=‘all-in such way-it is’] ‘all alternates with the ta’k’imi¬xwe “side” (i.e., dancers kinds of...’) from the Hostler Ranch (Ta’kimi¬ding) or downstream many: ¬a:n many, there is a lot; win¬a’n it became lots half of Hoopa Valley) in performing sets of dances. • ’un¬ung they are so many; xa’un¬ung there are The two sides are ceremonially equal, but since the that many dances begin at the Sacred House in Hostler Ranch the
  • 80. 61 MATILTON SIDE/MEDICINE, TYPES OF me’dilxwe must play the role of guests, allowing the • k’iwilme:ch boiled meat ta’k’imi¬xwe to have the first and last dance sets. On • See also VENISON the last day of the Jump Dance the ta’k’imi¬xwe and mediator: See GO-BETWEEN the me’dilxwe dance a “grand finale” together.) See medicine: k’ima:w medicine (general term, referring HOSTLER RANCH SIDE both to traditional Indian medicines and to modern maul, to: k’iwht’iwh I’m mauling off a plank, riving it, pharmaceuticals) splitting (slabs, shingles, etc.) with a wedge or chisel; • k’ina’q’i-na’ay [=‘in Yurok fashion-he carries on’] k’iseh¬t’iwh I mauled it off; mi¬-k’i¬t’iwh [=‘with it-he medicine used at (Yurok style) Brush Dances mauls off’] chisel; ji¬t’iwh split it apart (with a wedge • k’ima:w-xoniwhsin I know a medicine; k’ima:w- or chisel)!; je’wi¬t’iwh he split it apart ch’ixo:ne he knows a medicine maul: mi¬-k’i¬tsil [=‘with it-one pounds, hammers’] medicine, make: k’ima:w-mi¬-xe’e:k’i¬yo:l [=‘medi- hammer, maul cine-with it-he blows it away’] he makes medicine • tsimi¬ch’itsit [= from tsing-mi¬-ch’itsit ‘bones-with medicine, types of: it-he pounds, crushes’] a small maul • k’iwiyul-mi¬-me:na’dinchwe:n [=‘food-with it-he • See also CHISEL; HAMMER craves it again’] medicine to make one want food, maybe: do:-tah [=‘not-among’] (or do:-de’-tah [=‘not- stimulate the appetite in the future-among’]) perhaps, maybe • tse:ling-min [=‘blood-for’] medicine for bleeding • xowh it seems, it must be, I guess (particle indicat- from a wound, passing blood ing uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) (e.g., • k’i¬ixun-mich’ing’-k’ima:w [=‘deer-towards it- dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it medicine’] deer hunting medicine (¶ There are five seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; varieties.) diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, • t¬’iwhxa:n-mi¬-tahch’i¬tiw [=‘eel-with it-he takes out I wonder?; da:ywho’-xwo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it of the water’] eel medicine seems’] ‘somewhere or another’; na’waye:-xowh-dó: • xayahme’-¬o:q’-mi¬-tahch’i¬tiw [=‘fishing spot-fish- ng’ [=‘he goes around there-it seems-indeed’] ‘he might with it-he takes out of the water’] fish claim medicine be living around there’) • xowa:na:na:lwe:n [=‘it melts away from him’] medi- • xoshdó:ng’ xowh-dó:ng’ [=‘it seems-indeed’- cine to remove hard feelings, for forgiveness (¶ This is (diminutive)] it could be (but I really doubt it)! I really medicine for one who wants his enemy, one he’s had a don’t believe it! quarrel with, to forgive him. If you kill a man this medicine me: whe I, me, as for me; whe:-’e:n as for me makes his relatives not so hard-feeling. You burn mixa: meadowlark: michwe:xin’-q’eh-yixolwhin [=‘its anus- ch’e’-xole:n and sing a certain kind of song all night.) following behind-it is darkish colored’] meadowlark • mikyow’-mik’ima:w’ [=‘grizzly bear-its medicine’] (Sturnella neglecta, Western meadowlark) or k’ide:nilgit [=‘they fear it’] grizzly bear medicine mean: mehsla:-xosin he is mean (¶ Used so grizzly bears won’t tackle you.) • do:-ch’iniq’iw [=‘not-he is well behaved’] he does not • mi¬-k’idi¬din [=‘with it-people love him’] love medicine behave well, he is mean, ready to fight (old-fashioned • mi¬-xontah-na:dya’ [=‘with it-houses-he goes word) around’] medicine to make people be always glad to measure: me:k’i¬teh measure it! (e.g. net mesh, see you dentalia, lumber); me’k’iwi¬tiw he measured it; • mi¬-xong’a:na:diwilaw-k’ima:w’ [=‘with it-one puts whe’k’iwi¬tiw he measured me; me:k’iwiltiw it has on regalia-medicine’] medicine to look nice, have nice been measured, a measure of something (e.g., ¬a’-me: things k’iwiltiw ‘one-measure (of something); one string of • wilkya:n-mik’ima:w’ pregnant woman medicine dentalia’) (¶ Used to make a baby small inside, so that the delivery • tiwhchwit I’m measuring something (with my arm); is easy.) tinchwit measure it!; ¬ah-te:schwit [=‘once-he mea- • xokyun-chwin’da:na:whmik’ima:w [=‘his stomach- sured’] a measurement from tip to tip of outspread it went bad-its medicine’] medicine for a bad stomach arms; a “yard” • ch’iya:di-min [=‘wound-for’] medicine for a wound measuring stick: mi¬-me’k’i¬tiw [=‘with it-he mea- • ch’ixo:ni¬yo:l [=‘he blows at him’] making bad sures’] measuring stick (for mesh of a net) (¶ Nets were medicine, witchcraft, poisoning (¶ Cannot be cured woven with the hands, the string being wound about a by an Indian doctor.) shuttle; mesh size was measured on the special measur- • mi¬-nikyahxwo-ky’a:n [=‘with it-in a big way-he ing “stick” (actually made of bone).) eats’] medicine to “stretch your stomach” so that you meat: whitsing’ my flesh, meat; mitsing’-xina:y its meat will be able to eat a lot at a feast is fresh, fresh meat
  • 81. MEET/MOLD 62 meet: xode:siwha:wh I meet him, go to see him, be that one!’) encounter him; xode:sinyahwh meet him!; xode:se: milk: whits’o:’ my (woman’s) breasts, milk yay I met him; whide:’isyay he met me • mide’xole:n-mits’o:’ [=‘cow-its milk’] cow’s milk melt: teh¬we’ it (grease, snow, ice) is melting, has milk a cow: mits’o:’-’i¬tik [=‘its udder-pinch it!’] milk started to melt the cow!; seh¬tik I pinched it, I milked (the cow) • nulwing (or nulwhing) it is melting away; na:lwe:n milkweek: dina’ milkweed (Asclepius) (¶ Used for (or na:lwhe:n) it melts away chewing gum.) • ’idah it (e.g., ice, fog) is melting away, dissipating, mill basket: See HOPPER disappearing; ’isdaw it melted, disappeared mill: tse:xut’ mortar rock, mill rock menstrual hut: min’ch [=‘min’-(diminutive)’] men- millipede: ts’o:lusge millipede, thousand-legged worm strual hut. (¶ For min’- see BACK (OF HOUSE).) milt: mik’its’o:’ ‘its milk of something’ its (fish’s) menstruate: mingk’iwh’e:n [= from mini-k’iwh’e:n milt ‘for that purpose-I consider things’, i.e., I set aside things mind: whije:y’ (or whije:ye’) my state of mind, way for menstrual seclusion] I am menstruating, having my of thinking, heart (metaphorical) (¶ Used mainly in period; mingk’il’e:n she is menstruating; mingk’iwe: phrases, where it is often reduced to whije:’- or whije’.) s’e’n I started menstruating; ming’k’iwehs’e’n she See BABY; FORGET; WORRY started menstruating • whikyung my mind, attention. See INSIDES menstruation: na:sdongxwe [=‘being alone’] (or na: mind, to: miq’eh-nawh’ay [=‘after it-I carry it around’ sdo:ngxw-ky’a:n [=‘alone-she eats’]) menstruating I mind it, heed it, pay attention to it; miq’eh-nung’a woman (polite term, used by women in front of men) mind it!; miq’eh-na:’us’a’ he minded it; whida’-q’eh- • tim-na’me [=‘(at) lucky spot-she bathes’] menstruating na:’us’a’ [=‘my mouth (i.e., words)-he minded’] he woman (an alternative polite term for use in front of men) minded me, paid attention to me; xoda’-q’eh-nung’a • mingk’il’e:n menstruating woman, menstruation mind him! (direct term, used among women) mink: te:wina:whing’ larger mink (Mustela vison) menstruation, have first: kina’k’i¬day she has her • sah-kyoh ‘sah-big’ (larger?) mink (archaic term) first menstruation, reaches puberty; k’ina:k’iwhda • xoninsohch from xonin-sow-ch [=‘his face- I have my first menstruation; kinah¬dung from scratched-(diminutive)’] small, White-spotted mink kinah¬da:-n [=‘she reaches puberty-person’] a girl for (Mustela vison) whom a Flower Dance is held, a girl at puberty minnow: k’ina:’-sonsol [=‘the eyes-empty’] minnow merely: ¬ah-xw [=‘once-at’] merely, just, only, (in an) mirror: me’-na’a’dineh¬’e:n [=‘in it-he looks back at ordinary (way) (e.g., ¬ahxw-’e:n’-’a:xo¬diwhne [=‘just, oneself’] mirror merely-it was-I was telling her’] ‘I was merely telling miscarriage: xokyun-k’isya:t [=‘her insides-got hurt, her a story, I was just talking’) wounded’] she miscarried; whikyun-k’iyah I’m having merganser: na:t’awe:-¬iqay [=‘duck-white’] diving a miscarriage duck (Mergus (sp.), merganser) miss: whit¬’a:n in my absence, missing me; xot¬’a:n in middle: mine:jit in the middle of it, in the center; whine: his absence, missing him (e.g., whit¬’a:n-ch’iningyay jit [=‘in the middle of me’] around my waist, my middle [=‘missing me-he arrived’] ‘he arrived after I had left, • ta:ne:jit in the middle of the river he missed me’) • ninis’a:n-mine:jit [=‘world-in its middle’] in the • ’ayge I’m lonely, lonesome for something! (exclama- middle of the world, in the center of the universe (term tion expressing loneliness, wistfulness, nostalgia); (e.g., used in prayers) ’ayge whima:lyo’ ‘I’m lonesome for my friend! I miss midnight: xat¬’e’e:mi¬ [= from xat¬’e’-e:-mi¬ ‘night- my friend!’) there-when’] in the middle of the night, at midnight missing: See LACKING; WITHOUT might be: xowh it seems, it might be, I guess (particle mist: misjeh mist, fog, light haze indicating uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) mistletoe: dahk’islay-kyoh mistletoe (e.g., dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it moccasins: xo’ji-yehch’itul [=‘true-shoes’] moccasins seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; (¶ See Goddard, L&C, p. 18; Curtis, p. 9.) diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, mock orange: q’a:xis mock orange, Syringa (Philade- I wonder?; da:ywho’-xwo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it phus sp., or Prunus caroliniana (?)) (¶ Used for arrow seems’] ‘somewhere or another’; na’waye:-xowh-dó: shafts.) ng’ [=‘he goes around there-it seems-indeed’] ‘he might mockingbird: See CHAT be living around there’) mold: widwa’n it is moldy • -ts’á:ng’ [= -ts’eh-’úng’ ‘it is perceived-it is’] (feel • mich’iwhe’ta:wh bluish dust on acorns (due to that) it might be... (e.g., yow-ts’á:ng’ ‘I feel that it might mold)
  • 82. 63 MOLE/MOVE, ANIMALS mole: yiniw-na:k’idmo:t’ [=‘underground-it piles things moss: ch’ahli-we:sits’ [=‘frog-lips’] green moss in up’] mole (Scapanus) the river • mina:’e:din [=‘it is blind’] second name for mole • dahmine’ (or dahmiyn’) money: nahdiyaw money (general term); xo’ji- hanging moss, yellow tree li- nahdiyaw [=‘true-money’] dentalia, Indian money chen (Ramalina), used for dye (¶ Valuable dentalia shells, long enough to reach from • ’iskimida:w’ [= from nisk- the base of the finger to the last joint (1 1/2 inches or ing-mida:w’ ‘tall conifer-its dahmine’ longer).) whiskers’] long hanging moss • mi¬-ky’o:xe:t [=‘with it-he buys things’] (modern) on conifers money; xo’ji-mi¬ky’o:xe:t [=‘true-money’] dentalia moth: q’o:so:s-michwo [=‘hummingbird-its grand– Mongolian spot: na:niwi¬iq’ [=‘thrown at with mud’] mother’] moth Mongolian spots (¶ Two or three marks on the small of mother: whunchwing my mother the back of Indian children. According to tradition, while • which’iyungxe’ my deceased mother children are still floating around unborn, they throw • tintah-k’i¬chwe [=‘in the woods-she gives birth’] mud at each other while playing; the slow ones get hit.) mother of an illegitimate child monkey: nu¬mowh (or nu¬miwh) [=‘it swings around’] • do:lya:-chwing [=‘do:lya-sort’] woman who has lost monkey a child monster: See MAN-EATING MONSTER; WATER MONSTER mother-in-law: whime:’ch’e’chwing my mother-in-law month: na:ng’a’ [=‘(round object) has come to lie mound: ky’o:mo:t’ it bulges up (lump or knob on there again, has come back to rest’] the moon has gone one’s body, hill, mound, etc.); ky’o:wimo:t’ it has through a complete cycle, a (traditional) lunar month, bulged up a (modern) calendar month; ¬a’-na:ng’a’ [=‘one-the mountain: ninis’a:n world, surface of the earth, moun- moon has gone through a cycle’] the first month of the tain; ninis’a:n-milay’ [=‘mountain-its summit, peak’] (traditional) lunar calendar, (modern) January mountain top; ninis’a:n-nikya:w [=‘mountain-it is • mining month (in names of months) big’] Big Hill (at the head of Hostler Creek) • no:lah [=‘it floats to there’] the new moon comes, • diq’a:n mountain ridge a month begins; no:nila:t the new moon has come, a • nunts’ing crag, mountain peak month has passed (e.g., ta:q’-no:nila:t ‘three-months • na:na:da’ay small point, peak have passed’) • nehsnoy they (e.g., mountains) stand there, stick up • See also NAMES OF MONTHS in peaks • xit¬’e’-wha [=‘night-sun’] moon mountain lion: minim’-mi¬-¬e:diliw [=‘its face-with it- • ¬e:na:¬teh¬ [=‘it has gotten wide together again’] full moon it slays’] mountain lion, “panther” (Felis concolor) mop: xontah-me:q’-mi¬-na:na’k’iqot [=‘house-inside mourning song: xona:’to’-na:wilin [=‘tears-flow it-with it-one pokes around’] mop down’] mourning songs me and more: dahdi-ding more and more, increas- mouse: ¬o’n white-faced mouse (Peromyscus) ingly (e.g., dahdi-ding xowiwhding’il ‘I’m loving her • ¬o’n-¬iqay [=‘mouse-white’] white mouse more and more’) mouth: whisah (or whisa:q’) the inside of my mouth • xo’ji-xw [=‘in a real way’] more and more, more... • whida’ my mouth, lips than ever (e.g., xo’jixwo-xunding ‘ever closer, closer mouth, put into: whisa:- into my mouth, sa:- into and closer’) the mouth (verb prefix): nisawh’awh I’m putting it morning: xat¬’e’-dung’ [=‘night-just past’] (early) in (e.g., stone) into your mouth; xosung’awh put it into the morning, daybreak his mouth!; whisa’wing’a:n he put it into my mouth; • de:dixwo-yidahch’ing-wing’a’-mi¬ [=‘this way-from sawhjich I’m putting (e.g., seeds) into the (my) mouth uphill-(round object) comes to lies-when’] when the sun mouth (of stream): mike’ [=‘its tail’] mouth of a river has risen well above the mountains to the east, about 9 a.m. • ch’e:wilin [=‘it flows out’] mouth of river, stream morning star: xit¬’e’dung’-xa:sina:wh [=‘in the • ch’e:wilin-ding [=‘it flows out-place’] where the morning-it rises’] morning star stream flows out (into the ocean) (specifically Requa, mortar, bedrock: tse:-xayts’a’ [=‘rock-dish’] a small the Yurok village at the mouth of the Klamath River) pounding basin in bedrock, used for making medicine • ta:wilin-ding [=‘it flows into the water-place’] where for luck and other purposes; bedrock mortar a stream flows into the ocean mortar, portable: miq’it-k’itsit [=‘on it-someone • mich’a’ah its mouth, outlet pounds’] mortar rock, pounding rock move, animals: ti¬’awh (several animals) move off, set • tse:-xut’ [=‘stone-lying flat’] mortar rock, mill rock off walking; teh¬’a:ch’ they have moved off; yeh’i¬’ah mosquito: mun’-ts’isge [=‘fly-downy, feathery’] they move into (an enclosure); yehwi¬’a:ch’ they moved mosquito into it; nah¬’awh they move around, browse, roam; nahs’a:ch’ they have moved around
  • 83. MOVE (CAMP RESIDENCE)/MYTHICAL TIMES 64 move (camp residence): nawhying I’m moving • dinch’e:k’ [=‘it is hot-tasting, peppery’] a type of (camp, residence) around; na:se:ye:n I moved around; mushroom with a strong taste ninyiwh move here!; ch’ininye:n he moved here; na: • k’iyo:y poisonous mushroom, anything poisonous ndiyiwh move back here!; na:’undiye:n he moved muskmelon: diq’a:n-me:ning’e:t¬’ [=‘ridges-extend back here; na:ninyiwh move across (the river)!; na: along it’] muskmelon ya’ninye:n they moved across; tinyiwh move off, must: -ne’ (you) must... (hortatory particle) (e.g., away!; te:se:ye:n I moved off k’inyun-ne’ ‘you must eat’; digyung sinda:-ne’ ‘here move about: na:xiwhdinaw I’m moving about; na: you must stay’) xindinah move about!; na’xidnaw he moves about; mussel: xosits’-mil [=‘his skin-mil’] freshwater mus- na:xidnaw (or na:xinaw) it moves, there is movement; sel (Mytilus californianus); mussel-shell spoon used na:xe:sdinaw I have moved about; na’xehsdinaw he by women has moved about my: whi- (possessive prefix) my (e.g., whi-xontaw’ ‘my move back and forth: xiwhnay I move it back and house’) forth, stir it, agitate it; xi¬na move it back and forth!; myrtle: ts’e:y-¬itsow [=‘brush-green’] wild lilacs; ch’ixi¬nay he moves it back and forth; xe:y¬na’ I have myrtle; myrtle twigs (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus) moved it back and forth myth: ch’ixolchwe [=‘(world) being made, prepared’] move (child in womb): xo¬-xitinaw [=‘with her-it (story about) pre-human times, when the world was moves’] the unborn child moves in her, she starts feel- being prepared for human beings ing she is going to give birth; xo¬-xitehsna’n (or xo¬- mythical animals: See BIGFOOT; WATER PANTHER xitehsdina’n) the unborn child has moved in her mythical beings: much: See MANY • k’i¬na:dil-k’iwungxoya:n [=‘wolf-old man’] mythi- mucus: whinchwiwh-k’ito:’ [=‘my nose-juice’] my cal being snot, nasal mucus, phlegm • ta:n-k’iwingxoya:n [=‘mountain-old man’] mythical mud: ¬eht’e:t’e’ sticky, soft earth being • jung muddy water • nahxi-k’iq’os-na:diwul [=‘two-necks-swinging • na’xoni¬iw he throws mud at someone. See around’] mythical monster MONGOLIAN SPOT • nin’-miwina:-ch’iste:n [=‘ground-around it-he lies, mud hen: ¬iwhin-mida’nite:l [=‘black-duck’] “mud sleeps’] mythical being hen;” black duck • tit’aw-¬iqay [=‘it floats in the air-white’] or tit’aw- mud, handle: See DOUGH-LIKE OBJECT ¬iq’a:w [=‘it floats in the air-fat’] mythical bird whose mule: mijiw’-ne:s (or mijiwe’-ya:ne:s) [=‘its ears-are wings scatter Indian money long’] mule, donkey • yiniw-na:lto’n [=‘in the ground-it jump’] a mythical murder: ¬iydiliw it (animal) kills something (as prey); bird with spikey wings ¬e’diliw he kills something, he murders someone; ¬e: • xa:xowilwa:t¬’ [=‘thrown up out of the ground’] hero dileh kill something!; ¬e:de:liw I killed something, of myth, “Dug-from-the-Ground” someone. See ATTACK • xo¬tsay-taw [=‘dry ground-the one that is around, • xonist’e’-ya:n [=‘body-consumer’] someone who has among’] “lion”, mythical animal with a ruff of fur killed a person around its neck, like a lion’s mane • See also KILL • teh-k’its’a [=‘in the water-it roars’] mythical “lion” muscle: whitilte’e’ my muscle, the strength of my (arm, • See also WATER MONSTER; ACORN PROVIDER body). See STRONG mythical times: ch’ixolchwe:-dung’ [=‘(world) being mushroom: ’a:jiw’ “tanoak” mushroom (¶ The com- made-when (in the past)’] in mythical times; at the time monest edible mushroom; large, pure white, and stringy the world was being prepared for human beings rather than crumbly.) • xongxong’ a type of edible mushroom (¶ Orange, with “cream” on top.)
  • 84. N nail: ’iwhtsil I am pounding, driving, nailing something neighbor: ¬e:na:wh neighbors, people living nearby; naked: t’e’-’e:din [=‘blanket-without’] naked, (man) a village without his clothes • whino:ng’ay’ding in my neighborhood, near me • kya’-’e:din [=‘dress-without’] naked, nude, (women) nephew: white:dilt’e’ my brother’s child (son or without her dress daughter) name: who:whe’ my name (no:whe’ your name; xo: • wha:wh my sister’s son whe’ his or her name) net, fish with a: da’usday [= from dahts’isday ‘he sits • xwe:di-’a:nolye what is your name?; John-’a:wholye above (the net)’] he is fishing (with a net); dahnintsah I am named John; John-’a:xolye he is named John [=‘sit down above (the net)!’] go fishing with a net!; name, call by: xongwhe give him a name! call him by dahch’inehsday he went fishing with a net name!; ch’o:whe he names it, has a name for it; ch’ixo: net, fasten a: mint¬’ohwh fasten your net! [=‘tie it on ngwhe’ he named him, called him by name. See CALL; READ to it!’]; me:se:t¬’o’n I fastened my net; me:’ist¬’o’n named, be: ’ulye it is named so, it is called so; ’a: he fastened his net wholye I am named so; ’a:xolye he or she is named nets (types of): so; ’a:who:wehsye’ I was named so • k’ixa:q’ A-frame lifting net nape of the neck: whiq’os-q’eh [=‘my neck-behind’] • mi¬-dahsidayA-frame lifting net (equivalent to k’ixa:q’) the nape of my neck • k’ixa:q’ich [=‘A-frame net (diminutive)’] small dip net narrow: ’ist’iK’its [=’istiK’-(diminutive)] narrow, • no’k’itiwh (or no’k’ixa:wh) [=‘one puts it down’] slim. See SLIM a small net (¶ People used to set this type of net in nasty: ’ulush (or ’ilush) it’s dirty! it’s nasty! (exclamation creeks, below falls, or below some artificial barrier. of disgust) They would sit and wait.) navel: whits’e:q’ my navel • na’k’it¬’oy [=‘something that he weaves’] gill net, seine near: xunding it is close, near by; xa:nde’n it got close; new: q’ung recently, just now, new (e.g., q’un-’isla:n xa’winde’n he got close [=‘recently-it was born’] ‘newborn infant’) • whino:ng’ay’-ding [=‘my extending to there-place’] news: ch’iniwh he hears about it, he gets the news; alongside of me, near to where I am, next to me k’iniwh what one hears about, news • whixehsta:n’-ding [=‘my reaching to there-place’] • xine:wh speech, talk, conversation beside me, close to me, within my reach newt: See SALAMANDER • xo’ji-mi¬tsahch (or xo’ji-mi¬tsahts’) just so far, to a next to: whiq’is next to me middling distance • mewhi¬nehs alongside of me neck: whiq’os my neck • mingwah (or mingah, miwah) at the edge of it, bor- • whiq’os-kin’-ding [=‘my neck-base-place’] the base dering it, beside it, (lying) next to it (e.g., xonteh¬-min- of my neck gwah ‘at the edge of the flat, clearing’ (placename)) • whiq’os-q’eh [=‘my neck-behind’] the nape of my neck • See also NEAR necklace: na’k’idilyay [=‘something made to go around nice: niwho:n good, nice, pretty; ’a:’u¬chwo:n how (neck)’] necklace of shells or beads nice he is! • na:k’idilya put on a necklace!; nickel: dita:n [=‘the thick one’] nickle (coin) na’k’idiwilya’ she put on a necklace niece: white:dilt’e’ my brother’s child (son or daughter • whisowo¬-yehwe:lay [=‘(around) my • wha:sch’e’ my sister’s daughter throat-I put (several objects) in’] I put night : xut¬’e’ (or xit¬’e’) night; xut¬’e’-ch’ing’ a necklace around my neck [=‘night-towards’] at night, in the night. See EVENING; • mida’ch dentalia shells that na’k’idilyay MIDNIGHT are too small for use as money, night falls: ’ilwi¬ it’s getting to be night, night is falling; worn as a decorative necklace wilwe:t¬’ night has come, night fell; na:lwe’t¬’ night needle: mi¬-wa’yo:s [=‘wwJh it-one pulls (thread) has come again. See DARK through’] needle night passes: xwe:ysxa:n [=‘it dawned on him’] he passed the night
  • 85. NIGHT, SPEND THE/NUTHATCH 66 night, spend the: xwe:lwe:t¬’ [=‘night fell on him’] not: do not (negative particle) (e.g., do:-niwho:n [=‘not- he spent the night (e.g., who¬-xwe:lwe:t¬’ ‘he spent the good] it isn’t good, it’s bad’; do:-ya’wing’ay [=‘not-he night with me’) sits’] ‘he doesn’t sit down’) nightingale: See CHAT • ’uná:ng’ [=‘’ung-’úng’ ‘is it?-it is’] it isn’t, it isn’t nine: miq’os-t’aw [= apparently ‘its neck- (standing) certain, it’s questionable (negative particle) (e.g., hay- apart from’] nine ’uná:ng’ ‘it is not that’) • miq’ost’awin nine people not at all: do:-heh (e.g., do:heh-teh¬chwe:n ‘it didn’t • miq’ost’ah-ding nine times grow at all’); do:-...heh (with verbal noun) no ...-ing ninety: miq’ost’ahdimin¬ung [= miq’-ost’ahding- (ever)! don’t ever ...! (e.g., do:-k’iwidya’ni-heh ‘no min¬ung ‘nine times-ten’] ninety eating! don’t ever eat!’) nipple: mi¬-yik’i¬t’ot [=‘with it-(baby) sucks’] nipple not long: do:-sa’a:y-mi¬ [=‘not-long-with, after’] (on bottle) it wasn’t long until... no: daw no! (exclamation) nothing: daywhe’eh (or diywhe’eh) nothing no one: dungwhe’eh no one nothing but: ¬a’ay-xw immediately, at once, right nod: ch’inehswil he dozed off, nodded off then; nothing but, only (e.g., ¬a’ayxw-ya’wingxits’ noise: je:sil-sa’a:n [=‘je:sil-lies there’] there is a noise, [=‘ ‘right then-she fell over’; ¬a’ayxw-dilxiji¬iqay ‘nothing rumbling sound, racket; je:sil-nowh’awh [=‘je:sil-I put [=‘je:sil-I je:sil but-white deerskins’) it down’] I make a noise, racket; je:sil-ch’i¬’a:n [=‘je: [=‘ notice: no:diwh’iwh I notice it; no:di¬’iwh notice it!; sil-he has it lying, possesses it’] he makes a noise no’de:neh¬’iwh he noticed it • nayts’ung’ (or naywints’a’n) a noise (is heard) november: do:-mide’xine:wh-mining [=‘not-they • dine something squeals, buzzes, makes a sound, talk about it-its month’] Late fall month; November (chicken) crows; diwine’ something made a sound (¶ This is a bad month to talk about. It is unlucky. In • dilwa:wh it is making noise (frog croaking, bird November they move back into the valley from acorn- singing); diwilwa:wh it (animal) made noise picking. They don’t pick acorns in November because • k’ido¬ it makes a loud sound in November and December acorns are left to the k’i¬we • xowin¬it-teh¬ there will be a sudden noise (‘evil spirits’), hence they don’t talk about it. In January • yik’its’a’ (animal) roars, makes a roaring noise; they pick acorns again, if any are left.) k’iwints’a’ he roared novice doctor: t’e:wing [= from t’e:wi-n ‘uncooked, • xo¬it there is a sudden sharp noise (like the report of raw-person’] a novice Indian doctor, one who has not a gun being fired, stomping feet) yet been fully “cooked” by the Kick Dance none: do:-xole:n there is none, there was none; now: q’ut now, already, still (e.g., q’ut-ch’iwiltong’il do:-ch’ixole:n he is gone, there is no more of him; ‘already-he was dancing’; q’ud-úng’-na:whay [=‘still- do:-xoliw [=‘not-it becomes plenty’] it is disappearing; it is-I go around’] ‘I’m still alive’) do:-xohsle’ it disappeared, it has gone, it got used up; now, just: jit just now (e.g., jit-do:’o:wdilung’ ‘just do:-xohsle’-te there will be none now-we quit work’) noon: de:dixwo-yinuqa-wing’a’-mi¬ [=‘this way- now, nowadays: de:di-ding [=‘this here-place, time’] upstream-(round object) comes to lie there-when’] nowadays, these days, today (¶ When the sun has risen to a point high in the sky to nude: kya’-’e:din [=‘dress-without’] nude, (woman) the south-southeast, around noon or a little before.) stripped of her dress: See NAKED north: de:-noho¬-yiduq-yide’ [=‘here-with us-uphill- numb: whik’ixoniwhe’-do:xole:n [=‘my feeling-is not’] (and) downstream’] north (¶ Not a cardinal direction; I am numb, have no feeling in my body; whik’ixoniwhe’- halfway between northeast (“uphill”) and northwest do:xohsle’ I went numb; whila’-do:-k’ixoniwh [‘my (“downstream”).) hand-not-it has feeling’] my hand is numb northeast: de:-noho¬-yiduq [=‘here-with us-uphill’] nurse: k’ise:ge’-me’liwh [=‘sick people-one who northeast (¶ One of the traditional cardinal directions; watches’] nurse in the general direction of the ridge behind Hostler nut: jiwa:k’isdixit’ [=‘what has loosened out of it’] ripe Ranch.) nut: See specific nuts: ACORN, HAZEL, PINE NUT nose: whinchwiwh my nose nuthatch: mije:w’xole:n-k’idi¬q’its’ [=‘Sugar pine-it • whinchwiwh-kin’-ding [=‘my nose-base-place’] the makes it crackle’] nuthatch, titmouse (Sitta carolinensis, butt of my nose White-breasted nuthatch; S. canadensis, Red-breasted nose plug: xonchwiwh-wa:ng’ay [=‘his nose-it sticks nuthatch; Parus inornatus, Plain titmouse) through’] nose plug, nose ornament (¶ A bone or stick • nisking-mina:k’iwiltsil [= ? ‘tall conifer-it moves worn through the nose. Not used by the Hupas, but worn around it squatting, pointing its rump’] another term by Indians living further north. In Baumhoff, p. 214.) for nuthatch nostril: whinchwiwh-yehky’a’a:n [=‘my nose-hole into’] my nostril
  • 86. O oak: k’inehst’a:n tan oak, tan-bark oak (Quercus densi- • ’a:xo¬chwin there is an odor, something smells; ’a: flora) (¶ primary source of acorns for the Hupas.) xowi¬chwe’n an odor came, something began to smell; • ni¬tuq (or ’i¬tuq) [=‘between each other’ (i.e., they ’a:na:xo¬chwin-ts’eh [=‘there is an odor again-it is grow in clumps)] Black oak perceived’] I smell it again, I small a lingering odor (Quercus kelloggii, or Quercus • ’islos it is rotten, stinks, has the smell of rotten meat californica) (¶ Acorns not as oh my: ch’iyo oh my! (exclamation indicating surprise, esteemed as those of the tanoak, (mild) fear); ch’iyo:xw-dinéh my goodness! but eaten when necessary.) oily: See GREASY • k’ing’kya:w White oak, Post okay: xa’ all right! okay! (exclamation); quickly oak (Quercus garryana) (¶ Acorns k’inehst’a:n (e.g., xa’-k’inyung ‘okay, eat!’; xa’-na’way [=‘quick- sometimes eaten.) ly-he goes’] ‘he’s a fast walker’) • me:l’-ta:n (or me:l’dita:n) [= old: siwhdiya:n I am old; sindiya:n you are old; probably from me’ile’-dita:n ‘its (evergreen) leaves-are ts’isdiya:n he is old; k’isdiya:n someone who is old, thick’] Live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) (¶ Acorns not eaten.) old person, elder; ’iwhdiya’n I’m growing old; ’indi- oats, wild: t¬’ohday’ pinole, wild oats yung’ get old!; do:-ch’idya’n he doesn’t get old obsidian, flint: to:nehwa:n [=‘water-it resembles’, • k’iwungxoya:n old man i.e., ‘dark black’] black obsidian, in particular the • do:k’iwile [=‘someone who is poor, weak’] old woman large, ceremonial blades of black obsidian carried by • k’inehsya:n older people, adults, grown-up principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance generation • tse:l-nehwa:n [=‘blood-it resembles’, i.e., ‘red’] red old maid: See UMARRIED obsidian, in particular the large, ceremonial blades of old man: k’iwungxoya:n (or k’iwingxoya:n) old man red obsidian carried by principal dancers in the White old person: k’isdiya:n someone who is old, old person, Deerskin Dance elder; k’isdiyun [= from k’isdiya:n-ni ‘old person- • tse:-xah¬-te:l [=‘rock-xah¬-flat’] flat, round obsid- people’] old people, elders (collectively) ian rock, resembling a ceremonial obsidian blade but old woman: do:k’iwile [=‘someone who is poor, circular (mentioned in myths) weak’] old woman obsidian bearers: xoje:wung-na’dil [=‘xoje:wung- older: hay-ch’ingkya:w [=‘the-one who is big’] the older they go around’] the dance performed by the principal of two (e.g., brothers); hay-xo’-ch’ingkya:w [=‘the- dancers in the White Deerskin Dance as they carry the truly-one who is big’] the oldest of them all ceremonial obsidian blades on: miq’it on it, on top of it, resting on it; whiq’it on me, obsidian point: dahk’is’a:n [=‘(a specific round on my head, body; ’i¬q’it (piled) on top of each other; object) lies on top’] or dahk’islay [=‘(several specific miq’ich’ing’ [= miq’it-ch’ing’ ‘on it-toward’] onto it objects) lie on top’] arrowhead(s), obsidian point(s) once: ¬ah once, one time, one (instance of) (e.g., xwe: obviously: ’unt’eh clearly na:ya:’ulwil-¬ah [=‘they stay overnight-once’] ‘they ocean: to any body of water; the ocean stay one night’) • to:-dingqoch’ [=‘water-sour’] salt water; ocean once, at: ¬a’ay-xw immediately, at once, right then; • miwung (or mowung, mowing, mungung) ocean nothing but, only (e.g., ¬a’ayxw-ya’wingxits’ ‘right (used only in placenames and phrases) then-she fell over’; ¬a’ayxw-dilxiji¬iqay ‘nothing but- • to:-no:ng’a:-ding [=‘water-reaches to there-place’] white deerskins’) the edge of the ocean, beach, shore one: ¬a’ one occupied with: wung-na:’usya’ [=‘for that purpose- • ¬iwun one person he went around’] he busied himself doing it, he was one place, in: ¬a’ay-ding in one place, together, in occupied with it; wung-na’dil they are busy with it, one bunch (e.g., ’aht’ing-¬a’ayding-no:na’ningxa:n are occupied with it ‘all-in one place-he set (containers) down’; te:se:de: odor: whikyo:n’ my odor, body odor; mikyo:n’ (ani- t¬’-¬a’ayding ‘we went off-together’) mal’s) scent, the smell of something onion: mikyo:n’-ni¬chwin [=‘its odor-stinks’] onions
  • 87. ONLY/OVERPOWER 68 o n ly : whung (or wha:ne) just, only, alone ouch: ’ugeh ouch! it hurts! (exclamation) (e.g., jingkyohding-wha:ne-k’it¬’oy [=‘in the daytime- our: noh- (possessive prefix) our, your (plural) (e.g., noh- only-one weaves’; mixa:ch’e’xole:n-whung-k’isxa:n xontaw’ ‘our house; your (plural) house’) ‘incense root-only-grew there’; daydi-whung [=‘what?- out: ch’e:- out of an enclosure, outside the house (verb only’] ‘is there anything at all?’) prefix): ch’ing’awh [=‘move (round object) out of an • ¬ah-xw [=‘once-at’] merely, just, only, (in an) ordi- enclosure, outside (a house)!’] take it (e.g., stone) out of nary (way) (e.g., ¬ahxw-’e:n’-’a:xo¬diwhne [=‘just, something (e.g., a pocket), take it outside (of the house); merely-it was-I was telling her’] ‘I was merely telling ch’e’ning’a:n he took it out; ch’e:na’ning’a:n take her a story, I was just talking’) it back out (something that had been put in, brought • ¬a’ay-xw immediately, at once, right then; nothing but, in); ch’e:wha:wh I’m going outside, I’m going to the only (e.g., ¬a’ayxw-ya’wingxits’ ‘right then-she fell bathroom; ch’e:ninyahwh go outside!; ch’e’na:wh he over’; ¬a’ayxw-dilxiji¬iqay ‘nothing but-white deerskins’) goes outside; ch’e’ninyay he went out; ch’e:ya’ninde: open: na:tintse open it (door, window)!; na:te:se:tse I t¬’ they all went outside; ch’e:wiling it (water) flows out opened it (door, window) (e.g., creek into river, river into ocean, faucet, hose) • ya¬whot open the window! slide it up!; ya’wi¬whot’ out of the ground: xa:- up out (of the ground) (verb he slid it up, opened the window prefix): xung’awh [=‘move (round object) up out of opposite: whima:n-ch’ing’ [=‘across from me-toward’] the ground’] take it (e.g., stone) out of the ground! dig opposite me, across from me; xoma:n-ch’ing’ opposite o it up!; xa’wing’a:n he took it out of the ground; xa: him; ’i¬ma:n-ch’ing’ opposite each other, facing each na’wing’a:n he took it back out of the ground (some- other, on opposite sides of something thing that had been buried), dig it back up (e.g., disinter • whima’n across from me, opposite me (equivalent to a corpse); xa:na:wh (pain) comes out (on one’s body); whima:n-ch’ing’); ’i¬ma’n across from each other xa:nyay (pain) came out; xa:nawhda:wh I came (back) • yima:n’ch’ing’ [= from yima:n-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘across- up out of a hole side-toward’] on the other side (of the stream), on the out of the water: tah- out of the water, out of the fire opposite side (verb prefix): tah’ing’awh take it (e.g., stone) out of • milah opposite to it, in a contrary way; na:-milah o the water! take it out of the fire!; tahts’is’a:n he took [=‘again-opposite to it’] opposite to it (e.g., na:milah- it out of the water; tahna:’us’a:n he took it back out of ’a:ch’idyaw [=‘opposite to it-he does it so’] ‘he does the water (something that had been put into the water); things in a contrary way, breaks rules’) tahch’ina:wh he comes out of the water, fire; (the danc- or: -tah (‘among’, used metaphorically) either...or... ers) come out of the dance; tahts’isyay he came out of (e.g., nahdin-tah ta:q’idin-tah [=‘two times-or three the water; (dancers) came out of the dance times-or’] ‘either two times or three times’) out of the way: tiloy’ [=‘lead (horse) off with a rope!] orange: xong’-nehwa:n [=‘fire-it resembles’] orange get out of the way! give room! make way! (color) outhouse: me’-ch’e’na:wh [=‘in it-one goes outside’] • diltsow orange-colored, brown, the color of summer outhouse, (inside) bathroom deerhide outlet: mich’a’ah its (river’s) mouth, outlet order to, in: -ming in order to, so that (e.g., wunna: outside: min’day’ outside the house, outdoors; se:ya’-’iwhkidi-ming [=‘I busied myself-I catch it-in min’day’-q’ on the outside order to’] ‘I tried to catch it’; xiniwhye:wh-ming ‘in over: mitis (moving) over it; xotis (moving) over him, order to talk’) over his head (e.g., whitis-ch’iteh¬to’n ‘he jumped ordinary: ¬ah-xw [=‘once-at’] merely, just, only, (in over me’; ninis’a:n-mitis-wa:nun’diwinde:t¬’ ‘they an) ordinary (way) (e.g., ¬ahxw-’e:n’-’a:xo¬diwhne went over the mountain’); k’itise (or k’itise:-xw) [=‘just, merely-it was-I was telling her’] ‘I was merely [=‘(moving) over things’] smart, ambitious, capable, telling her a story, I was just talking’) superior (e.g., k’itise:xwo-’a:wht’e ‘I am smart’) oregon grape: xots’ine-mi¬-ya’mil [=‘his legs-with it- over, turn: k’ich’ing’ [=‘towards something’] tipped one throws [a rope] up’] Oregon grape (Berberis nervosea) over, turned to one side, upside down oriole: da’kya:w [= probably (mi)da’-(ni)kya:w ‘(its) overalls: yehk’ixowilt’ow [=‘the things that are slipped mouth, beak-is big’] oriole (Icterus cucullatus, Hooded into’] overalls; pants oriole; I. galbula, Northern oriole) overnight, to stay: See NIGHT, TO SPEND THE orphan: chweh-xosin [=‘crying-it is’] orphan overpower: nich’owhte I feel stronger than you, I over- • ts’a’-xosin [=‘ts’a’-it is’] orphan, a pitiful person power you; which’o:’o¬te he feels stronger than me; ’a: osprey: da:ch’aht-ya:n [=‘sucker-eater’] osprey dich’owhte [=‘I overpower myself’] I am bashful otter: ¬o:q’-yiditile [=‘fish-it relishes’] river otter (Lutra • xono’xine:wh he overpowers him (with words), talks canadensis) bad luck into him, wishes him dead; whino:xiniwinye:
  • 88. 69 OVERPOWER/OWNED LAND wh you have overpowered me; do:xoling-xono:xine: is stingy’] Timber owl (Strix occidentalis, Spotted owl) wh it isn’t possible to overpower him • k’intiyo:di-ch [=‘it chases, stalks (deer)-(diminu- overtake: no:na:xo¬tiwh [=‘put him back down’] tive)’] Pigmy owl (Glaucidium) overtake him!; no:na’whini¬te:n he overtook me. See own: nawh’ay [=‘I carry (round object) around’] I have CATCH UP it (e.g. stone), own it; na’ay he has it; na:y’a’ I came owl, types of: to have it, acquired it, got it, bought it; na’wing’a’ • tintah-ningxa’t’e:n [=‘in the woods-the boss’] he came to have it; na:na’wing’a’ he came to have it largest owl again, bought it back (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) misgilo medium-sized owl (Bubo virginianus, Great • nawhte [=‘I carry (living object) around’] I keep, own Horned owl) (an animal); na:’u¬te he keeps, owns it (CLASSIFICATORY • minilohts Hoot owl, smallest owl VERB) • mining’-me:q’e’ [=‘its face-inside it’] Screech owl owned land: xayah fishing claim, fishing place at an (Otus asio) eddy or other favorable spot, owned by a man and his • mida:n’-sa’a:n [=‘its hoarded food-lies there,’ i.e., ‘it family (e.g., whixayaw’ ‘my fishing claim’)
  • 89. P pack: xeh¬ pack, load (in a basket) • q’ay’nehs painted marks on the face or body (¶ Long pack, carry as: yungwiwh pack it! carry it as a vertical marks; the commonest body-painting design.) pack!; ya’winge:n [= from ya’wingwe:n] he packed it; pal: See FRIEND ya’k’iwinge:n he packed it on his back (CLASSIFICATORY palm-down: yiwi-dimit [=‘under-bellied’] (animal, VERB) person) with its belly down, (glass, etc.) with its open pack along: wiwhwe:l I pack something along, end down, (hand) with palm down carry something along as a pack; ch’e:we:l he palm-up: yiduq-dimit [=‘uphill-bellied’] (animal, packs it along; ch’ixwe:we:l he packs him along person) with its belly up, (glass, etc.) with its open end (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) up, (hand) with palm up pack around: na’we he packs it around, carries pan: k’iwa:t large rough-woven basketry pan, winnowing it around as a pack; na:se:we’ I packed it around tray (approximately 2 feet across and 4 to 6 inches (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) deep); any large pan pack lies: siwe:n it (pack, load) lies there • q’ay’-te:l [=‘q’ay’-wide, flat’] shallow pan or plate (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) of open-work basketry, lined with ferns and used for pack train: tin-nah¬’awh [=‘(on the) trail-(animals) serving food move around, roam, travel’] pack train • me’-de’di¬iw [=‘in it-dough is put into the fire’] frying paddle: k’it’o:w paddle (for canoe) pan, pan where you put bread to cook • mi¬-ta’k’imil [=‘with it-someone stirs’] paddle for panther: See MOUNTIAN LION stirring acorns while cooking (¶ Goddard L&C p. 29, pants: xots’ine’-yehk’iwilt’ow [=‘his leg-it is slipped figure 3.) in’] pants, leggings • mi¬-te:w-na’k’iqot [=‘with • yehk’ixowilt’ow [=‘the things that are slipped into’] it-in the water-he pokes some- overalls, pants thing around’] paddle for parasite: See LOUSE stirring acorn mush while parch (seeds): na’k’i¬quch (or -qich) he is parching, cooking (another term for mi¬- roasting (seeds, corn, coffee, etc.); na’k’isquch he has mi¬-ta’k’imil ta’k’imil) parched them paddle, to: k’iwht’oh I’m • k’i¬t’ets’ roast, parch the seeds!; k’iseh¬t’e:ts’ I paddling (a canoe); k’int’oh paddle!; k’e:t’ow I have parched the seeds (¶ Throw charcoal into a pan-basket paddled (k’iwa:t) and shake it up and down with the seeds.) pain: dinch’a:t it aches, is sore parent: whik’isdiyun’ [=‘my old person’] my parent, • na:k’iqot [=‘something pokes around’] pain is felt, parents; whik’isdiyun’-ne’in [=‘my old person-used there is a stab of pain (e.g., xokyunsa’a:n-me’-na:k’iqot to be’] my deceased parent, parents [=‘his heart-in-pain stabs’] ‘he has a pain in his heart’) part: ’e:ng’ for...’s part (emphatic particle) (e.g., whe:- • sinsing “pain;” disease-causing entity that is believed ’e:n’ ‘as for me, for my part’; yowi-’e:n [=‘for that to be sucked out by an Indian doctor one’s part’] ‘on the other hand, for instance’); ’e:ná: • ninis’a:n-me’-yitiliwh [=‘the world-in-it carries them ng’ [=’e:ng’-’úng’ ‘for ...’s part-it is’] for sure (em- along’] “pains” which are only shown in the Kick- phatic particle) Dance (not sucked out of people) part hair: je:na:k’iliwh [=‘put (several objects) apart paint: k’iwh¬iw I’m painting something, spreading again’] part your hair (in the middle)!; je:na’k’ilay (paint), smearing something (with paint); k’in¬eh she parted her hair paint!; k’iwin¬iw he painted pass: wiwina around me, (passing) around me, half-way paint (face or body): xong’-’a:diwh’e:n [=‘(with) around me (passing me by); miwina around it (passing it fire (i.e., soot)-I do it to myself’] I fix myself up for a by) (e.g., xowina:-xe’inyahwh ‘go around him! pass him ceremony, put on face or body paint by!’; k’iwina:-xe’e:n¬a:t ‘(dog) ran around the corner’) • mi¬-xong’a’di¬’e:n [=‘with it-he fixes himself up’] • midi¬wa different from it, moving on to another face or body paint made from soot mixed with marrow from it; xodi¬wa different from him, moving on past • ¬iwhin [=‘black’] black paint, made with charcoal him (e.g., midi¬wa:-’a:diwe:ne’ [=‘different from it-she
  • 90. 71 PASS/PICKET mentioned’] ‘she mentioned something else, she went people: -xwe [=‘the ones who are at (that place)’] the on to talk about another thing’; whidi¬wa:-ch’e’ningyay people of... (e.g., me’dil-xwe ‘the people of me’dil- [=‘moving on past me-he came out’] ‘he passed me on ding’; xwe:y¬q’it-xwe [=‘Redwood Ridge-the people his way out’) of’] ‘the Redwood Indians, Chilula’). See also PERSON past: -dung’ just past (e.g., xonsi¬-dung’ ‘summer-just pepper: xosah-na:lit [=‘his mouth-it burns’] pepper past; last summer’; wi¬dun’-dung’ [=‘yesterday-just pepperwood: See LAUREL past’] ‘the day before yesterday’) peppery: dinch’e:k’ it is hot-tasting, peppery, gin- • ne’in used to (do, be), was ...-ing (past tense) gery; diwinch’e:k’ it has gotten hot-tasting, it has (e.g., k’itawhtsid-ne’in ‘I used to soak (acorns), I had gone sour been soaking them’; whima:lyo’-ne’in ‘my former percieve: -ts’eh feel, taste, be perceived (so)(suffix) friends’; whichwo:-ne’in ‘my late grandmother’) (e.g., ¬ixun-ts’eh ‘it tastes good, sweet’; k’isiwhdile:- patient: k’ise:ge’ he is ill, incapaciated, sick in bed, a ts’eh ‘I feel cold, freezing’; ch’iskis-ts’eh [=‘he doctor’s patient; k’iwhse:ge’ I am ill; k’e:se:ge’-ts’eh knocked-it was perceived’] ‘someone was heard knock- I feel that I’ve become ill ing (at the door)’) paw: mixe’ its paw, track perhaps: do:-tah [=‘not-among’] (or do:-de’-tah • mi¬-na:tul [=‘with it-it steps around’] (animal’s) paw [=‘not-in the future-among’]) perhaps, maybe pay: xola’-ch’a’awh [=‘(in) his hand-he puts (a round person, people: k’iwinya’n-ya:n [=‘acorn-eater’] object)’] he pays him; whila’-’ing’awh pay me!; person, people, Indians k’ila’-ch’iwing’a:n he paid someone, he paid up; pest: mining’-tehs’ay [=‘its face-sticks out’] pest, pesky xola’-wid’a:n he has been paid person. pay attention: miq’eh-nawh’ay [=‘after it-I carry it pestle: me’ist [= probably from me’-k’itsit ‘in it-pound- around’] I mind it, heed it, pay attention to it; miq’eh- ing’] pestle, used to pound acorns (¶ Goddard L&C nung’a mind it!; miq’eh-na:’us’a’ he minded it; p. 29.) whida’-q’eh-na:’us’a’ [=‘my mouth (i.e., words)-he • mi¬-k’itsit [=‘with it-someone pounds acorns’] rock minded’] he minded me, paid attention to me; xoda’- used to crack acorns q’eh-nung’a mind him! • mi¬-k’i¬dik’ [=‘with it-she cracks acorns’] darkish • hayixwo-niwhsin [=‘in that way-I think!’] I pay rock, about 8 inches long, used to crack acorns attention; hayixwo-ninsing pay attention!; do:-hay- pet: ¬ing’ pet animal, dog, horse (whilink’e’ my pet) ixwo-ch’o:ne he doesn’t pay attention; hayixwo- pet, have a: seh¬day I have (a pet) living with me, I ch’ondehsne’ he paid attention own (a pet); ch’i¬day he has a pet peak: nehsnoy they (e.g., mountains) stand there, stick pheasant: See GROUSE up in peaks. See MOUNTAIN phew: mawh it stinks! phew! (exclamation) peck: yi¬dik’ it (bird) pecks at something; yisdik’ it piano: miq’i(t)xwo-na’k’ile [= ‘around on it-he moves pecked; k’i¬dik’-kyoh [=‘what pecks at things-big’] his hand’] piano red-headed woodpecker pick: k’ime pick them (fruit, berries, acorns)! gather peel: wundiwhsits’ I’m peeling (bark, skin) off, I’m skin- them!; k’iwime’ he picked them; na:k’ime pick them ning it; wundi¬sits’ peel it off! wun’di¬sits’ he’s peel- up!; na’k’iwime’ he picked them up ing it off; wun’diwi¬sits’ he peeled it off; wundidsits’ pick up: yawh’awh [=‘I move (round object) upward, (skin) peels off; wundiwidsits’ it peeled off up from the ground’] I pick it up (e.g., stone), raise • k’i¬ch’iwh peel it! strip it off!; k’isch’iwh he peeled it; it up; yung’awh pick it up!; ya’wing’a:n he picked yik’isch’iwh it (deer) peeled (velvet from its horns) it up; ya:nung’awh pick it back up (after putting it • wundi¬ch’ut’ peel off bark (from a tree or bush whose down)!; ya:na’wing’a:n he picked it back up (CLAS- bark comes off easily)!; wun’diwi¬ch’ut’ he peeled it off SIFICATORY VERB) pelican: tehk’ixo¬qowh-kyoh (or tehk’i¬qowh-kyoh) pick up (acorns): ky’a:dawhne I’m picking up, gath- [=‘it spears into the water-big’] pelican (Pelecanus) ering (acorns, apples, round objects); ky’a:dayne pick • dondol-kyoh [=‘dondol-big’] a large ocean bird; up (acorns)!; ky’a:da’ne she is picking up (acorns); pelican (?) ky’a:da:ne:-xosin acorn-gathering is happening; pelvis: whiqe:ch’e’ my hip, pelvis ky’a:da:yne’ I picked up (acorns); ky’a:da’we:ne’ • whit¬’a’-ts’ing’ [=‘my buttocks-bone’] my hip, pelvis she picked up acorns pen, pencil: mi¬-’a’k’i¬’e:n [=‘with it-one writes’] picket: k’ite:lwe:l pickets, stakes driven into the river, pencil, pen in a fish dam (¶ Made of split pine. Grape vines are penis: whe:dze’ my penis, male genitals woven and tied across the pickets to make a barrier penny: ¬itso:wits [=‘the blue/green one (diminutive)’] for the fish.) penny
  • 91. PICTURE, TAKE A/PLAY 72 picture, take a: ’a:na:k’ixowh’e:n [=‘I mark him pitcher: k’iti¬tsil baseball pitcher around’] I take a picture of him; ’a:na’k’iwhilaw he pitchwood: jeh-k’iya:ts’e’ [=‘pitch-k’iya:ts’e’’] pitch- took a picture of me; ’a:na:k’iwhileh take a picture wood; jeh-mil [=‘pitch-mil’] pitchwood of fir of me! pitiful: ’e:wa:k how sad! it’s so pitiful! (exclamation) pie: me’-si¬iq’ [=‘in it-(dough-like object) lies’] pie, pity: wung-xoje’-ch’o:nda’ [=‘concerning it-his mind- anything dough-like or mud-like in a container gets weak’] he has pity, pities someone pig: ¬iq’a:w-miwhxiy’ (or ¬iq’a:w-misxiy’) [=‘hog-its • ’e:wa:k-whonde:ne have pity on me! [=‘’e:wa:k- young one’] pig, piglet. See HOG think towards me’]; ’e:wa:k-ch’iwhondehsne’ he had pigeon: xa:yont pigeon (Columba fasciata, band-tailed pity on me pigeon) place: -ding at that place, at that time (locative) (e.g., pigeon berry: king’onq’ots pigeon berries (?) (Rham- xontah-ding nus sp., buckthorn, cascara) [=‘house-at pigmy owl: k’intiyo:di-ch [=‘it chases, stalks deer- (place)’] ‘at the (diminutive)’] pigmy owl house, at home’; pile up: dahyik’i¬jeh (driftwood) is piling up; hay-me’de:din- dahyik’i¬je:w driftwood. See CROWD IN ding [=‘the-she pillow: See HEADREST wants it-at’] ‘the xontah-ding pinch: diwhtik I’m pinching it; xodi¬tik pinch him!; place where she whide:¬tik you pinched me. See also SQUEEZE wants to go’; pine, types of: dilchwe:k Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- xoda:nya:-ding [=‘(sun) went down-at’] ‘the time when derosa); dilchweh-ch [=‘ponderosa pine-(diminutive)’] the sun has gone down, after the sun has set’) small Ponderosa pine, Yellow pine • whe:-ding [=‘me-at’] at my place, where I am; • na:de’t¬’ Digger pine, Bull pine (Pinus sabiniana); nin-ding at your place; xon-ding at his place, at her pine nuts place • na:de’t¬’-tse’ch [=‘Digger pine-tse’-(diminutive)’] -xoh at, in...places (with numerals) (e.g., ¬a’a-xoh jack pine, small sugar pine ‘at one place’; nah-xoh ‘in two places’; ta:q’i-xoh ‘in • mije:w’-xole:n [=‘its pitch-there is plenty’] sugar three places’); -xowe:-ding located at, in...places (with pine (Pinus lambertiana) numerals) (e.g., nah-xowe:-ding ‘located at both places, pine nut: na:de’t¬’ pine nuts; Digger pine on both sides’) • mije:w’xole:n-mina:de’t¬’ [= ‘sugar pine-its pine placenta: See AFTERBIRTH nuts’] Sugar pine nuts plank: See BOARD • See also PINE plant (unidentified): tse:wun’unt’e edible plant (sp.) pinole: See OATS with big leaves pipe: king’a:gya:n (traditional) pipe for smoking plant (seeds): no:k’injich [=‘lay it (specific granular tobacco substance) down!’] plant! (seeds, potatoes, etc.); no: • me’-yehk’iwta:n [=‘in it-it is me’-yehk’iwta:n k’ine:jich I have planted them; no:k’iwijich [=‘what stuck in’] soapstone bowl of a has been planted’] garden pipe plate: me’-ky’a:n [=‘in it-someone eats’] plates, cups • yehk’iwilda’ [=‘it (living and other dishes one eats from being) has been put in there’] • q’ay’te plate or platter of open-work basketry, sifting an older term for the bowl in king’a:gya:n basket (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 41, and Plate 21, figure a pipe (indicating that it was 2.) considered to be “alive”) • See also DISHES • k’iwiloy’ Indian doctor’s kit, i.e., condor-feather platform: min’dayq’ (on the) stone platform in front of and pipe a living house (xontah) (¶ Goddard L&C p. 14; Plate piss: See URINATE; URINE 2, figure 1; and Plate 12, figure 1. Curtis, p. 11, and pitch: jeh pitch, tar (mije:w’ its pitch) illustration between pp. 12-13.) • na:na:k’iwhjeh I’m going to pitch, tar something; • dahji¬ storage platform in a living house (¶ Above the na:na’k’iwinje:w he pitched, tarred something house-pit but inside the outer walls. Goddard L&C p. 15.) • See also GLUE; STICKY • See also FISHING PLATFORM pitch (in baseball): k’iti¬tsi¬ throw, toss (a rock)! platter: See PLATE pitch the ball! (in baseball); k’ite:seh¬tse:t¬’ I threw play: ts’iwhla:n I’m playing (ballgame, tag, some (a rock), I pitched (the ball); k’iti¬tsil [=‘he throws physical sport); ts’ilung play!; ts’ila:n he’s play- (a rock), pitches (a ball)’] pitcher (in baseball) ing; ya’ts’ila:n they are playing; ts’e:la’n I played; ts’iwila’n he played
  • 92. 73 PLAY/POTATO • nawhne:l I’m playing (a game, with toys, etc.); poisonous plant: k’iyo:y poisonous mushroom, nayneh¬ play!; na:ya’ne:l they (children) are playing; poisonous plant, anything dangerous or poisonous na’we:ne:l he played; na:dne:l children’s play, play- poke: ’ingqot poke it (with pointed stick, finger)!; ing; do:-na:dne:li-heh don’t play! xongqot poke him!; nise:qot I poked you; na’qot he • ch’idi¬ne he plays (a musical instrument); ya’di¬ne pokes around, goes around with a pointed stick, pole; they (orchestra) are playing music; de:¬ne’ I played it na:’usqot he poked around. See INDIAN DEVIL (instrument) pole: k’ining’ay poles running over the fire in a living pleased: ts’ehdiya I’m happy, glad, pleased house (¶ Used for smoking fish and venison.) Pleiades: ¬a:n-¬ilt’ik’ [=‘many-squeezed together’] The • dahniwil’e:t¬’ (or dahniwil’a’) [=‘they extend across Pleiades, “Seven Sisters” (constellation) atop’] ridge poles (or ridge pole) in a living house plenty: xole:n it is plentiful, they are plentiful, there is • min’-ch’e:ng’a:ding [=‘ming’-where it sticks out’] lots of (something) (e.g., whe:y-xole:n [=‘my posses- side pole running the length of a house, suppporting sions-are plentiful’] ‘I have lots of things, am rich’; the roof (¶ For ming’- see BACK (OF HOUSE).) mije:w’-xole:n [=‘its pitch-is plentiful’] ‘sugar pine’); • kin-jiwolch [=‘stick-round (diminutive)’] pole, xowh¬e:n I have plenty of it; ch’ixo¬e:n he has plenty; rounded stick (esp. those used in the Jump Dance do:-xole:n [=‘not-there is plenty’] there is none; do:- fence) xohsle’ it became none, it disappeared • See also FISHING POLE plop: k’ich’ong there is a sound like a rock falling into police: k’i¬kit [=‘he catches something’] policeman, water, it plops; k’iwinch’o:n it plopped sheriff pneumonia: ¬itsow-tehsyay [=‘green matter-moves’] pollute: See SPOIL pneumonia or pleurisy ponderosa: See PINE point: ta:ng’a:-ding [=‘it extends into the water-place’] poor: do:wile [= from do:-wile ‘not-it is enough’] (he) point of land, peninsula is poor, weak; do:k’iwile [=‘someone who is poor, • milay’ point (of an arrow), tip (of a tree), summit weak’] old woman; do:we:se:le’ I came not to have • ch’ildime:n’ the sharp end of something; sharp-pointed enough (money), went bankrupt; do:wehsle’ he went • dahk’is’a:n [=‘(a specific round object) lies on top’] bankrupt or dahk’islay [=‘(several specific objects) lie on top’] pop: k’i¬muq’ it makes a popping noise, pops something; arrowhead(s), obsidian point(s) k’iseh¬muq’ I made a popping noise, popped it point at: ’o¬chwit point at it!; xo¬chwit point at him!; porcupine: ky’oh porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum); ch’o:¬chwit he pointed at it; ’o:y¬chwit I pointed at it; porcupine quills (¶ Porcupine xo:y¬chwit I pointed at him; ky’o:y¬chwit I pointed quills, usually dyed yellow, at something were used to ornament basket pointed toward: -ditse’ (or -tse’) pointed toward, hats, and also to pierce the ears headed toward (in various phrases): yiduqa-ditse’ for earrings.) pointed up, headed up(hill); ts’ehdiwi-tse’ pointed possessions: whe:y my pos- downward, upside down sessions; xwe:y his possessions points (on antlers): ¬a’-tehs’ay [=‘one-it extends out possible, not: do:-xoling it ky’oh along’] spike, deer with single-pointed antler; ta:q’i- isn’t possible, one can’t, one tehs’ay [=‘three-it extends out along’] three-pointer; shouldn’t (e.g., do:xolin-na:whda:wh ‘I can’t come dink’i-tehs’ay four-pointer (¶ This is the Hupa way back’; do:xoling-’idich’it ‘it’s impossible for us to die’; of counting spikes. White people add the eye-guard, do:xolin-te:siwh’e’n ‘I couldn’t look’) so that an Indian four-pointer would be a White five- • daw-sho’ it’s impossible! (exclamation); daw-sho’- pointer.) ts’eh I can’t do it! (I feel that) it’s too hard for me! poison: mi¬-xosa’awh [=‘with it-someone puts post: k’it’a’a¬chwe posts supporting the inner door of (round object) in his mouth’] someone poisons him, a living house poisoning happens; mi¬-xosung’awh poison him!; pot: mi¬to:y any basket large enough to cook in; (modern) mi¬-whisa’wing’a:n he poisoned me; mi¬-xosa:y’a:n pot, a round, fairly deep cooking vessel with a handle I poisoned him (¶ Goddard, L&C, pp. 28, 41:2, and Plate 15.) • ch’ixo:ni¬yo:l [=‘he blows at him’] “bad medicine,” potato: yineh-taw [=‘underground-the one that is witchcraft poison which cannot be cured by an Indian around, at’] Indian potato (¶ General term for various doctor edible roots, tubers.) • k’idongxwe “deviling,” witchcraft poison which can • ’isle’t’e:n a type of Indian potato (¶ Grows at be cured by an Indian doctor ch’e’indiqot-ding, on the west side of the Trinity River poision oak: k’e:k’ilye:ch’ Poison oak (Rhus diver- (see map). It is taboo (miy) and you must not touch it siloba) in the spring.)
  • 93. POTATO BUG/PUBERTY, GIRL REACHES 74 potato bug: tse:-k’i¬je:n [=‘stone-bright, shining’] pretty: ch’iniwho:n (or ch’inwho:n) [=‘she is good’] she potato bug is pretty; do:-niwhongwx-ch’iniwho:n [=‘not-in (just) pound: ’iwhtsit I’m pounding, smashing, breaking a pretty way-she is pretty’] she is extremely pretty it (with a rock, maul); ’intsit pound it!; we:tsit I • ’a¬chwo:n it is pretty (¶ also used as exclama- pounded it tion: “How pretty!”); ’a:ni¬chwo:n you are pretty; • k’iwhtsi¬ I’m pounding it lightly, hammering it, hitting ’a:’a¬chwo:n she is pretty; ’a’niwi¬chwo’n she got to it (with a rock, maul); k’i¬tsi¬ pound it!; k’iseh¬tse:t¬’ be pretty I have pounded it • ch’inso:n she’s pretty (¶ Diminutive form of • k’i¬q’ahs pound, drive (e.g., stakes) with a rock!; ch’inwho:n, used in an affectionate and joking way.) k’iseh¬q’a:s I pounded it with a rock prey: ¬iydiliw it (animal) kills something (as prey); pound acorns: k’iwhtsit I’m pounding acorns; k’intsit ¬e’diliw he kills something, he murders someone; ¬e: pound acorns!; k’iwintsit she pounded acorns dileh kill something!; ¬e:de:liw I killed something, pour: na:di¬wa¬ pour (the water)! spill (the things)! someone. See ATTACK na’deh¬wa:t¬’ he poured it, spilled them; na:diwilwa: priest: ch’idilye:-ch’i¬chwe [=‘religious dance-the one t¬’ what has been poured, dumped (e.g. no’k’ingxa: who makes it’] (or ch’ixo¬chwe [=‘the one who fixes n-mitse:’ na:diwilwa’t¬’-ding ‘Acorn Feast-its stones- (the place) up’]) the man who prepares the dance- they have been dumped-place’, i.e., ‘the place where the ground for the religious dances (ch’idilye), says the cooking stones from the Acorn Feast have been piled up’) prayers, and otherwise looks after the details of the powder: miwidwa:de’ [=‘its acorn flour’] powder; dust ceremony (¶ In the anthropological literature on the of something World Renewal Ceremonies of northwest California power: whixonse:l’ [=‘my heat’] my sweat, my (Indian this term is translated as “priest” or “formulist.” The doctor’s) power ch’ixo¬chwe is sometimes (but not always) the same • xwa:-’a:neh [=‘for her-it speaks’] a doctor’s power, as the ma:na’way (‘leader’) of the Hostler Ranch side that speaks through her in the dancing.) • miy powerful place or object (usually a rock) which prize: ¬iy bet, stakes, prize (e.g., mi¬iy’-k’iwilchwe:n ‘the must not be touched unless you want it to rain stakes-have been set’) prairie: xonteh¬ flat, prairie prongs: ¬iqiwh it is pronged, forked pray: xo¬-te:lit [=‘with him-it burned’] he prayed, made • k’i¬ts’os-nehwa:n [=‘Indian Paintbrush (a flowering medicine for luck (¶ In this kind of praying, you put med- bush)-it resembles’] prongs (ceremonial headgear) icine roots (usually angelica) into a fire and talk to it.) (¶ A piece of deer sinew split into three prongs and • ma:-de:diwh’awh [=‘for it-I put (round object) into trimmed with redheaded woodpecker scalps; worn stuck the fire’] I burn incense root (angelica) in the fire and into a rolled headband (te:lma:s-wilchwe:n). Used in pray (at a ceremony); ma:-de:ding’awh you burn the Brush Dance and White Deerskin Dance. In the old incense root and pray!; ma:-de’diwing’a:n he burned days one was supposed to wear one type for the Brush incense root and prayed Dance and another for the Deerskin Dance; nowadays • je:nahch’ing’-ch’ixine:wh [=‘to up above-he is the distinction isn’t made.) speaking’] he is praying (modern church prayers) protect: which’ing’ah in front of me (as a protection), • k’iwun-ch’idne [=‘to them-he says things’] he prays, something shielding me; mich’ing’ah in front of it (as preaches; xowun-ch’idne he preaches to him; k’iwun- a protection) ch’iwidne’ he has prayed proud: me’niwit’il he is proud of it, he talks proudly pregnant: wilkya:n (or wilkya:nin) pregnant woman; about it; me:nint’i¬ be proud of it! talk about it k’iwilkya:n she is pregnant; k’ilkyung’ get pregnant!; proudly! k’ilkya’n she became pregnant; do:-k’ilkyun’- provisions for winter: xaych’ing’-mina:k’iwilchwe: ch’i¬chwe don’t make her get pregnant! n [=‘towards winter-what has been made for it’] things • wilkya:n-mik’ima:w’ [=‘pregnant woman-its medi- stored away for the winter; ’a:dina:k’ischwe’n [=‘he cine’] medicine for a pregnant woman (¶ Used to make made something for himself’] he put something away a baby small inside, so that the delivery is easy.) for himself (for the winter); whina:k’i¬chwe put some- prepare (place): ch’ixo¬chwe [=‘he makes (the thing away for me! place)’] he fixes up (the danceground), prepares (the puberty, girl reaches: kinah¬da:-n she has her first place); mitahxw-ch’i¬chwe [=‘around (the garden)-he menstruation, reaches puberty; k’ina:k’iwhda I have makes’] he hoes the garden, clears the garden of weeds my first menstruation; kinah¬dung [= from kinah¬da:- presence: whina:¬ in my presence, in my sight, before ni ‘she reaches puberty-person’] a girl for whom a my eyes; xona:¬ in his presence Flower Dance is held, a girl at puberty president: yima:n-ningxa’t’e:n [=‘across-leader’] President of the United States
  • 94. 75 PUBIC BONE, PUBIC HAIR/PUT OUT (FIRE) pubic bone, pubic hair: whiq’us-t’a:w’ [=‘my pursuit: whixa after me (to fetch me), in pursuit of me; q’us-above’] my pubis, underbelly, crotch mixa after it, in pursuit of it (e.g., mixa:-ch’itehsyay • whit¬’eh-wa’ [=‘my t¬’eh-fur’] my pubic hair ‘he went after (the deer)’; whixa:-ch’ixe:ne:wh ‘she • whit¬’eh-ts’int’a’ [=‘my t¬’eh-forehead’] my pubic called out for me’; mixa:-yehk’e:lay ‘I reached in bone (¶ t¬’eh- is an old word for “crotch” or “pubis” for it’) that is found only in compounds.) pus: xis pus, discharge, infection pull: ch’itiyo:s he’s pulling, stretching it (e.g., a rope, push: mi¬chwit push it!; me:whi¬chwit push me!; to tighten it); tinyohs pull it!; ch’ite:yo:s he pulled it; me’ni¬chwit he pushed it; me:na’ni¬chwit he pushed ch’inyohs pull it out! (string, sliver, stovepipe, etc.); it back, away ch’e’ninyo:s he pulled it out; xa’yo:s he is pulling (a put a living being somewhere: ch’ixowi¬da’u¬ plant) up out of the ground; xa’winyo:s he pulled it up he is carrying (one child or animal) about from • tiwhle I’m pulling it, tugging at it (rope, pole, etc.); place to place; xowiwhda’u¬ I am carrying him tile pull it!; ch’iwhitile he pulls me; ch’ite:wile’ he about; yehxo¬da’ put him inside! fetch him in!; pulled it; whitile [=‘it pulls me’] I relish it, I’m fond yehch’ixowi¬da’ he put him inside (of eating) it put down: nong’awh [=‘move (round object) to a posi- • mintiwh’its I’m pulling at it (with all my strength); tion of rest!’] put it (e.g., stone) down!; no’ning’a:n mintil’its pull at it!; whin’til’its he’s pulling at me; he put it down; no:nung’awh put it (e.g., stone) back nin’teh¬’its he pulled at you; k’in’til’its he pulls at down (after having picked it up); no:na’ning’a:n he something, he works put it back down (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) • tahch’ilo:s he pulls (gill net) out of the water, he pulls put on (coat, dress): ’inch’iwh put it on (coat, a net-load of fish to shore; tahts’islo:s he pulled it out dress)!; we:ch’iwh I put it on; na’winch’iwh he put of the water it on again pull apart: jiwhqiwh I pull it apart at the fork; • na’wi¬kya’ she put a dress on; yehna’xo¬kya’ she je’wi¬qiwh he pulled it apart at the fork; jilqiwh put a dress on her something forked, pulled apart at the fork • yehk’i¬t’oh [=‘slip it in’] put on, slip on (pants, socks, pump: ta’na:n-xaywhiwh [=‘water-it sucks it up’] pump shirt, anything that fits tightly); yehk’e:y¬t’ow he put pumpkin: k’itse:qe:ch’e’-nehwa:n [=‘a skull-it it on resembles’] squash, pumpkin • See also WEAR purse: ni¬ke:kyo:ts’ purse for keeping dentalia (¶ Made put out (fire): k’ini¬tsis put out the fire! blow it out!; of elk-horn; see Goddard, L&C p. 29 & Plate 18, k’ine:seh¬tsis I put out the fire; na’k’ini¬tsis he puts figure 1; Curtis, p. 10, and illustration between pp. 10-11.) out the fire that had previously been lit
  • 95. Q quail: dich’Valley quail (Lophortyx quite, be: do:-’a:k’inin’-ts’eh [=‘not-noise is made-it californicus, California quail) is heard’] it is quiet, one hears no sound • na:k’ine Mountain quail • ts’ima’-xosin [=‘ts’ima’-it is’] it’s quiet, a quiet (Oreortyx pictus) person; ts’ima’-ch’ixosin he’s quiet; ts’ima’-xo:sing quarrel: ch’i¬idzehsdila’ they be quiet!; ts’ima’-xohsing be quiet (you all)!; ts’ima’- quarrelled, were enemies, hated ch’ixowinse’n he became quiet each other dich’ • nida’-no:nuntse [=‘your mouth-shut it (like a door)!’] •do:-xoh-whi¬tsis [=‘not-in shut your mouth! be quiet! vain-you see me’] you always quarrel with me quill: See PORCUPINE quartz: tseh¬qay (or tse:¬qay) [= from tse-¬iqay ‘stone- quit: do:’owhlung I’m stopping (doing something), I quit white’] quartz (working); do:’olung stop doing it! quit!; do:’o:yla’n question, ask a: ch’ixo:diwi¬xit he asked him a question I stopped doing it; do:ch’o:wila’n he stopped doing it; • ’ung particle used to question a word, phrase or sen- do:ch’iwho:wila’n she quit on me, left me; do:yo:la’n tence (e.g., hay-’ung ‘is it that?’; ning-’ung ‘is it you?’ (animal) stopped doing it me:dinchwin-’ung [=‘you want it-(question)’] ‘do you • tahch’ina:wh [=‘one comes out of the water, fire’] want it?’; k’i¬axun-’ung me:dincwhing [=‘deer meat- (the dancers) come out of the dance, quit dancing; (question) you want it’] ‘is it deer meat that you want?’) tahts’isyay (dancers) came out of the dance questionable: ’uná:ng’ [=’ung-’áng’ ‘is it?-it is’] it quiver: teh¬-na’we [=‘flat-he carries it around’] quiver; isn’t, it isn’t certain, it’s questionable (negative particle) whiteh¬na’we:’ my quiver (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 19 (e.g., hay-’uná:ng’ ‘it is not that’); do:-’uná:ng’ (or and p. 36.) ’uná:n’-do) [=‘not-it isn’t’ (e.g., “not negligible”)] it quiver (ceremonial): ts’iduqi-na’we [=‘straight up- is certain, it isn’t questionable he carries it around’] ceremonial quiver, skin for car- quickly: xa’ all right! okay!; quickly (e.g., xa’-k’inyung rying arrows (¶ Used only at the Jump Dance. Not ‘okay, eat!’; xa’-na’way [=‘quickly-he goes’] ‘he’s a a regular quiver (teh¬-na’we), which is worn perpen- fast walker’) dicularly, but a sack of fisher-skin with a slit opening • xolisch quickly, fast; hurry up! through which the feather-sides of arrows protrude.)
  • 96. R rabbit: na:q’itah-k’i¬ixun [=‘on the gravel bar-deer’] • ¬immi¬ [=‘hit them together’] rattle it!; ¬e:yme:t¬’ he jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) rattled it • t¬’oh-me:we [=‘grass-what is underneath it’] rattle: k’ixulo’ deer-hoof rattle, used by doctors (dried Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) deer hooves, tied around a stick or bone) racoon: mina:’-xwe [=‘its eyes-xwe’] racoon (Procyon • kinah¬dung-ts’e:y’ [= kinah¬dung’s-stick’] a split stick, lotor) used as a rattle during the songs in the Flower Dance race, win/lose: na:’astiw he won the race • king ¬iqay [=‘stick-white’] deer-hoof rattle used by • whiwina:wehsditiw I lost the race “tracers” (claivoyants) rack: miyeh-wilq’a’n-kin’ [=‘under it-fire has been built- rattlesnake: t¬’iwh (apparently shortened from older sticks’] roasting rack (for drying pitchwood) t¬’iwiwh) rattlesnake (Crotalus) rain: na:nyay [=‘something that falls to the ground’] • mi¬tsah-xosin [=‘dangerous-it is’] rattlesnake rain; it’s raining; it’s starting to rain (¶ At the reli- (¶ Euphemism for t¬’iwh; also said to be the Redwood gious dances, one cannot say na:nya or other forms dialect form.) of the verb, but instead must say k’isinto’-’ingxut’ rattlesnake cane: k’itsa:y-xotits’e’ [=‘red tailed ‘grease-it drops’.) hawk-its cane’] cane to keep rattlesnakes away; a stick • nandil-mito’-xole:n [=‘snow-its water-there is plen- which has had a medicine formula said over it (¶ The ty’] half-rain, half snow (snow that melts quickly), sleet red-tailed hawk is said to be the rattlesnake’s enemy, rain rock: miy powerful place or object (usually a having taken all the rattlesnakes inland from the coast.) rock) which must not be touched unless you want it raven: k’iwi¬da’u¬chwin-kyoh [=‘crow-big’] raven to rain (¶ There was a miy at the downstream end of (Corvus corax) Sugar Bowl, the small valley immediately to the south • ga:chwung’ raven (archaic term or Redwood dialect) of Hoopa Valley.) (¶ Seldom seen at Hoopa; found near the coast, on lower rainbow: na:k’ida’ay [=‘something that extends out’] on Redwood Creek.) rainbow; there is a rainbow; na:k’idiwing’a’ there raw, uncooked: t’e:w raw, uncooked, unripe was a rainbow (e.g., k’i¬axun-t’e:w ‘rare venison’) raise (child): xoni¬yeh raise him (from child- • do:-wint’e’ it is not ripe, cooked hood)!; ch’ixoneh¬yiw she raised him; xone:seh¬yiw • miloy (berries) are unripe, green I raised him reach: ’o:nchwit reach for it! fetch it!; ch’o:nchwit he raise (hand): yunchwit raise your hand!; ya’winchwit reached for it, fetched it; ’o:ne:chwit I reached for it, he raised his hand went and got it raise up: yung’awh [=‘move (round object) upward, up • xehsta:n it (water, sand, a pile of anything) reached from the ground!’] pick it (e.g., stone) up! raise it up in the up to there; xe:nta’n it has reached up to there; whix- air!; ya’wing’a:n he picked it up (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) ehsta:n’-ding [=‘my reaching to there-place’] beside raise up a song: ya:na’awh [=‘he picks (round object) me, close to me, within my reach back up’] he “raises up” a song, sings the melody of • hayah-no:nt’ik’ it (string) reaches so far; the a dance-song; ya:nung’awh raise up the song!; ya: (story, meeting, etc.) extends to there, reaches an end na’wing’a:n he raised up the song (“The End”) rake: ¬e:nawhge:s I’m raking things together in a pile; read: ’owhwhe [=‘I call it by name’, (i.e., ‘I speak ¬e:na’ningge:s he raked things together; mi¬-¬e:na’ge: the (written) word’)] I’m reading (aloud); ch’o:whe’ s [=‘with it-he rakes things together’] a rake he read rancheria: See VILLAGE real, really: xo’ch (or xo’ji-) true, well, real, really, rapids: to:nchwen’-xoda:ng’ay [=‘rough water-going thoroughly, in a correct way (e.g., xo’ji-kya’ [=‘true- down’] rapids dress’] ‘traditional Indian dress’; xo’ji-¬a:n ‘really- raspberry: qu¬kyoht raspberries (Rubus) many’; xo’ji-ch’itehs’e’n ‘well-she sees’) rattle: k’isa:y a rattling sound (as of dry leaves); • dó:ng’ really, truly, honestly (¶ Usually spoken with k’iwinsay-ts’eh (I heard) it making a rattling sound; high pitch. Adds emphasis, contrast; e.g., k’i¬axun-dó: yik’i¬sa:y it (snake) rattles something; k’iseh¬sa:y I ng’-me:diwhdin ‘deer meat-really (as opposed to some rattled something other kind of meat)-I want’.)
  • 97. REAR/RESTING PLACE 78 rear: whit¬’a’ my buttocks, rear-end; mit¬’a’ the bottom treated like a relative, called by a kinship term; ¬ing- of something whil’ing treat me like a relative! call me cousin! • whit¬’a’-ch’ing’ [=‘his buttocks-towards’] the lower release: na:dinchwit let go of it! release it!; na: part of my body, my bottom; mit¬’a’-ch’ing’ its (ani- whidinchwit let me go!; na’diwinchwit he let go of it mal’s) hind-quarters, the bottom, tail-end of something religious dance: ch’idilye religious dance, World reason: daydi-wung (or diydi-wung) [=‘what (thing)?- Renewal ceremony; xonsi¬-ch’idilye [=‘summer-re- concerning it’] what for? why? for what reason?; hayi- ligious dance’] White Deerskin Dance; xay-ch’idilye wung [=‘that-concerning it’] for that reason, that is why [‘winter-religious dance’] Jump Dance. See also • ma:n on account of..., for (that) reason (e.g., hayi-ma: specific dances n ‘for that reason’; daxwe:di-ma:n ‘for what reason? religious dance, to perform a: diwhye I’ll dance why?’; do:niwho:ni-ma:n ‘on account of its being bad’) in a religious dance (White Deerskin or Jump Dance); reason, for no: ¬ahxw-hayah [=‘just-there’] just for ch’idilye they dance in a religious dance, a religious nothing, for no reason, as a joke dance is held; ch’idiwilye’ they danced a religious dance rebellious: me:tsah-ch’ixosin he is a difficult person • ch’e’idinilye’ they finish the religious dance to get along with, rebellious, won’t take advice; k’e: • tahts’isyay [=‘they came out of the water’] they quit ts’ah-xowhsin I’m difficult, rebellious dancing (a religious dance) recently: q’ung recently, just now, new (e.g., q’un- relish: whitile [=‘something pulls me’] I relish it, am ’isla:n [=‘recently-it was born’] ‘newborn infant’); fond of it, like to eat it; xotile he relishes it; yiditile de:-q’ung-hit [=‘here-recently-at that time’] a short [=‘something pulls it (animal, child)’] it (animal) rel- time afterwards, later on ishes it, feeds on it; white:wile’-te I am going to relish it recover: na:xoxinay’ he got well again, recovered; na: remember: miq’it-xokyan-xole:n [=‘on it-his insides- whixinay’ I recovered; nana:xinay’ get well again! are plenty’] he remembers it recover!: See ESCAPE • minawhliwh I remember it, call it to mind, think red: tse:lnehwa:n [= from tse:lin-nehwa:n ‘blood-it of it; whinuliwh remember me!; mina’wiliwh he resembles’] it is red remembered it; xona:na’wiliwh he thought of him again redbud: t’un’-nahsma:ts’ [=‘leaves-circular’] redbud, • mis’a:n’ remembering it, talk about it Judas tree (Cercis occidentalis) reputation: whis’a:n my habits, feelings, way of think- redwood: qawh-kyoh [=‘yew-big’] Coast redwood ing, reputation, spirit (¶ A man whose xos’a:n’ is (Sequoia sempervirens) powerful can overcome you with it.) Redwood Indian: xwiy¬q’it-xwe [=‘Redwood Ridge- required: me:niwho:n it is good for it, it is required people who live at’] Redwood Indians, Chilula for it (e.g., nahnin me:niwho:n ‘two people are Redwood Ridge: xwiy¬-q’it (or xoy¬-q’it) [=‘xwiy¬-on required’) it’] Redwood Ridge, Bald Hills resemble: nehwa:n it resembles, looks like (something); refrigerator: ningxosting-me’i¬chwe [=‘ice-it makes’] ch’inehwa:n he or she resembles (something, someone); refrigerator ne:ysdiwa:n I resemble it; ne:sindiwa:n you resemble it regalia: mi¬-ch’idilye [=‘with it-(they dance) a religious • xwe:xowht’ing I look like him/her; whe’xowint’ing’ dance’] regalia and other valuables used primarily he came to look like me in the White Deerskin Dance and Jump Dances (¶ • -q’ in such a way, like... (adverb-forming suffix) Includes: k’e:ne’kyoh; “BLIND” (k’iq’ehna:diwul); (e.g., xwe:di-q’ ‘in what way?’; de:-q’ ‘in this way’; HOOD (k’ise:qot); HOOKS (k’iwo’); “ROLL” (me:wina: hayi-q’ ‘in that way’; k’ida:y-q’ ni¬chwin ‘it smells sita:n); NECKLACE (na’k’idilyay); JUMP DANCE BASKET like flowers’; ’aht’ing-q’i-’unt’e [=‘all-in such way-it (na’wehch); “FLINTS” (to:nehwa:n and tse:lnehwa:n); is’] ‘all kinds of...’) FLUTE (xosa:ng’ay).) respect: nikyah-nich’o:ne [=‘big-he thinks about you’] regalia, to put on: xong’-’a’di¬’e:n [=‘fire-he does it he has respect for you; nikyah-ch’ixo:ne he respects him to himself’] to fix oneself up (with face and body paint) rest: nawhye:wh I’m resting; nulyehwh take a rest!; for a ceremony; more generally, to put on ceremonial na:’ulye:wh he’s resting; na’wilye:wh he took a rest regalia; xong’-na’a:dileh put on your regalia!; xong’- rest head: k’e:tsi¬’a¬ rest your head! put your head na’a:de:lah I put on my regalia down on a headrest, pillow!; k’e:tse:y¬’a:t¬’ I have • whiq’it-wing’a’ [=‘on me-(round object) came to rested my head; k’e:tse:’i¬’ul [=‘(where) he (custom- lie’] I put on an item of regalia, I wore (regalia) (e.g., arily) rests his head’] wooden headrest, used by men me:wina:sita:n whiq’it-wing’a’ ‘I was wearing a roll’) in the sweathouse reins: mit¬’o:l’ [=‘its string, line’] reins resting place: na:’ulye:wh-na:ng’a’-ding [=‘he rests- relative: whima:lyo’ my friend, relative it lies-place’] resting place along a trail • whi¬ing my buddy, cousin, relative • tse:-miq’it-na:’ulye:wh [=‘rock-on it-he rests’] • ¬ing-’xol’e:n [=‘cousin-people treat him like’] he is resting rock
  • 98. 79 RETURN/ROE return: na:ndahwh come back!; na:’ndiyay he came • tawhk’i¬ I’m ripping, tearing it to pieces; je’wi¬k’il back (home); na’wida:l he is going back, returning home he ripped, tore it in two; ya:k’iwhk’i¬ I’m tearing it to • na:nd’awh bring it back! return it!; whiwa: pieces, ripping it up; ya:k’iseh¬k’il I tore it to pieces na’ning’a:n he returned it to me (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) ripe: k’iwint’e (or wint’e’) it is fully cooked, ripe, ready revenge: ¬e:nulya’ [=‘it stands together again, it became to eat; k’ite’ it’s getting cooked, ripe equal again’] there is an evening up, revenge; ¬ena:lya’-te rise (fog, smoke): yaywi¬kit it (smoke, cloud, fog) they will be evened up, revenge will be taken; ¬e:nulya’- rose, went up into the air ’i¬chwe [=‘evened up-make it!’] take revenge! See DRAW rise (sun, moon, star): xa:sina:wh it (sun, moon, revolted, be: xokyun-teh¬wis [=‘his insides-lurched’] star) rises, peeps over the ridge his stomach turned, he was revolted rise (water): to:-wingkyah [=‘water-got big’] the water rhododendron: mich’ile’-ne:s [=‘its feathers-wide’] has gotten high (in the river), it is rising rhododendron (Rhododendron californicum) • dahdiwilxit’ [=‘it has taken something away by swal- • ’isde:wi-ch [=‘madrone-(diminutive)’] rhododen- lowing, swallowed it up’] the river has risen, flooded dron-like plant that grows up on Trinity Summit rive: k’iwht’iwh I’m mauling off a plank, riving it, split- rib: which’iti¬wul’ my ribs ting (slabs, shingles, etc.) with a wedge; k’iseh¬t’iwh I rice: qo:-nehwa:n [=‘worms, maggots-it resembles’] rice mauled it off; mi¬-k’i¬tiwh [=‘with it-he mauls off’] chisel rich: ningxa’t’e:n leader, boss; rich, important person river: hun’ river, specifically the Trinity River • ’awhxich’e’ wealthy woman (old-fashioned term) • to:-xw (or to:-ding) [= ‘water-at’] at the river • whe:y-xole:n [=‘my possessions-are plentiful’] I have • to:-ch’ing’ [=‘water-towards’] to the river, towards lots of things, I am rich the river; to:ch’ing’-ch’ing’ [=‘to the river-towards’] rich-tasting: See GREASY on the river side of something ridge pole (of house): See POLE riverbank: mis cliff, bluff, bank ridge: diq’a:n ridge • nuqit (or na’qit) (coming) by land, (travelling) along • diq’a:ni-wehs’e:t¬’ mountain ridges extend along the bank of the river (as opposed to travelling by boat) ridicule: xona:siwhlay I make fun of him, ridicule him; • to:-xw (or to:-ding) [=‘water-at’] at the river xona’silay he makes fun of him; xona:se:la’ I made road: tin trail, road fun of him; whina’siwila’ he made fun of me; xona: roar: k’its’a’ there is a roar; k’iwints’a’ he roared, made ya’siwila’ they made fun of him; do:-whina:siwidla’- noise; yik’its’a’ it (animal) roars, makes a noise heh no making fun of me! See TEASE roast: miyeh-’i¬q’ung’ [=‘under it-build a fire’] roast riffle: xahslin [= ‘it (water) flows uphill (i.e., swirling in it (on an open fire)!; miyeh-ts’isq’a’n he roasted it; an eddy)’] riffle (in a stream) miyeh-wilq’a’n [= ‘it’s been roasted’] roasting rack (¶ rifle: See GUN Roasting (e.g., salmon) on sticks over an open pit.) right: niwhon-ch’ing’ [=‘good (side)-towards’] (or xo’ji- • de’k’idiliwh [= ‘put (several things) into the fire’] roast ching’ [=‘true, correct (side)-towards’] right (side), (e.g., eels) on coals; de:k’idiwidlay (eels) are roasted on the right; niwhonch’ing’-ch’ing’ [=‘right side- • k’i¬t’e’ts’ roast, parch (seeds)!; k’iseh¬t’e’ts’ I towards’] towards the right; niwhonch’ing’-whila’ roasted, parched (seeds) [=‘right side-my hand’] my right hand: See CORRECT • na’k’i¬quch (or -qich) he is parching, roasting (seeds, right there: xa:t’ still, continuing; same; right (there) corn, coffee, etc.); na’k’isquch he has parched them (e.g., xa:t’i-ningxa’ne:sdiwa:n ‘still-I’m handsome, robe: See DEERHIDE ROBE beautiful’, i.e., I’ve still got my looks; xa:t’i-miq’it-no: robe, mythical: k’i¬dik’ikyoh-k’iwilt’a:ts’ [=‘wood- na’ninta:n ‘right-on top-he put (stick) back down’; pecker-cut up into strips’] a type of robe mentioned in xa:t’i-xut¬’e’ ‘the same-evening’); xa:t’a-hayah right myths (¶ Not known by Indians, and mentioned only there; xa:t’i-q’it right there (at the same place) in medicines (k’ima:w). It is said by some to have rim: mima:ts’e’ rim, edge of something been a robe of buckskin which was tasseled (fringed) ring: k’idi¬ it rings (once); k’iwindil it rang, made a and had woodpecker feathers tied ringing sound on with sinew to the fringes.) • k’isdil he rang it; k’iseh¬dil I rang it robin: chwe:qah robin redbreast ring (on finger): xola’- (Turdus migratorius) kilxawh yehwilt’ow [=‘his hand, • kyu¬ne Swamp robin, Timber finger-is slipped in’] ring robin, thrush (Ixoreus naevius, kyu¬ne ring-tail: kilxawh Ring- Varied thrush) tail cat; civet (Bassaris- rock: tse rock, stone cus astutus) • tse:lo:ch’e’ flat rocks on beach rip: k’itidlut’ there is a ripping sound (as of an old rag); rocking chair: See CHAIR k’ite:dilut’ it made a ripping sound roe: q’ong’ fish-eggs, roe
  • 99. ROLL/RUSTLE 80 roll: dima:s it (e.g., log) is rolling over; diwima:s it ya’wing’a:n he picked it up; nawh’ay I’m carring (a rolled over; na:ma:s it’s rolling, turning (on an axis); round object) around; na:’as’a’ he carried it around na:sma:s it has rolled around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) • di¬ma:s roll it over! na:’asma:s he rolled it around; rub: ’iwh¬iw I’m rubbing on (paint, grease, liniment, te:seh¬ma:s I rolled it along etc.), smearing something (with paint, etc.); we:¬iw “roll”: See HEADBAND I’ve rubbed it on, smeared it ch’ixowin¬iw he rubbed roof of the mouth: whiningq’ich’ing’ [= from whining’- it on him; ch’ite:¬iw he rubbed it on; na’win¬iw he q’it-ch’ing’ ‘my face-on-toward’] the roof of my mouth rubbed it on again roofing: dahsil’e:t¬’ [=‘they lie extended on top’] • ’ingq’a rub, file, grind it!; ch’iwingq’ay’ he filed, roofing, shingles ground it; k’ingq’a rub against it!; k’e’q’ay he rubs • dahch’iwi¬’e:t¬’ [=‘he extended them on top’] he against it roofed, shingled a house • ’iwhye:wh I’m rubbing it in my hand (crushing it), root: qut the long tubular root of the willow, used I’m threshing seeds; ’inyehwh rub it in your hand!; in basketry; k’iqude’-ne- whinyehwh rub me!; we:ye:wh I rubbed it; tawhye: hwa:n [=‘a willow root-it wh I rub it into a fine powder, crush it up fine; ta:se: resembles’] carrot ye:wh I rubbed it into powder • xay the roots of a conifer ruin: chwin’dung’awh spoil, ruin it (round object)!; (esp. pine or spruce roots), chwin’da’wing’a:n he spoiled it used in basketry qut rumble: See NOISE • yinehtaw [=‘what is run: dahdil¬ah (or dahdin¬ah) run (fast)! run on underground’] Indian po- ahead!; dahdiwiwl¬a:t I ran fast; dahch’idiwil¬a: tato (¶ General term for various edible roots, tubers.) t (or dahch’idiwin¬a:t) he ran fast; ting’il¬ah (or • ’isle’t’e:n a kind of Indian potato, edible root (¶ You ting’in¬ah) run away! run off and get lost!; xowun- must not touch it in the spring.) tiwiwh¬a:t I ran away from him; ting’wil¬a:t (or rope, twine: k’iwidits [=‘something that is twisted’] ting’win¬a:t, tiw’win¬a:t) he ran away; na:ndi¬ah Indian twine, rope (made of iris) run back!; na:’undi¬ah he runs back; na:’undi¬a:t • silay [= ‘they (things) lie there’] a rope lies there he ran back rope lies: silay [=‘several objects lie somewhere’] a rope • tildahwh run off! hurry off!; ch’iteh¬da:wh he ran (string, line, etc.) lies somewhere (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) off; ch’iwilda:l he’s running along; wilda:l (animal) rope, handle a: wiwhle:l [=‘I’m carrying several is running along objects’] I’m carrying it along (rope, string, line, etc.); • tsinti¬kyoh run for your life! flee!; tsin’teh¬kyo:t he yuliwh pick it up (rope)!; ya’wilay he picked it up; ran for his life; tsintoh¬di¬ run for your lives (you all)!; nawhle I’m carrying (rope) around; na:’asle’ I carried tsiyuntehsdilde:t¬’ we all ran for our lives it around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) • xo:wa’a¬ they’re running along, a group or herd is rot: yahs¬iq’ it’s rotten, it rotted away (flesh, fruit, etc.); running along; yehxoh’awh run in (you all)!; yehxo: ya’¬iw he’s rotting away (e.g., with syphillis); yun¬eh wid’a:n we ran in; yehxo:ng’a:n they ran in; tingxo: rot!; te:¬iq’ it has started to rot ng’a:n they ran away; na:xoh’ang run around (you rotten: ni¬git it’s rotten, crumbly from rot (thing, not all)!; na:xo:soh’a:n you all ran around flesh); k’i¬gide’ rotten wood; wi¬git it is getting rotten; • k’itiqowh (animal) scampers along; na:qowh (horse) to¬git [= from to:-ni¬git ‘water-rotten’] “black acorns,” runs around, gallops; nahsqoch’ it galloped “Indian cheese” (¶ Acorns buried in a swampy place • te:digit it (flock, crowd, herd of animals) ran off; and left to rot; eaten in the winter, when the supply of tohdigit (you all) run off!; widgil they are running acorns gets low.) about • ’islos there is the small of rotten meat • nawh’its I’m running around, I’m in motion; nah¬’its rough: dich’e:ch’ it is rough, pimply it (animal, machine) runs around, moves; na’as’its he round: na:sma:ts’ round, circular, in a loop; na:wma: ran abround ts’ it has become round run (water): k’ite:yo:wh (water) surged, ran along • jiwol round like a ball, spherical; jiwingwo¬ it’s get- stormily; yehk’inyo:wh (water) pours in (e.g., through ting round; it got round a hole); na:k’iyo:wh (water) washes back and forth, round objects lies: sa’a:n a round object lies some- surges about; ch’e:k’iyohwh (water) is running out; where (e.g., a stone, something that can be held in the ch’e:k’ininyo:wh it ran out hand) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) rustle: k’isa:y a rattling, rustling sound (as of dry round object, handle a: wiwh’ul I’m carrying it leaves) along (e.g., a round object, something that can be held in the hand); yung’awh pick up (a round object)!;
  • 100. S sack: tehmil sack, woven from Indian twine (¶ Used to salmon trout: ¬o’yahwh-qay [=‘trout-white’] Salmon carry birds when caught Goddard L&C p 19, and Plate 6.) trout, ‘half-pounder’ • dichwil-tehmil (or chwil-tehmil) [=‘tanned salmon’s grandmother (bird): See CHAT (buckskin)-sack’] (traditional) leather sack, (modern) salmonberry: daxa:t¬’e’ salmonberries (Rubus gunny sack spectabilis) saddle: miq’it-dahsa’a:n [=‘on it-(round object) lies salt: ¬ehq’onch’ salt above’] saddle salty: dingq’och’ it is sour, salty safe: xiwhnay I escape, reach safety, am safe; ch’ixinay sand: ¬ich’iwh sand, sandy dirt he escapes, is safe. See IMMORTALS sap: misinto’ [= probably from mitsin-to’ ‘its flesh- salal berry: k’ina’diday (or k’ina’diday-ch) [=‘what juice’] its sap, grease, juice he picks, gathers (for food)’] salal berries (Gaultheria • kinsinto’ [= from king-sinto’ ‘tree-juice’] the sweet shallon) sap of the sugar pine or maple; sugar salamander: dila:n a small species of salamander s sapling: ch’ime:-ya:wh sapling of a conifer. See • ky’a:tilchwiw [=‘it cries while moving along’] a type CONIFER of salamander sapsucker: king-k’idi¬tsay’ [=‘tree-it dries it up’] • mik’ilxije’-xole:n [=‘its spots-there are plenty’] big sapsucker, smallest woodpecker (Sphyrapicus varius, white and black spotted salamander Yellow-bellied sapsucker) • ky’a:da:ne:-kyoh [=‘it gathers acorns-big’] another term • nisking-mina:t-ch’iwiltong’il [=‘tall conifer-around for mik’ilxije’-xole:n (said to be the Redwood dialect) it-he jumps along’] sapsucker (Said to be Redwood • mina:’-dahnehsnoy-ch [=‘its eyes-stand up erect- dialect) little’] big Redwood salamander (Chondrotus) sash: mida’-mi¬-ne:lno’ [=‘its mouth-with-they are • mije:’xo-tse:lnehwa:n [=‘its breast-red’] Red breast- stood up’] sash with redheaded woodpecker scalps and ed salamander; Red-bellied newt (Taricha totosa) beaks sewn on, worn by men at the Kick Dance • dilxich-ky’a:tilchwiw [=‘spotted (like a fawn)-it cries • k’iwidwolch [=‘little warjacket’] a sash of fringed out’] Spotted salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) buckskin, worn by Indian doctors (¶ It has yellow- • See also WATER SNAKE hammer feathers hung from the fringes; reaches from saliva: xe’q’ saliva the right shoulder to the left hip.) salmon: ¬o:q’ fish; salmon (Oncor- satiated, be: wha:-wile [=‘for me-it is enough, rhynchus sp.) (general term) ¬o:q’ filled’] I am satiated, my belly is full, I got enough to • k’iwina:liw [=‘it swims after’] eat; xwa:-wehsle’ he got satiated, his belly got filled; male salmon; “egg sucker” na:-wehsle’-’ang did you get satiated? did you get • See also terms for specific varieties of salmon: CHIOOK enough to eat? SALMON (chwulo:q’e’); DOG SALMON (da:jahl); HOOKBILL save: xoxiwhnay I’m saving him, I saved him, cured SALMON (qehs); SILVERSIDE SALMON (xulo:q’e’) him; whixi¬na save me! cure me!; ch’ixoxi¬nay he salmon leader: ¬o:q’ ma:tiliw [=‘salmon-it swims for saved me them’] the leader of the salmon (A (mythical) fish that saw: ’iwhqit I’m cutting, sawing it (log, stick, meat); se: comes with the first salmon run of the spring The Hupa qit I cut it, sawed it ; ts’isqit he sawed it used to believe that no salmon would come unless the • mi¬-k’it’us [=‘with it-one cuts’] a saw Salmon Leader led them) say: diwhne I say something, make noise, speak salmon parts (in cooking): • ’a:diwhne [=‘I speak thus’] I’m saying it; ’a’de:ne’ • k’iwilts’o’ts’ [=‘what is sucked’] salmon bones he said it; ’a:xo¬-ch’ide:ne’ [=‘thus to him-he spoke’] • k’iq’it-dahdiwilin [=‘on it-it flows away’] the two piec- he said it to him, told him es on a salmon’s back from neck to part opposite navel •ch’in [= reduced form of ch’ine ‘they say’] they • dahna:diwilt’a:ts’ [=‘cut back away’] two strips cut say, it is said (quotative particle, used rarely) (e.g., off of each side of the backbone of a salmon dandi-ch’in [=‘who?-they say’] ‘who do they say it • ma:ning’ay (or me:ning’ay) [=‘it reaches for it’] the is?’ k’iwinya’nya:n-ch’in do:-nundiya ‘people-they backbone of a salmon, with meat attached say never-return’)
  • 101. SCAB/SEMEN 82 scab: ¬oh scab, sore; whilo:de’ (or whi¬o:we’) my scab her] (traditional) implement for scratching, made of scales: mit¬’e:de’ its (fish’s) scales elkhorn, polished or with a rim of abalone shell (¶ A scalps, woodpecker: k’iya:wh-me:da’ay [=‘bird- menstruating woman or a girl undergoing the Flower heads’] scalps of redheaded woodpeckers, used for Dance (kinah¬dung) must not use her fingers to scratch. decoration See Goddard L&C plate 10, no. 4.) scamper: k’itiqowh (animal) scampers along; na:qowh sea lion: yida:ch’in-te’il [=‘coming from downstream- (horse) runs around, gallops; nahsqoch’ it galloped they swim along’] sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (¶ scar: whot’ scar Tusks used for “hooks” (k’iwo’), a dance headdress.) scar, form: k’ilwhot’ a scar formed, it healed; ¬e:na: seagull: to:mine:-k’iya:whe’ [=‘seashore-bird’] seagull k’ildiwhot’ they (severed parts) grew back together (Larus sp.) scared: ’ijibeh I’m scared! I’m afraid! (exclamation seal: See SEA LION mothers use to their little ones) seaweed: lah seaweed (Porphyra perforata, etc.) • whije:’-tilts’it [=‘my mind-falls’] I get scared, secret: k’e:w [=‘underneath something’] hidden, secret surprised, taken unawares; xoje:’-teh¬ts’it [=‘his • ’o:niwhsin I keep it (knowledge, the facts of some- mind-fell’] he got scared thing) hidden, secret; xowung-’o:ninsing keep the • See also AFRAID facts secret from him!; ch’o:ne:nse’n he kept the facts scarf: xoq’os-mi¬-widloy’ [=‘his neck-with it-is tied secret up’] scarf see: ’iwhtsis I see it; xowhtsis I see him; niwhtsis-te scatter: ch’ite:wa:t¬’ he scattered them I’ll be seeing you; ch’i¬tsa:n he saw it; ch’ixo¬tsa:n scent: mikyo:n’ (animal’s) odor, scent. See ODOR he saw him; wiltsa:n it’s been seen school: ’a:k’iwilaw-me’-ch’ineh¬’e:n [=‘writing-in see, I: de I see! (exclamatory particle) (e.g., de:-nundi¬ it-someone looks at it’] school ‘I see that it’s snowing!’) scissor: mi¬-na’xode:s [=‘with it-one cuts (hair)’] seed: misa:y small seeds scissors, mi¬-yu¬tsit • mina:’ [=‘its eye’] large seed, pit scold: k’idiwhla:n I’m growling, scolding somebody; • k’i¬iwh small cake of grass seeds (archaic) dilung growl!; xodilung growl at him!; ch’ixodila:n • ¬o’chwiwh seed flour (archaic) he’s growling at him; xode:se:la’n I growled at him; seed-beating basket: me’-k’i¬wul [= with it-some- ch’iwhidehsla’n he growled at me one beats, threshes’] seed-beating basket, thresher into scorpion: tehxa:ch’ech [=‘crawfish (diminutive)’] which seeds are beaten (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 31, and scorpion Plate 23, figure 2.) • tehxa:ch’e’-yik’i¬t’ow [=‘crab-that stings’] scorpion see-saw: k’iwhts’ay I’m see-sawing; k’ints’a see-saw!; scramble along: See WRIGGLE ya’k’iwints’ay they see-sawed scrap: See TRASH seem: xoliwh it feels, it seems like (e.g., ’a:k’ine:- scrape: ch’iwo¬ he is scraping (deerhide, with a xoliwh ‘there was a sound-it seemed’) scraper); ch’iwingwol he scraped it • xowh it seems, it must be, I guess (particle indicat- • ¬iwhsow I’m scraping them together; ¬insoh scrape ing uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) (e.g., them together!; ¬e:ne:sow I scraped them together; ¬e: dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it dsow a pile of things scraped together; ¬e:na’sow he seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; scraped them back together; yansoh scoop, scrape it diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, up! ya’winsow he scooped, scraped it up I wonder?; da:ywho’-xo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it • See also WHITTLE seems’] ‘somewhere or another’) scrapper: mi¬-ch’iwol [=‘with it-one scrapes’] scraper seine: tahk’iwhjeh I’m going to seine [= probably ‘I (for hide) crowd, pile (salmon) out of the water’]; tahk’iseh¬je: scratch: ’iwhge:s I’m scratching something (with w I have seined; mi¬-tahk’i¬je:w [=‘with it-he seines’] fingers); ch’iwhiwinge:s he scratched him large seine. See GILL NET • ’iwhsow I’m scratching it (with an implement); selfish: diwa:whchwing’ I’m selfish; diwa:’unchwe’n ch’ixosow he scratches him; ’a:diwhsoh I’m going he is selfish; diwa’niwinchwe’n he got selfish to scratch myself (with scratcher); ’a’diwinsow she sell: ’iwa’k’iliwh [=‘they give something to each other’] scratched herself they exchange (money for things), sell things • yitits’e:k’ it (animal, bird) scratches, claws some- semen: whilxung’ [=‘my sweetness’] my semen, thing; xotints’e’k’ scratch him (with your nails, leaving ejaculation a mark)!; xote:se:ts’e:k’ I scratched him • tsing’-q’ah [=‘meat (i.e., penis)-grease’] sperm, semen scratcher: mi¬-ch’ixosow [=‘with it-one scratches (vulgar term)
  • 102. 83 SENSE, TO HAVE/SHELLS, TYPES OF DECORATIVE sense, to have: xwe:xolya:n he has sense, under- yourself, shake (dirt, dust) off yourself!; na’a:dise:wa: standing, is watching out for things (cf. do:-xwe:xolya: t I shook myself n ‘he has no sense, is crazy’); whe:xolya:n I have sense; • ’i¬xat shake them (e.g., apples) down, off (of tree)!; xwe:na:xowilya’n he came back to his senses (after seh¬xat’ I shook them down; nu¬xat shake them off being unconscious, crazy) (e.g., pieces of dirt off a rug)!; na:’asxat’ he shook them off separate: whiwah apart from me, separated from me, • ’ildit¬’ it (e.g., house, earth) shakes, quakes; wildit¬’ at a distance from me; ’i¬wah (or ni¬wah) apart from it shook each other, separated; ’i¬wah-xw (or ni¬wah-xw) shaman: See INDIAN DOCTOR separately, each by himself shame: xudya:n something shameful; xudya:n-xosin serpentine: tse:-¬itsow hard, blue stone; serpentine [=‘shameful-it is’] someting to be ashamed of, some- serve (food): xoyeh-no’ningxa:n [=‘under him, at his thing to keep hidden; a grave. See ASHAMED; ENEMY feet-she put (container) down’] she served food to him, share: whe:k’ine’ I get a (small) share, I get just enough placed food in front of him to get by; xwe:k’ine’ they have a share, have just serviceberry: miq’ik’ildil serviceberry (Amel- enough; do:-me:k’ine’ there isn’t enough to go around; anchier) ’a:k’ine’ there is no more food (archaic term) set (sun): miq’it-dahwing’a’ [=‘on it-(round object) sharp: dime:n (or diming) it is sharp; ch’ildime:n’ the has come to lie there above’] the sun has set behind the sharp end of something; sharp-pointed western hills, it is sunset • diming-’i¬chwe [=‘sharp-make it!’] sharpen it! • xoda:nyay [=‘it (sun) has gone all the way down’] sharp-tooth design: ch’ah-ch’e:ng’e:t¬’ [=‘ch’ah- the sun has set sticking out in a row’] design equivalent to the Yurok seven: xohk’it seven; xohk’idin seven people; xohk’e: “sharp tooth” design (¶ Goddard, L&C, p. 47.) ding [= from xohk’idi-ding ‘seven-times’] seven • ch’ah-wilchwe:n [=‘ch’ah-made into’] design equiv- times alent to the Yurok waxpoo, and Karuk apxanko’ikoi, Seven Sisters: See PLEIADES designs (¶ Goddard, L&C, p. 47 and Plate 27, figure 1.) seventy: xohk’e:dimin¬ung [= xohk’e:ding-min¬ung • ¬ e : k ’ i w i n g ’ e : t ¬ ’ [ = ‘ l i n e s c o m i n g t o g e t h- ‘seven times-ten’] seventy er’] said to be a variant of the ch’ah-ch’e: several: dun¬ungwho’ some number of, several (in- ng’e:t¬’ design (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 47.) definite quantifier); dun¬ungwho’-ding several times, • See also BASKET DESIGN a number of times; dun¬ungwho’n several people Shasta Indian: t¬’oh-mitahxwe [=‘grass-those who several objects lie: silay several objects lie some- live amongst it’] Shasta Indians, in particular the where (e.g., dishes, shoes, rocks, sticks, bones, etc.; Shastas living on the Salmon River and on the upper also a rope) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) part of the New River several objects, handle: wiwhle:l I’m carrying them • k’iyintah Shasta Indians (?) (¶ Cited as ki-in-tax in along (several objects); yuliwh pick them up (several Goddard, Hupa Texts, p. 110.) objects)!; ya’wilay he picked them up; nawhle I’m shave: nangwahs shave me!; xoda:w’-na:ywa:s I carrying (several objects) around; na:’asle’ I carried shaved his beard. See WHITTLE them around (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) she: xong he, she, him, her (emphatic pronoun); xong-’e: sew: na:k’iwhxut’ I’m sewing it; na:k’i¬xut’ sew it!; na: n’ he for his part, she for her part k’iseh¬xut’ I sewed it; na:k’iwilxut’ it’s been sewn shells, types of decorative: sewing machine: ’a:da:-nayk’i¬xut’ [=‘by itself-it • dijit string of small white seashells, worn by women sews’] sewing machine on ceremonial occasions sex, have: See COPULATE; DESIRE • mida’ch small dentalia shells, unincised shad: ¬o:q’i-nite:l [=‘fish-wide, flat’),shad (Dorosoma and too small for use as money; used petenense) (¶ Introduced species; not aboriginal.) for decorative necklaces shade, shadow: xaxe’eh shade, shadow; whixaxe’eh • se:t’ot’ shell of small sea animal, my shadow used for decoration shaft (of arrow): q’a:xismock orange (wood), arrow shaft • diwidwa:s [=‘shaved into strips’] • me:k’iwiloy’-ding [=‘something tied to it-place’] the strips of abalone shell sewn onto part of the shaft of an arrow where it is feathered a skirt shake: ’iwhts’is I’m shaking it (stick, tree, etc.); ’i¬ts’is •¬ah-ch’ing’-dina:n [=‘¬ah-to- mida’ch shake it!; xoseh¬ts’is I shook him; yists’is something wards-it is leaning’] a type of dec- (e.g., noise) shook it orative shell, like small scallops • nungah [= from nungwah] shake it (thoroughly), • tse’me:q’-nint’ik’ [= from ts’iq’-me:q’-nint’ik’ ‘fur shake it out!; na’winga:t [= from na’wingwa:t] he tie-inside-it extends from there’] tassels of shells that shook it; na’a:dingah [= from na’a:dingwah] shake hang from the fur hair-tying strings worn by women
  • 103. SHERIFF/SIBLING 84 sheriff: See POLICE • miq’it-dahna:di¬’a [=‘on it-stick it atop!’] shoot it, shield: k’iwidwol [=‘scraped (hide)’] shield of elk-skin; ar- hit it (with an arrow)!; whiq’it-dahna’diwi¬’a’ he shot, mor made of arrowwood strips (kint¬’its’) woven together hit me • which’ing’ah in front of me (as a protection), some- • See also SHOT thing shielding me; mich’ing’ah in front of it (as a shoots: miso:se’ its (plant’s) shoots protection) shore: See BEACH shin: whits’in’-diq’a:n [=‘my leg-ridge’] my shin short: didzit it’s short; diwhdzit I’m short (of stature); shine: k’ininde:n it shines (e.g., a light bulb, star, sun), diwindzit it got short there is a light; k’ine:nde’n it lit up short time: do:-sa’a [=‘not-a long time’] (for) a • ni¬je:n it is bright, shining; wi¬je’n it got bright, short time shiny; xowi¬je’n (the weather) brightened up • tse’ehdzi-ding for a little while, for a short time; • ni¬we’ it is greasy, oily, shining tse’ehdzi-mi¬ after a short time • me:k’inehsq’its’ [=‘something sparkles on it’] it is shortribs: je:xo-ma’-ding [=‘on the breast-edge-place’] shining, shimmering shortribs (¶ Forbidden for women to eat.) shingle: See ROOFING shot: whide:naw [=‘it touches me’] I’m shot; whide: shinny: k’itiquch [=‘he tosses it along (with stick)’] we:na’n [=‘it touched me’] I’ve been shot; yide:we: stick game, shinny na’n it (animal) has been shot • mi¬-k’itiquch stick shoulder: whiquntuq [=‘my qun-between’ (qun with hook on end used in originally meant ‘arm(s),’ but this word is no longer stick game [=‘with it-one used)] my shoulder plays shinny’] shout: ’ingwhi¬ shout!; ch’iwingwhil he shouted; do:- • ya:dimil [=‘what is mi¬-k’itiquch widwhil-heh no shouting! thrown up in the air’] • me:nunch’ung shout! cry out! (Redwood dialect, “tossel” used in stick game (¶ Two sticks tied with old-fashioned term); me:na’winch’a:n he shouted buckskin.) shove: yeh’i¬qeh shove (a stick) in!; yehch’iwi¬qe:t • ch’e:dimi¬-ding [=‘it is thrown out-place’] goal in stick he shoved it in; no¬qeh shove (a stick) down there!; game; ch’indimilé: a goal! (shouted when a goal is scored) no’ni¬qe:t he shoved it down there shinny, play: ya’k’itiquch (or -qich) [=‘they toss it shove off (in canoe): tuntiwh [=‘take it (long object) along (with stick)’] they are playing the stick game, into the water’] start out in your canoe! shove off!; shinny; k’itohquch play (you people)!; k’ite:se:quch ta’winta:n he started off in his canoe; ta’wilay [=‘they I played took (several objects) into the water’] they started off • which’ing’-’iloy’ [=‘towards me-tie it!’] play the in their canoes stick game against me!; xoch’ing’-se:loy’-te I’ll play • ’a:di¬-me:na’ni¬chwit [=‘with himself-he pushed it the stick game against him back away’] he pushed himself off from shore in a boat • no’ky’a’awh [=‘they put (some round object) down’] shovel: xa:k’iwhxa:wh [=‘I take (a specific filled con- they (two players) are coming out to start the stick game; tainer) up out of the ground’] I’m shoveling (dirt) out; no’k’ining’a:n they came out to start the stick game xa’k’iwingxa:n he shoveled it out shirt: yehxolt’o:w [=‘someone is slipped into it’] shirt shut: no:nuntse shut the door (after it has been opened)!; • yeh’a:na’di¬t’o:w [=‘he slipped himself back into it’] no:na’nintse he shut the door he put a shirt on shut eyes: whina:’-¬e:y¬t’a’n [=‘my eyes-I stuck them shiver: ch’iwhi¬ts’is-xoliwh [=‘one shakes me-I feel’] together’] I closed my eyes; nina:’-¬i¬t’ung’ close I’m shivering, shaking your eyes! shoe: yehch’itul [=‘what someone steps into’] shoes shut up: nida’-nonuntse [=‘your mouth-shut it (like (general term) door)!’] shut up! be quiet! • yehnawhtul [=‘I’m stepping back into them’] I’m put- shuttle: mi¬-na’k’it¬’oy ting on my shoes; yehna:yta:t¬’ I’ve put on my shoes [=‘with it-one weaves (nets)’] shoot: ky’owh’its I’m shooting at something; xong’its shuttle for making nets shoot at him!; who:’its he is shooting at me; shy: See SUSPICIOUS; WILD ky’o’wing’its he shot at something; xo:ning’its take a sibling: xo¬tishch’e’ her - mil na'k'itl'oy - shot at him!; ch’iwho:ning’its he took a shot at me brother, his sister; ¬i¬tishch’e’ • diwhchwit I’m going to shoot off (an arrow), let brother and sister to one go (the arrow release); dinchwit shoot! let go!; another mi¬-na’k’it¬’oy ch’idiwinchwit he shot, let go
  • 104. 85 SICK/SIT DOWN (ONE) sick: ch’idinch’a:t he aches, he is sick; diwhch’ah- sing: k’itiwh’aw I’m singing along, singing a song; ts’eh I feel sick; dinch’a:t-’ung are you sick?; k’iting’ah sing!; k’ita’aw he sings; k’ite:sa:’aw I ch’idiwinch’a:t he got sick sang, started to sing; na:k’iwh’aw I’m singing (in • k’ise:ge’ he is ill, incapaciated, sick in bed, a doctor’s general), I’m a singer; na:k’ing’ah sing!; na’ky’a’aw patient; k’iwhse:ge’ I am ill; k’e:se:ge’-ts’eh I feel that he sings; na:k’iwing’aw he sang I’ve become ill • me:k’iwhtiw [=‘I’m measuring it’] I’m singing (for • xokyan-chwin’da:nyay [=‘his insides-are spoiled’] a dance), singing a dance-song; me:k’i¬teh sing a he is sick to his stomach dance-song!; me’k’iwi¬tiw he sang a dance-song sickness: k’ich’int disease, sickness • ya:na’awh [=‘he picks (round object) back up’] he • ts’ohsda’ bodily weakness “raises up” a song, sings the melody of a dance-song; • k’ich’int do:-’owha’n sickness is not known (in that ya:nang’awh raise up the song!; ya:na’wing’a:n he place) raised up the song • See also DISEASE • nong’awh [=‘put (round object) down!] stop singing Sickness, Dance to Prevent: xong’-mina:t- (a dance-song)!; no’ning’a:n he stopped singing ch’itina:wh [=‘fire-around it-they go along’] a dance single: k’iwhde:s I’m singing off hair, I am cutting held in the Big House to scare off sickness (¶ When hair; k’e:yde:s I singed off hair; k’ide:s game with the Hupas heard of sickness happening somewhere, hair singed off they used to go into the Big House and dance a circle • ’oh¬dahs singe it!; ’o:y¬da:s I singed it dance for ten days to scare it off. It is bad luck to sing • k’ida:se’ burnt skin, leather, singed hair the songs of this ceremony in the Big House unless it singer: ya’k’ita’aw [=‘they sing’] the three singers in is in this dance. In the woods a grizzly will run away. the White Deerskin Dance, one main singer and two Apparently no longer known.) helpers side: whichwat the side of my body • miyeh-wunna’dil [=‘underneath-they are busy with • whitut¬’ my flanks, the side of my body it’] backup singers, singers who sing in the background • wi¬q’is one side, half; whiwi¬q’is my side, on my side; for someone singing a melody k’iwi¬q’is one side of something sink: xayts’a’-me’-tehna:na’k’i¬diw [=‘dishes-in it-one • me:n’ even with it, parallel with it, by its side; whe:n’ washes them’] sink even with me; ¬e:n’ even with each other, side-by-side, sinker: mina:ng’ay sinkers on fish net (¶ Rocks with in parallel rows holes through them.) • yide’e:n’ch’ing’ [= from yide’-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘down- sip: tingwhiwh sip it (through a straw)! suck it in!; te: stream-side-toward’] on the downstream side se:whiwh I sipped it, sucked it in • See also LEFT; RIGHT sister: whidehch my younger sister sift: k’itiwhwah I’m sifting, winnowing (acorns, after • wha:t my older sister pounding them into meal); k’ite:se:wa:t I sifted • whi¬tishch’e’ my (man’s) sister; ¬i¬tishch’e’ brother • k’e:sde’ coarse leavings (of acorns) after sifting and sister to each other, siblings of the opposite sex sifting basket: mi¬-k’itiwa:t [=‘with it-someone sifts’] • ’i¬de sisters to one another small sifting basket sister-in-law: whiwe my sister-in-law (woman speak- • mi¬-dahk’idi¬dil [=‘with it-someone sifts’] small ing) sifting basket (¶ Goddard L&C p. 28, and Plate 25, • whiwe:ch’e’ my sister-in-law (man speaking) figure 1. Goddard’s description may apply not to mi¬- • which’ich’inay’ my (man’s) brother’s sister, after the dahk’idi¬dil but to mi¬-k’itiwa:t.) death of my brother; my wife’s sister, after the death of sight, in: whina:¬ in my sight, in my presence, before my wife (¶ There was an expectation that a man would my eyes; xona:¬ in his sight marry his xoch’ich’inay’, although it was not a rule.) sight, out of: sit (one): ya’wing’ay [=‘he or she extends upward’] • mino’ (hidden) behind it, out of sight; whino’ (hid- he or she is sitting, is seated somewhere; ya:ng’ay it den) behind me; k’ino’ (hidden) behind something, in (animal) is sitting; ya:wh’ay I am sitting hiding sit (two or more): ya’wing’e:t¬’ [=‘they extend up- signs: xola:n it is evident, there are signs that (e.g., ward’] they (people) are sitting, are seated somewhere; se:seh¬wung-xola:n ‘I had killed it-it was evident’; ya:ng’e:t¬’ they (animals) are sitting; ya:wide’e:t¬’ me:nileh-xola:n ‘it (a fish) has gotten caught (in the we are sitting net)-evidently’) sit down (one): nintsah sit down!; niwhtsa:t I’m (in silverside salmon: xulo:q’e’ Silverside salmon the process of) sitting down; ne:se:day I sat down; ne: (¶ The first part of the spring run of king salmon.) sinday you sat down; ch’inehsday he or she sat down; sinew: miky’ots’ its sinew na’nehsday he or she sat back down (after having stood up); na:ntsah sit back down!
  • 105. SIT DOWN (TWO OR MORE)/SLOPE 86 sit down (two or more): no:nohdi¬ sit down (you (with its tail); k’iwin¬ut’ there was a slapping sound all)!; no:’ondil they sit down; no:ne:di¬ we sit down; slash: na:dint’us cut it! slash it!; na:xodiwht’us no:ne:de:t¬’ we sat down; no:nohde:t¬’ you all sat I’m cutting him with a knife, slashing him; na:xode: down; no:na’ninde:t¬’ they sat back down (after se:t’a:ts’ I slashed him having stood up) slaughter: ch’e’whineh¬ya:n [=‘he ate me out’] he (or six: xosta:n six; xostun six people; xosta:n-ding six they) slaughtered my family, did away with my people times slave: k’ina:kil [= perhaps from k’ina:-kil ‘enemy-boy’] sixty: xosta:ndimin¬ung [= xosta:nding-min¬ang ‘six slave, debt-slave; k’ina:kil xoseh¬chwe’n I made him times-ten’] sixty a slave size: mi¬kyow it is as big as it, it is that size (e.g., xo’ji- sleep: mi¬ sleepiness, sleep; whimile’ my dream, mi¬kyow [=‘correctly-it is that size’] ‘it is the right sleep size’); whi¬kyow it is my size; ne:¬kyoh it got to be • whikiwung I am asleep; whikiwinga’n [= from your size, it fits you; whe’wi¬kyoh he got to be my size; whikiwingwa’n] I slept, went to sleep; xokiwung he whe:¬kyow what fits me is asleep skin: whisits’ my skin; misits’ (animal’s) skin, hide • mi¬-na:whiwi¬we’ [=‘sleep-beat me up again, fought skin, to: wandiwhsits’ I’m peeling (bark, skin) off, I’m me’] I’m getting sleepy skinning it; wandi¬sits’ peel it off!; wan’diwi¬sits’ he sleet: nundil-mito’-xole:n [=‘snow-its water-there is peeled it off; me’-ch’i¬sits’ skin (the animal)!; me’- plenty’] half-rain, half snow (snow that melts quickly); ch’e:’i¬sits’ he’s skinning (an animal) sleet • me’-ch’i¬t’oh [=‘(from) inside-slip it out’] skin (the sleeve: xoky’a:ng’ay-yehwilt’ow [=‘his arm-what it animal)! flay it!; me’-ch’e’ni¬t’ow he skinned it slips into’] sleeve skirt: kya’ skirt, dress (general term) slide: tilwhot slide!; ch’iteh¬whot’ he slid; wilwhol • xo’ji-kya’ [=‘true-skirt’] traditional woman’s skirt it (eg snake) slides along; xodulwhot slide down!; (¶ Made of pine nuts and braided xoda’wilwhot’ he slid down grass. See Goddard, L&C, p. 19; • ti¬whot slide it!; ch’iteh¬whot’ he slid it; yu¬whot Curtis p. 9 and illustration between open the window! slide it up!; ya’wi¬whot’ he slid it pp. 22-23.) up, opened the window • t¬’oh-kya’ [=‘grass-skirt’] • ti¬xit slide it (bulky object)!; ch’iteh¬xit he slid it skirt made of grass, worn by the • wits’e:l it (snake, worm) slides, wiggles along kinah¬dang girl in the Flower slightly: mine:qits a little, slightly, easily Dance (e.g., mine:qits-sise:l ‘it is slightly hot, lukewarm’) • xosa:k’-kya’ [=‘abalone (shell)- slim: ’ist’iK’ it is slim, slender; siwht’iK’ I am skirt’] skirt with abalone shell slim, slender; ’ist’iK’its [=‘’istiK’-(diminutive)’] xo’ji-kya’ narrow, slim pendants sewn on • si¬kyo:s-kya’ [=‘folded away- slime: mije:q’e’ (slug’s, snail’s) slime; slimy dis- skirt’] ceremonial skirt ornamented with shells or charge beads, worn on special occasions slip: yawhji¬ I’m slipping, losing my footing; ya’wiljil skull: whitse:-qe:ch’e’ [=‘my head-pelvis’] my skull he slipped; do:-ya:ljil-heh don’t slip! skunk: xoljeh skunk (Mephitis mephitis) slip, a: ma:-me:lkya’ [=‘ahead, first-what is worn as a • xoljehch [=‘little skunk’] (or xolje:-xich [=‘spotted skirt’] slip, underskirt skunk’]) civet cat; small spotted skunk (Spilogale slip in, on: yeh’i¬t’oh slip it in (cork into bottle, arm gracilis) into sleeve, etc.)! put it in where it fits!; yehch’iwi¬t’ow sky: de:-nohq’it [=‘here-above us’] the sky he slipped it in; yehk’i¬t’oh [=‘slip it in’] put on, slip • je:nah-ch’ing’ [=‘above-towards’] towards the sky, on (pants, socks, shirt, anything that fits tightly)!; upwards yehk’iwi¬t’ow he put it on slanting design: k’inilyiw slippery: ni¬xit it (some object) is slippery, slick, [=‘crippled’] design equivalent smooth; xo¬xit (ground) is slippery to the Yurok “slanting stripes” slope: dina:n (steep) slope, anything sloped (e.g., the design steep pitch of a roof); xodina:n steeply sloping place, • See also BASKET DESIGN k’inilyiw side hill, bluff slap: xo¬mut’ slap him (gently)! pat • diwhna:n I’m tipping it, sloping it, giving it a certain him!; whiseh¬mut’ he slapped slope or pitch (e.g., boards on a roof); di¬nung slope me; k’i¬mut’ slapping something. See DICE it!; ch’idiwi¬na’n he sloped it; -dinung (in phrases) slapping sound: k’i¬ut’ there is a slapping sound (of sloping toward, facing (e.g., yide’-dinung ‘facing something hitting water), (fish) makes a flopping sound downstream’)
  • 106. 87 SLOWLY/SOAK slowly: xo’dzi-nehwa:n [=‘well (diminutive)-it re- • xo¬xitich or xo¬xidich medium sized fast-sliding sembles’] slowly, easily, gently (e.g., xo’dzinehwa: snake, non-poisonous n-xiniwhye:wh [=‘gently-I speak’] ‘I’m speaking • See also BULLSNAKE; KINGSNAKE; RATTLESNAKE; WATER softly, whispering’) SNAKE slug: mije:q’e’-xole:n [=‘its slime-there is plenty’] snake, move like a: wits’e:l it (snake, worm) slug slides, wiggles along; na:ts’eh it small: misGiy’ts (or misGiye’(ts)) it is little, small; (baby, snake, eel) wiggles around, ts’imisGiy’ts he or she is little, young; simiwhGiy’ts squirms I am little, young; simiwe:Giy’ts I became lit- snake-nose design: t¬’iwh- tle; misGe’gits they (things, children) are little; minchwiwh [=‘rattlesnake-its nose’] simidiGe’gits we are little design equivalent to Yurok and t¬’iwh-minchwiwh • mine:gits a little bit Karok designs also called “snake- • mike:l’-ch’ing’ [=‘its (fish’s) tail-toward’] the tail- nose” (¶ Goddard, L&C, p. 47, and Plate 27, figure 2.) end of something, the smallest part of something • See also BASKET DESIGN smart: k’itise (or k’itise:-xw) [=‘(moving) over things’] snare: na:k’i¬qot’ [=‘bend something!’] set a snare!; na: smart, ambitious, capable, superior (e.g., k’itise:xwo- k’iseh¬qot’ I set a snare; na:k’iwilqot’ [=‘something ’a:wht’e ‘I am smart’) bent over’] snare, a slim stick stuck in the ground and smear: ’iwh¬iw I’m rubbing (paint, grease, liniment, bent over (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 21-2.) etc.), smearing something (with paint, etc.); we:¬iw • dahch’a’awh [=‘he puts (some round object) above’] I’ve rubbed it on, smeared it; k’iwh¬iw I’m painting he sets a (deer) snare; da’k’is’a:n he has set a snare; something, spreading (paint), smearing something (with dahwid’a:n [=‘what has been put above’] deer-snaring paint); k’in¬eh paint!; k’iwin¬iw he painted station, owned or claimed by a family smell: ’iwhchwe:n I smell it (some odor); ’i¬chwing • k’ixus deer snare (set to catch deer) (archaic term) smell it!; ch’i¬chwe:n he smells it sneeze: ’iwh’uch’ I sneeze; ’i¬’uch’ sneeze!; ch’i¬’uch’ • ’i¬chwiwh smell it (thing)! sniff it!; ch’ischwiwh he he sneezes; weh¬’uch’ I sneezed sniffed it; yiwhi¬chwiwh it (dog) sniffs me sniff: See SMELL smell like: ’u¬chwin it smells like something (e.g., k’ida: snore: k’i¬mowh he is snoring; k’ismowh he has y’-q’i ’u¬chwin ‘it smells like a flower’). See ODOR snored smelt: tahdindil [=‘they come out of the water’] surff- snot: whinchwiwh-k’ito’ [=‘my nose-juice’] my snot ish, smelt snow: nundil [=‘several things, particles fall to the smile: ¬o’-whining’-yi¬kit [=‘laughter-my face-it caught ground’] snow, it snows; na:nde:t¬’ it snowed it’] I smiled, a smile came over my face • nundil-mito’-xole:n [=‘snow-its water-there is plen- Smith River: See TOLOWA ty’] half-rain, half snow (snow that melts quickly); sleet smoke: ¬it smoke • nundil-ni¬tsa:y [=‘snow-dry’] dry snow, small flakes • silkit (fog, smoke) lies there, hangs there which pack into powder (snow that does not melt smoke moves: yiti¬kit it (smoke, fog, cloud) moves off; quickly) yiteh¬kit (smoke) has moved off; yaywi¬kit (smoke) rose • tehsde:t¬’ [=‘several things, particles went off’] it into the air; dahyi¬kit (smoke) hovers on top of some- started to snow thing; ch’iy¬kit (smoke) comes out (e.g., of chimney) • no:na:diyahts the snowfall is reaching down the smoke (tobacco): whiwa:k’intiwh [=‘move (a spe- mountain to that point (light snow, frost that is visible cific stick-like object) toward me!’] give me a smoke! on the terrs); no:nundiya:ts it reached down to that (cigarette, pipe, cigar) give me a draw on your smoke!; point xowa’k’inta:n he gave him a smoke snowbird: mida’-mina:xo:lwhin [=‘its mouth-there is smokehole: min’-tsida’ [=‘min’-top’] smokehole in a darkness around it’] (or mida’-mina:xo:lsin [diminu- living house (¶ Goddard L&C p. 14.) See ENTRANCE tive]) snowbird, junco (Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed smooth: ni¬xit it (some object) is slippery, slick, smooth; junco) xo¬xit (ground) is slippery snowshoe: nundil-miyehch’itul’ [=‘snow-its shoe’] snail: je:nok (or dze:nok, diminutive) snail snowshoe (¶ Made from a board with buckskin ties.) • je:nok-mixontaw’ [=‘snail-its house’] snail shell so that: -ming in order to, so that (e.g., wunna:se:ya’- snake: t¬’iwh rattlesnake, snake (in general) ’iwhkidi-ming [=‘I busied myself-I catch it-in order • nahdiyaw-mi¬-ch’iloy’ [=‘money-with it-one ties up’] to’] ‘I tried to catch it’; xiniwhye:wh-ming ‘in order small, harmless snake; “money snake” to talk’) • ni¬ma:nch’ing’-me:da’ay [=‘at both ends-heads’] a soak: na:xolts’a’ (water) soaks down into the ground; type of snake wults’a’ (water) soaks through something, leaks out
  • 107. SOAKING PIT/SPHERICAL 88 soaking pit: k’ita:ltsit soaking pit for acorn leaching • xosah-sa’a:n [=‘in his mouth (round object) lies’] he soaproot: qus-kyoh [=‘bulb-big’] soaproot (Chloraga- has a song, a song comes to him lum pomeridianum) (¶ Cooked in a pit and eaten.) • See also DANCE SONGS; DOCTORING SONGS; MOURNING socks: ma:-yehwita:t¬’ [=‘before, first-what is stepped SONGS into’] socks soot: mich’iwhe’ [=‘its dust’] (or xong’-ch’iwhe’ soft: ni¬ta:n it is soft, damp; wi¬ta’n it got soft; xo¬ta:n [=‘fire-dust’]) it (ground) is damp, soggy; tu¬ta:n it is very soft • ta:ysch’iwhe’ [= from ta:kiwh-ch’iwhe’ ‘sweat- soldier: ts’i¬tiya:ne:s soldier [= from ts’i¬ting-ya:ne: house-dust’] soot from the boards above the sweathouse s ‘rifles-long’] fire, used for making face-paint sole: whixe’-me:q’ [=‘my foot-inside it’] sole of • dahts’isde’ fine particles of soot; soot used in my foot tattooing solid: nit¬’its’ it is hard, solid (like stone); xont¬’its’ sorcerer: See INDIAN DEVIL hard, solid ground; wint¬’its’ it got hard, hardened, sore: See SCAB solidified sore, be: dinch’a:t it aches, hurts, is sore (e.g., whila’- Solomon’s seal: k’ina’ch’ixixe:l’ Solomon’s seal dinch’a:t ‘my hand is sore’); (Polygonatum) (¶ This plant has diwinch’a:t it got sore red berries that look like small • xonist’e’-ta:k’idehsne:ge’ tomatoes. If you eat them be- his body feels sore, dull; he is fore swimming, you are liable drowsy from lack of exercise to be caught by a water monster sorrel: k’it’ung’-dingq’och’ (tehyixolxit) who will pull you [=‘leaf-sour’] Redwood sorrel into a deep hole.) (Oxalis oregana) (¶ Medicinal • miq’isnint’ik’ false Solo- herb, used to prepare the throat mon’s Seal (Smilacina sessil- for singing.) ifolia) (¶ Medicinal herb. The soul: xo-na:t’aw [=‘his-it floats bulb is boiled and crushed for a around in the air’] his spirit, soul (as opposed to poultice to be placed on sores.) body) some: me:lah some of it, some of them; me:lah-tah sound, make a: dine it (animal, thing) makes a sound, some among them, a selection squeals, cries; diwine’ it made a sound; ’a:k’ine some- somehow: daxo:’ somehow, in some way (indefinite thing makes a sound, there is a sound adverb); daxo:’-q’ in some way; daxo:’-ye in a wrong sound, there is a: nayts’a’n there is a sound, some- way, in a bad way thing is audible (in the distance); naywints’a’n there some number of: dun¬ungwho’ some number of, was a sound, something was heard several (indefinite quantifier); dun¬ungwho’-ding • ’a:k’ine there is a sound, something makes a sound several times, a number of times; dun¬ungwho’n soup: See ACORN SOUP several people sour: dingq’och’ it is sour, salty; diwingq’och’ it is someone: dungwho’ someone (indefinite animate getting sour. See also BITTER pronoun) sourdough: dingq’och’-mi¬-wilchwe:n [=‘sour something: daywho’ (or diywho’) something (indefi- (thing)-with it-is made’] sourdough nite inanimate pronoun) • ni¬chwing-k’iwilchwe:n [=‘stinking-what is made’] sometime: dahungwho’- sometime (indefinite temporal sourdough locative stem): dahungwho’-dang sometime in the South Fork, mouth of: ¬e:lding [= from ¬e:lin- past; dahungwho’-de’ sometime in the future ding ‘the streams flow together-place’] village of Tse: sometimes: ¬a’a-ding [=‘one-at (time)’] sometimes, ningxwe where the South Fork and Trinity join at times spade: mi¬-xa’xa:wh [=‘with it-he digs something up’] somewhere: da:ywho’- somewhere (indefinite locative garden spade; spades (suit in playing cards) stem): da:ywho’-xw around somewhere; da:ywho’- spark: dilq’its’ it is sparkling (as sparks in a fire) ding at some place speak: xininyehwh speak! talk!; ch’ixine:wh he speaks. son-in-law: whiwunda:n my son-in-law See TALK son-of-a-bitch: ¬ing’-miwhxiy’ [=‘dog-its son’] spear: See FISH SPEAR son-of-a-bitch (insult) spear, throw a: ky’o’ni¬kis he speared at something son: whiwhxiy’ my son • k’iteh¬qoch’ he threw a stick, spear song: whing song (general term) sperm: See SEMEN spherical: See ROUND
  • 108. 89 SPIDER/STAMP-DANCING spider: k’i¬we:-kyoh [=‘evil spirit-big’] spider spotted: k’ilxich spots • nayk’it¬’oy it (spider) weaves a web; nayk’ist¬’o’n • nulxich spot, speckled, spotted it wove a web • dilxich white-spotted (as the hide of a fawn) spike (deer): ¬a’a-tehs’ay [=‘one-extends out’] spike • nahsdixich it is spotted (deer with a single antler prong on each side) • See also FRECKLES spill: na:dimil it’s spilling out, dropping out (of basket) spread: k’i¬teh¬ spread out a mat! spread a blanket! spine: See BACK prepare a bed!; k’iseh¬te:l I spread it out; k’iwilte:l spirit: xo-na:t’aw [=‘his-it floats around in the air’] his [=‘what is spread out’] mat, traditional Indian bed spirit, soul (as opposed to body) • ti¬tah spread it out (e.g., something folded up, contents spirits: k’i¬we [=‘they fight things, beat things up’] evil spir- of a bag)!; te:seh¬taw I spread it out its, little beings who live in the water and cause sickness spring (of water): tosq’ats’-ding [=‘cold water- • ta:n forest spirits who look after game place’] where there is water, spring • See also IMMORTALS • ta’na:n-ding [=‘(drinking) water-place’] spring of water spit: ch’iwhxiw (or ch’iwhwhiw) I’m spitting it out; spring (of year): yima:n-sile’n-ding (or yima:n-sil- ch’ingxeh (or ch’ingwheh) spit it out!; ch’e’ningxe: ing’) [=‘across-it has become-(time)’] springtime q’ (or ch’e’ningwhe:q’) he spat it out • dung’ (or dung’hit) springtime (archaic term) spite of, in: See DESPITE sprout: xa:diwa¬ [=‘it throws itself up out of (the spittle: See SALIVA ground)’] a plant sprouts, rises (out of the ground); splash: k’ingyo:wh it splashed on the dirt; ya:k’iyohwh xa:dwa:t¬’ it has sprouted water splashes up on the dirt; ya:k’inyo:wh water spurs: mi¬-na:na’ni¬tul [=‘with it-one kicks back splashes on the dirt down’] spurs split: je:k’i¬ it (board, etc.) splits, cracks apart; je:nk’il squash: k’itse:qe:ch’e’-nehwa:n [=‘a skull-it it split; ji¬k’i¬ split it! tear it apart (with your hands)!; resembles’] squash, pumpkin je:y¬k’il I split it squat: nin’-miwhtsi¬ [=‘ground-I’m pointing my rump • k’iwht’iwh I’m mauling off a plank, riving it, split- at’] I’m squatting down; nin’-miltsi¬ squat down!; ting (slabs, shingles, etc.) with a wedge; k’iseh¬t’iwh nin’-me:whtsil I squatted down; nin’-me:na:’ultsil I mauled it off; mi¬-k’i¬t’iwh [=‘with it-he mauls off’] he squats down again chisel; ji¬t’iwh split it apart (with a wedge or chisel)!; squeak: k’ik’e:t’ there is a creaking, squeaking sound je’wi¬t’iwh he split it apart (e.g., a squeaky door); k’iwink’e:t it squeaked • ji¬tsi¬ split it, pound it apart (with a rock, maul)!; • kin-ts’iyo:ye the squeaky noise of two trees rubbing je’wi¬tse:t¬’ he split it together in the wind spleen: mite:l’ its spleen squeeze: tawhtik I’m squeezing it (e.g., apple); tu¬tik spoil: chwin’-da:- spoiling, to ruination (verb pre- squeeze it!; ta:seh¬tik I squeezed it; ¬inti¬tik squeeze fix): chwin’dung’awh spoil, ruin it (round object)!; it together! pinch it together!; ¬inte:seh¬tik I squeezed chwin’da’wing’a:n he spoiled it; chwin’da:na:wh it together it spoils, goes bad, has become polluted; chwin’da: •ti¬chwung’ squeeze (flesh) up, to make it bulge!; nyay it has spoiled ch’iteh¬chwa’n he squeezed it up spoil the world: ninis’a:n-chwin’da:’a¬tiwh [=‘world, squirm: wits’e:l it (snake, worm) slides, wiggles along; earth-he spoils, ruins it (living being)’] he spoils the na:ts’eh it (baby, snake, eel) wiggles around, squirms; world, breaks the rules, does something sacrilegious; na:’usts’iw he wiggled around ninis’a:n-chwin’da’wi¬te:n he spoiled the world squirrel: ke’-ne:s [=‘tail-long’] Tree squirrel, Grey • ninis’a:n-chwin’da:nyay the world has spoiled, squirrel (Ammospermophilus) become polluted, “gone to the dogs” (as a result of • tse:-q’i-ya:ng’ay [=‘rock-on-it sits’] Ground squirrel human misbehavior) (Citellus beecheyi) spoon: k’ide:-kin’ [=‘something’s horn-base’] • silis (archaic variant of tse:q’iya:ng’ay) carved elk-horn spoon, used by • ¬ige:y Pine squirrel (Sciurus douglasi) men (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 29.) • xut¬’e’-ky’a:n [=‘at night-it eats’] Flying squirrel • xosits’mil mussel-shell or abalone- (Scuiropterus) shell spoon, used by women (¶ God- stamp foot: ch’i¬tul he is tapping, patting his foot, dard L&C, p. 29.) stamping (esp. in Kick Dance); ts’ista:t¬’ he tapped, • mi¬-tehch’ijich [=‘with it-he puts patted his foot; na:ni¬tu¬ stamp down!; na:ne:¬ta:t¬’ (granular substance, e.g., sugar) into k’ide:-kin’ I stamped down water’] modern spoon stamp-dancing: na’a¬tul [=‘he stamps around’] stamp-dancing, the basic dance step
  • 109. STAND (ONE PERSON)/STIFF 90 stand (one person): siwhye:n I’m standing; steam: ta:si¬ steam; mita:sil’-xa:ngya:-te its steam will sinye:n you are standing; ts’isye:n he is standing come up, it will start to steam stand (several people): na:dehsdilyay we are steelhead: standing; na:se:soh¬yay you (all) are standing; • xay-na:dil [=‘in the winter-they float about’] winter na’deh¬yay they are standing run of steelhead (¶ Run from late October through the stand (in vertical projections): nehsnoy they winter.) (mountains, a line of things) stand up there, project • misinto’-xole:n [=‘it grease-there is plenty’] summer upward, stick up in peaks; ne:we:no’ they came to run of steelhead stand up there steep: xodinung it (hill) is steep, sloping • niwhnoy I stand (things) up in a line, make them stick • xowiyeh up a steep slope; it (hill) is steep; xowiyeh- up; ni¬no stand them up!; ch’ine:¬no’ he stood them up; yitse’n down a steep slope ¬e:na’ni¬no’ he stood (wood) up in a (vertical) bundle, step: yuntu¬ take a step! step up!; ya’winta:t¬’ he took he gathered things in sheaves. See BARBECUE a step; yehch’itu¬ he steps into it; nuntu¬ step around! stand (tree): na:da’ay [=‘it extends out, sticks out’] it move your feet around!; na:’ista:t¬’ he stepped around; (tree, pole, etc) stands there, sticks out (of the ground); mi¬-na:tul [=‘with it-it steps around’] (animal’s) na:diwh’ay I’m standing it up (post, etc.), planting paw; no:dintu¬ step there!; no’diwinta:t¬’ he stepped a tree; na:di¬’a stand it up! plant it!; na’diwi¬’a’ he there stood it up step-relative: wilchwe:n [=‘which been made, stand up (one person): ’inying’ stand up!; we:ye’n created’] step-relative, in such terms as: whita’- I stood up; ch’iwinye’n he stood up; nunying’ stand wilchwe:n [=‘my father-made’] my stepfather; back up (after sitting down)!; na’winye’n he stood back whanchwing-wilchwe:n [=‘my mother-made’] my up. See GET UP (ONE) stepmother stand up (two or more people): na:doh¬ya’ stand sternum: whije:’-ginje’ [=‘my breast-ginje’’] my up (you all)!; na:de:dilya’ we stood up; na’dilya’ they breastbone; the cartilage above the pit of my stomach stood up; na:na’dilya’ they stood back up (after sitting stick: king tree, timber (general term), stick down): See GET UP (SEVERAL) stick game: See SHINNY; GAMBLING standing up design: k’inehsnoy stick in: yehk’ingqot stick it in (stick, feather, etc.)!; [=‘standing erect’] basket design yehk’ingqot he stuck it in • See also BASKET DESIGN stick up: nehsnoy they (mountains, a line of things) star: tsing’ star stick up there, project upward in peaks; ne:we:no’ they •xut¬’e’dung’-xa:sina:wh [=‘early k’inehsnoy came to stick up there in the morning-it rises’] morning star • niwhnoy I stick (things) up in a line, make them stick starve: no:’ondiqe:t [=‘he was up; ni¬no stick them up!; ch’ine:¬no’ he stuck them up; shoved down there’] he starved to death. See HUNGRY ¬e:na’ni¬no’ he stood (wood) up in a (vertical) bundle, starvation: ’a:dixing [=‘subsisting on oneself’] he gathered things in sheaves. See BARBECUE starving stick to something: mehst’a’n it is sticking to it; stay (one person): siwhday I’m living, staying k’ehst’a’n it is sticking to something; mint’ung’ stick there; ts’isday (or ch’isday) he or she is staying there; to it!; me’wint’a’n he got stuck to it; whe:nt’a’n it got siday it (animal) stays there; ts’isda:-ding [=‘he stays stuck to me; mi¬t’ung’ stick it on to it! (e.g., postage there-place’] where he stays, his residence; ’inda’ stamp to an envelope); k’e’wi¬t’un he stuck it on to stay!; whi¬-’inda’ stay here with me!; ch’iwinda’ he something; me:y¬t’un I stuck it on to it; whina:’-¬e: stayed there (for a while); xo¬-we:da’ I stayed with y¬t’un [=‘my eyes-I stuck them together’] I closed him; nunda’ stay home! come back home and stay!; my eyes na’winda’ he stayed home sticker: k’idime:nch [=‘something sharp-(diminutive)’] stay (two or more people): dehsdilts’e we’re liv- thorn, sticker ing, staying there; ya’deh¬ts’e they are staying there; sticky: dits’e:q’ it is gummy, sticky; diwints’e:q’ it got dehsdilts’e:-ding [=‘we stay there-place’] where we gummy; diwints’e’-te it will get gummy stay, our residence; whi¬-do:’oh¬ts’e’ stay here with • di¬dije:w it is sticky (like tar, pitch, glue); diwi¬dijeh- me (you people)!; ya’de:lts’e’ they stayed there (for a te it will get sticky. See PITCH while); na:de:widilts’e’ we stayed home stiff: ch’idiske:n he is stiff (in the joints); ch’idiwiske: steal: k’itilkyoh steal it!; k’itilkyo:t he steals things, n he got stiff he is a thief; k’ite:skyo:t I stole it; k’ixote:skyo:t I • diwhts’e:n I’m stiff in the joints; ch’idists’e:n he’s stole her (i.e., stole a wife); do:-k’itilkyo:t one should stiff; ch’idiwists’e:n he got stiff not steal
  • 110. 91 STILL/STRETCH still: xa:t’ still, continuing; right (there) (e.g., xa:t’i- dium-sized storage basket, shaped like a je:lo’, in which ningxa’ne:sdiwa:n ‘still-I’m handsome, beautiful,’ valuables were kept (¶ Illustrated in Curtis, pp. 24-25.) i.e., I’ve still got my looks; xa:t’i-miq’it-no:na’ninta: • king-k’itoh [=‘stick-nest’] burden basket with a “nest” n ‘right-on top-he put (stick) back down’) of sticks, used for the temporary storage of acorns • q’ut now, already, still (e.g., q’ut-ch’iwiltong’il ‘al- • q’ay’jint open-work basket of hazel twigs, used for ready-he was dancing’; q’ud-úng’-na:whay [=‘still-it storing unshelled acorns is-I go around’] ‘I’m still alive’) storage platform: See PLATFORM still (quiet): na:sixun-ding place where the water is store: ’i¬wa’k’i¬iwh (often shortened to ¬iwa’iliwh) still [=‘where they sells things to each other’] store sting: whi¬t’oh it’s stinging me; do:-k’i¬t’ow it doesn’t store away: na:k’i¬weh¬ store it away, pack it away!; sting; nist’ow it stung you na:k’iseh¬we:l I have stored it away stinger: miso:se’ its (bee’s) stinger story: xowidilik [=‘what has been told’] a story, telling, stingy: See HOARD account; whi¬-xolik tell me about it, tell me a story!; stink: ni¬chwin it stinks, smells bad, has a strong odor; xo¬-ch’ixolik he tells him; xo¬-ch’ixowilik he told him; niwhchwin I stink; wi¬chwe’n it started to stink; ni¬-xwe:lik I told you weh¬chwe’n I started to stink, I stank • ch’ixolchwe [=‘(world) being made, prepared’] (story • mawh it stinks! phew! (exclamation) about) pre-human times, when the world was being •’islos it is rotten, stinks, has the smell of rotten meat prepared for human beings stir: nawht’ow I’m stirring something (with a paddle); stove: me’-k’e:’i¬nay [=‘in it-someone cooks’] kitchen nunt’oh stir it!; na:se:t’ow I stirred it stove •xiwhnay I move it back and forth, stir it, agitate it; straddle: mina:k’idi¬q’ay’ straddle it! put your legs xi¬na move it back and forth!; ch’ixi¬nay he moves it around it!; mina’k’ideh¬q’ay’ he straddled it back and forth; xe:y¬na’ I have moved it back and forth straight: ts’it straight; ts’it-nundileh [=‘straight- stirrer: See PADDLE become again!’] straighten yourself up! stirrup: me’-no’k’it’ul [=‘in it-one puts one’s feet • nindong’ it is straight, stretched out in a line (string, down’] stirrup trail, etc.); niwhdong’ I am straight; niwindo’n stomach: whimit’ my belly, stomach it has gotten straight; ni¬dong’ straighten it out!; • whik’iwiyul-me’-nolxit’ [=‘my food-into it-is swal- ch’iniwi¬do’n he straightened it out lowed up’) my stomach • nint’ik’ it stretches in a line, it (string, rope, etc.) • xokyun-teh¬wis [=‘his insides-lurched’] his stomach extends out straight; k’ini¬t’ik’ stretch it! string it out turned, he was revolted straight! stone: See ROCK straw: dimuch straw stool: miq’e’ehsday [= from miq’it-ts’isday ‘on it-he stawberry: k’ige’ch strawberries stays there’ (originally ‘he sits’)] (traditional) stump- stream: nilin [=‘(where) it (water) flows’] creek, stream; like stool for men, (modern) chair nilini-q’eh along the stream, where where the stream stoop: ’ingqo’ stoop!; we:qo’ I stooped down; flows ch’iwingqo’ he stooped down strength: whitilte’e’ my muscle, the strength of my stop: do:’owhlung I’m stopping (doing something), (arm, body). See STRONG I quit; do:’olung stop doing it! quit!; do:’o:yla’n I stretch: ti¬ky’ots’ stretch it (e.g., rubber band, chewing stopped doing it; do:ch’o:wila’n he stopped doing it; gum)!; te:seh¬ky’o:ts’ I stretched it; te:diky’o:ts’ it do:ch’iwho:wila’n she quit on me, left me; do:yo:la’n stretched itself (animal) stopped doing it • nindong’ it is straight, stretched out in a line (string, • ’ida’ it (pain) ceases, (car) stops; winda’ it has trail, etc.); niwhdong’ I am straight; niwindo’n stopped; ’i¬da’ stop it (e.g., car from rolling)!; weh¬da’ it has gotten straight; ni¬dong’ straighten it out!; I have stopped it ch’iniwi¬do’n he straightened it out; na’k’iniwi¬do’n • no:k’iniwhyoh I’m telling someone to stop (doing he straightened something up, made it straight again something), I’m warning them to cease; no:xoningyoh • nint’ik’ it stretches in a line, it (string, rope, etc.) tell him to stop!; no’xone:yo:t he tells him to stop; no: extends out straight; k’ini¬t’ik’ stretch it! string it out k’ine:yo:t it (dog) tells someone to stop (by barking); straight!; na:nint’ik’ it stretches across; na’ni¬t’ik’ he no:xone:ne:yo:t I have told him to stop strung it across; no:nt’ik’ it stretches to that point (e.g., storage basket: je:lo’ storage basket (¶ Goddard L&C hayah-no:nt’ik’ [=‘there-it stretches to’] ‘that’s the end p. 42-3, and Plate 23, figure 1.) of the story’; concluding formula for a traditional story) • je:lo’ch [=‘storage basket (diminutive)’] small-to-me-
  • 111. STRETCH HIDE/SUNRISES 92 stretch hide: k’i¬xa:l he is stretching a freshly skinned • t’un’sohch small (baby) suckerfish: See BULLHEAD (deer)hide to dry on a drying frame; k’iseh¬xa:l I sucking doctor: k’ite:t’aw sucking doctor, Indian stretched a hide to dry doctor (general term) strike: ’iwhkis I strike something (with my fist), I knock • xo¬diyin sucking doctor (older term) at the door; ch’iskis he struck it; na’ni¬kis he strikes • ninis’a:n-mich’ing’-dinun-ts’isye:n [=‘world- at it; na’whineh¬kis he struck at me. See HIT toward it-facing-who stands’] name for a sucking strike (the hour): nayneh¬tse:t¬’ [=‘it hit it (with a doctor rock)’] the clock struck the hour • do:xo’osdaytahch’ing’-wuna’way [‘hell-she is busy string: ’isdits’ string, light rope with’] type of sucking doctor (¶ If a person is sick and • t¬’oh¬ strap, packstrap, string; mit¬’o:l’ its string, sleeps all the time, the gates of Hell open for him; this line, reins type of doctor can bring him back.) • See also ROPE; TWINE • no:na’xo¬’ay [=‘coaxing him back’] sucking string on a line: k’iwhchwiq’ I’m stringing (dried doctoring (i.e., coaxing someone back from going to fish, beads, etc.) on a line, skewering things on a pole; unknown countries, i.e., dying) k’iwinchwiq’ he strung them; k’iwidchwiq’ things • daywho’-xwa:’a:ne [=‘something-it speaks for her’] that have been strung on a line type of sucking doctor string out: nint’ik’ it stretches in a line, it (string, • k’i¬we:-ch’e:’i¬tiwh [=‘evil spirit-she takes out’] type rope, etc.) extends out straight; k’ini¬t’ik’ stretch it! of sucking doctor string it out straight!; na:nint’ik’ it stretches across; • See also TA:N DOCTOR na’ni¬t’ik’ he strung it across; no:nt’ik’ it stretches sucking, to doctor by: k’e’da’ay [=‘she extends to that point (e.g., hayah-no:nt’ik’ [=‘there-it stretches (her head) against something’] doctoring by sucking, to’] ‘that’s the end of the story’; conclusion of a tra- sucking out pains; xwe:diwh’ay I’m doctoring him by ditional story) sucking, sucking pain out of him; whe:ding’a doctor stringer: See FISH DAM me by sucking!; whe’diwing’a’ she doctored me by strong: tilte’ it is strong; ch’itilte’ he is strong, stout, sucking muscular; tiwhte’ I am strong; te:ste’ I got strong sucking sound: k’its’uq’ there is a sucking sound • nich’owhte I feel stronger than you, I overpower you; (like a bunch of eels put together) which’o:’o¬te he feels stronger than me; ’a:dich’owhte suddenly: ’ungya’ unexpectedly, surprisingly, seeing [=‘I overpower myself’] I am bashful something suddenly, lo and behold! (e.g., ’ungya’- study: wung-xokyun-na:way [=‘concerning it-his mind, xe’e’winya:-ye ‘suddenly (he saw)-he went past-there’, insides-go round’] he is studying it, thinking about it i.e., he suddenly saw him going past) stuff: no¬tsoh stuff it into something! (e.g., paper into en- sugar: kinsinto’ [= from king-sinto’ ‘tree-juice’] the velope, ferns into basket); no’ni¬tsow he stuffed it in sweet sap of the sugar pine or maple; sugar stump: mixa:ch’e’ its (tree’s) stump, clumped roots sugar pine: See PINE • k’ixa:ch’e’ an uprooted stump suit: na:whini¬yiw it becomes me, suits me (e.g., dress, • k’iwa’nich a broken-off tree, snag ornament); na:whineh¬yiw it became me sturgeon: ¬o’kyoh [= reduced from ¬o:q’-kyoh ‘fish- • xwe:niwho:n it is good for him, it suits him big’] sturgeon (Acipenser) (e.g., clothes) sturgeon back design: ¬o’kyoh-miqojine’ [=‘stur- • whini¬who’n it suits me, does me good; xoni¬who’n geon-its lumps’] basket design equivalent to the Yurok it suits him; do:-whini¬who’n it doesn’t suit me, agree “sturgeon back” design (¶ Goddard L&C, p. 47.) with me; I’m allergic to it • See also BASKET DESIGN suits (in playing cards): suck: ’iwht’ot I’m sucking it; ’i¬t’ot suck it!; ts’ist’ot’ he • mikyansa’a:n [=‘its heart’] hearts sucked it; k’iwht’ot I suckle; yik’i¬t’ot (baby) suckles; • dime:n [=‘sharp’] diamonds tint’ot suck it in! draw (water, smoke) into your mouth!; • ’isqa:q’ [=‘clubbed, clumped’] clubs ch’ite:t’ot’ he sucked it in • mi¬-xa’xa:wh [=‘with it-he digs something up’] • k’iwhts’os I’m sucking something (eg water spades through lips, with a sucking noise); k’i¬ts’os suck it!; summer: xonsi¬ (or xonsilit) summer. See WARM k’iseh¬ts’os I sucked it sun: wha sun, moon • tingwhiwh sip it (through a straw)! suck it in!; te:se: • jingkyo:wit-wha [=‘daytime-sun’] sun whiwh I sipped it, sucked it in; xa’whiwh he is sucking • jingko:wit-qa:l [=‘daylight-comes along’] sun it up • de:di-qa:l [=‘here-it comes along’] sun sucker: da:ch’aht (or da:ch’ah) sucker, suckerfish sunrises: xa:sina:wh it (sun, moon, star) rises, peeps (Catostomus) over the ridge. See DAWN
  • 112. 93 SUN GOES DOWN/SWIM sun goes down: yitse’ni-wing’a’ [=‘downhill-(round swallow tail design: tesjehji-mike’ [=‘swallow-its object) has come to lie there, takes up position there’] the tail’] basket design apparently sun has moved to the western side of the sky, it is afternoon unique to the Hupa (¶ God- • yitse’ni-wa’a:l [=‘downhill-(round object) comes to dard L&C, p. 46-7 and Plate 25, lie in one place after another’] the sun gets lower and figures 4 and 6.) lower in the sky, moves progressively westward • See also BASKET DESIGN • miq’it-dahwing’a’ [=‘on it-(round object) has come swamp: xo¬chwil [=‘(place) is tehsjehji-mike’ to lie there above’] the sun has set behind the western wet, damp’] swampy place hills, it is sunset swamp robin: kyu¬neswamp rob- • xoda:nyay it goes down to the foot of the hill, the sun sets in, timber robin, thrush (Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush) sunflower: ch’ahla’qude’ sunflower (Helianthus swamp weed: See ARALIA annus) swear: k’itiwhyoh¬ [=‘I’m blowing along’] I’m • k’ige:s [=‘what one scrapes off’] Indian sunflower swearing, cursing, making bad medicine; do:-k’iti¬yoh¬ (¶ Called k’ige:s because you take leaves off, rip them don’t swear!; k’iteh¬yo:l he swore and eat the “backbone”; you can also eat the blossoms • xohwhyo:l [=‘I’m blowing at him’] I’m swearing when they are tender (this is actually the best part to at him; ch’i¬o:yulyo:l they are all swearing at one eat), but the “backbone” is what you rip the leaves to another; ya’xo:¬yo:l they swore at them get. The seeds are not eaten.) • ting’xine:wh [=‘he speaks astray’] he uses bad • sa’liwh eidible grass (general term), clover, wild language, swears, speaks improperly, “speaks against the sunflower rules;” tingxiniwinye:wh you have used bad language superior (person): k’itise (or k’itise:-xw) [=‘(moving) swearing: tingxiniwidye:wh tabooed speech, bad over things’] smart, ambitious, capable, superior (e.g., language, swearing k’itise:xwo-’a:wht’e ‘I am smart’) sweat: xa:niwhse:l I’m sweating; xa:ninseh¬ sweat!; sure: dó:ng’ (or do’óng) indeed, for sure, it is so (em- xa’niwinse:l he sweated phatic particle) (e.g., ts’iseh¬we:n-dó:ng’ [=‘he killed • xo¬-te:lit [=‘with him-it burned’] he had a sweat, it-indeed’] ‘he killed it for sure, without a doubt’; de:- sweated in a sweathouse, he smoked himself for luck; q’i-dó:ng’ [=‘this-way-indeed’] ‘in this very way’) whi¬-te:lit-te I’m going to have a sweat • ’e:ná:ng’ [=’e:ng’-’úng’ ‘for ...’s part-it is’] for sure • whixonse:l’ my sweat, doctoring power (emphatic particle) sweathouse: ta:kiwh sweathouse (¶ Goddard L&C p. surefish: See SMELT 15-16 and Plate 2, figure 2.) See FIREWOOD; SOOT surge: k’ite:yo:wh (water) surged, ran along stormily; sweep: tiwhchwo:k I’m brushing things off, sweep- yehk’inyo:wh (water) pours in (e.g., through a hole); ing them up; ti¬chwo:k sweep things up!; mi¬- na:k’iyo:wh (water) washes back and forth, surges ch’ixoti¬chwo:k [=‘with it-he sweeps things up’] broom about; ch’e:k’iyohwh (water) is running out; ch’e: na:xote:se:sow I’m sweeping (with modern broom); k’ininyo:wh it ran out ¬e:nawhsow I sweep, scrape (scraps, etc.) together; suprised: whije:’-tilts’it [=‘my mind-falls’] I get mi¬-¬e:na:dsow [=‘with it-they are swept together’] scared, surprised, taken unawares; xoje:’-teh¬ts’it brush for sweeping up (acorn) flour [=‘his mind-fell’] he got scared sweet: ¬ixun it is sweet, good-tasting; wilxa’n it surprisingly: ’ungya’ unexpectedly, surpris- got sweet ingly, seeing something suddenly, lo and behold! sweet grass: t¬’oh-dit’in [=‘grass-dit’in’] sweet grass (e.g., ’ungya’-xe’e’winya:-ye ‘suddenly (he saw)-he sweetheart: whi¬ilyo’ my boyfriend, girlfriend, sweetheart went past-there’, i.e., he suddenly saw him going swell: tilyo¬ it’s swelling up; teh¬yo:t¬’ it swelled up; past) no:nilyo:t¬’ it stopped swelling up • sa:k’iding to his surprise, unexpectedly swim: timiwh swim (to some place), start swimming!; surveyor: ninis’a:n-me:na’i¬tiw [=‘land-he measures’] ch’itehsme:n he started to swim surveyor • nawhme I’m swimming, bathing; na:yme’ I swam; suspicious: whe:xoya:n (animal) is suspicious of me, na’wime’ he swam; na’me someone swims around, shies away from me; xwe:xowhya:n I’m suspicious of people are swimming him, I’m watching out for him; me’xowinya’n he got • wile:l (fish) swims along (under water); tiliw (fish) suspicious of it. See DOUBT; WILD swims along; tehsliw (fish) started swimming; me:niliw swallow: ’ilxit swallow it!; ch’iwilxit’ he [=‘it swims up against it’] (fish) swims into a net, gets swallowed it caught in a net; noleh-ding [=‘(fish) swims to that point swallow (bird): tesjehch (or tehjehch) swallow and stops-place’] waterfall, dam, obstruction in a stream (Hirundo rustica, Barn swallow)
  • 113. T table: miq’it-dahky’a:n [=‘on it-one eats atop’] table the fat;” ch’idiwilwa:wh they talked, entered into con- (modern) versation; wun’dilwa:wh they are talking, conversing taboo: miy powerful (tabooed) place or object which about it must not be touched unless you want it to rain • xosah-k’itidlut [=‘his mouth-makes a ripping sound’] • k’imiye’ food that is tabooed for women he can’t talk plainly; he talks in a broken way • tingxiniwidye:wh tabooed words (“swearing”) that tall: ne:s it is long; niwhne:s I’m long, tall; ch’e:ne:s he is must not be used during religious dances long, tall; we:ne:s it got long; ch’iwe:ne:s he got tall tadpole: ch’ahlike:la:t’e’ [= probably from ch’ahl tan: dilma:y it is grey, tan ‘frog’ and (mi)ke:l’ ‘(fish’s) tail’] tadpole tan hide: k’i¬ma’ [=‘he makes it grey’] he is tanning tail: mi-ke’ its (animal’s) tail a skin, hide; k’iseh¬ma’ I tanned a hide; k’iwilma’ • mike:l’ its (fish’s, eel’s ) tail; k’ike:l’ the tail of a fish tanned hide (of deer, fisher, otter, etc.) or eel, when cut up for eating • dichwil [=‘what is dull, blunted’] tanned hide, • k’ike’-din [=‘the tail-place’] the tail part, in leather cutting fish tanoak: See OAK • ke’-chwil [=‘tail-blunted’] bobbed tail ta:n doctor: xona:t’aw-na’ay [=‘her spirit-she has it’] tail-end: mike:l’-ch’ing’ [=‘its (fish’s) tail-toward’] the ta:n doctor (¶ This is a special type of sucking doctor tail-end of something, the smallest part of something who doctors for people with headaches or nervousness. take: ting’awh take it away!; ch’itehs’a:n he took it Only a few sucking doctors (k’ite:t’aw) are trained to do away, went off with it (e.g., stone) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) this. It is difficult to doctor this way. They keep the pa- take away from: xowung-dahding’awh [=‘from tient locked up five days in the house. No doors should him-move (round object) up off’] take it (e.g., be opened and no dogs or visitors are allowed.) stone) away from him, deprive him of it!; xowung- • min’day’ch’ing’-xwa:’a:ne [=‘what (lies) outside-it dahch’idiwing’a:n he took it away from him; whiwung- speaks for her’], ta:n-xwa:’a:ne [=‘ta:n-it speaks for dahna’diwing’a:n he took it back away from me her’] other names for ta:n doctors (something that I had acquired) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) tap: ch’i¬tul he is tapping, patting his foot, stamping (esp. • whiky’ung’awh [=‘move (round object) away from in Kick Dance); ts’ista:t¬’ he tapped, patted his foot me’] move it (e.g., stone) away from me! take it away tar: See PITCH from me!; niky’a’ning’a:n he moved it away from you tarweed: t¬’oh-di¬dije:w [=‘grass-which is sticky’] tarweed (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) tassel: tse’me:q’-nint’ik’ [= from ts’iq’-me:q’-nint’ik’ take care of: me:’wiliwh he took care of it; he looked ‘fur tie-inside-it extends from there’] tassels of shells after it; xwe’wiliwh he’s watching over someone, tak- that hang from the fur hair-tying strings worn by ing care of someone women take off: ch’e:na’xoni¬t’ow [=‘he slipped it back out’] taste: sawhna:t I lick it in my mouth, I taste it; sa¬nah he took his shirt off taste it!, slurp it up! sa’wi¬na:t’ he tasted it take out: ch’ing’awh [=‘move (round object) out of an • na:¬nah [=‘lick around it!’] taste it!; na:’usna:t he enclosure, outside (a house)!’] take it (e.g., stone) out- tasted it side; ch’e’ning’a:n he took it outside; ch’e:na’ning’a: taste (so): ’uliwh it has (such) a taste (e.g., do:-ts’eh-ni- n take it back outside (something that had been brought whongxw-’uliwh ‘not-it is perceived-in a good way-it in) (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) tastes’); ’iliwh it tastes like... (e.g., dingq’och’-’iliwh talk: xininyehwh speak! talk!; ch’ixine:wh he is talk- ‘bitter (thing)-it tastes like’) ing, he is saying something; ch’ixe:ne:wh he talked; • -ts’eh feel, taste, be perceived (so) (e.g., ¬ixun-ts’eh xiniwinye:wh you talked; wung’xine:wh he talks ‘it tastes good, sweet’; k’isiwhdile:-ts’eh ‘I feel cold, about it freezing’; ch’iskis-ts’eh [=‘he knocked-I hear’] ‘I heard • ch’idilwa:wh they are talking, conversing, “chewing someone knocking (at the door)’)
  • 114. 95 TASTE BAD/THERE taste bad: do:-¬ixun-ts’eh it doesn’t taste good, sweet teenager: q’un-ch’iwilchwil [=‘newly, recently-he is • do:-wha:lxa’n I don’t like the taste of it, it doesn’t growing’] adolescent boy, male teenager taste good to me • k’eh¬tsa:n unmarried adolescent girl, female teenager taste good: ¬ixun-ts’eh [=‘sweet-it tastes’] it tastes teeter-totter: k’iwints’ay he see-sawed, played on a good, sweet teeter-totter • wha:-wilxa’n (or wha:lxa’n)[=‘for me-it gets sweet’] teeth: whiwo’ my teeth, tooth I like the taste of it, it tastes good to me • mi¬-ky’a:n [=‘with it-one eats’] set of teeth tattoo: whi¬tuch’ tattoo me!; ts’istuch’ he tattooed • ch’indin-miwo’ [=‘dead person-his teeth’] false teeth something, he made a tattoo; xoseh¬tuch’ I tattooed telephone: me’-ch’ixine:wh [=‘into it-one talks’] her; wiltuch’ it has been tattooed, a tattoo (¶ See telephone Goddard L&C, p. 20. Women wore tattoos on their tell: whi¬-xolik tell me about it, tell me a story!; xo¬- chin, usually in three broad vertical bands, the so-called ch’ixolik he tells him; xo¬-ch’ixowilik he told him; “111”.) ni¬-xwe:lik I told you; xowidilik what has been told, tattoo designs: a story • ’a:whi¬-ch’ine [=‘thus to me-he speaks’] he is telling me, says (this) to me; ’a:xo¬-ch’ide:ne’ he told him, said (this) to him tell about: ’a:diwung-xwe:lik [=‘concerning myself-I told a story’] I told about myself; wung-xowidilik [=‘concerning it-what has been told’] a story about ’ist’ik’its-k’ine:lno’ ’ist’ik’its-wiltuch’ nite:l-wiltuch’ something, an account of something ten: min¬ung [=‘it is filled, completed’] ten • ’ist’ik’its-k’ine:lno’ [=‘slender (diminutive)-several • min¬un ten people are stood up’] tattoo design element testicles: whichwoq’ my testicles • ’ist’ik’its-wiltuch’ [=‘slender (diminutive)-marked’] that: yo:w that, there (close by); hayo:w [= hay-yo:w] tattoo design element that one there • nite:l-wiltuch’ [=‘wide-marked’] tattoo design • ye:w that, there (far off); haye:w [= hay-ye:w] that element one yonder • xoda’-me:siwidlay [=‘her mouth-they are carried up that time, at: hayah-de’ [=‘there-when’] at that time (in into it’] two triangular tattoos above each corner of the the future); hayah-dung’ at that time (in the past) mouth that way: haya:ch’ing’ [= from hayah-ch’ing’ ‘there- • me:siwidlay [=‘they are carried up along it’] tattoo towards’] to that direction, thither, that way design element the: hay the, that, the one who (is, does) tea: k’inint’ik’ wild tea (bush) their: ya:xo- (possessive prefix) their (e.g., ya:xo-xontaw’ • nahst’ik’ (or nahst’iK’) wild tea (vine) ‘their house, their houses’) tear: ts’isk’il he tore through it, broke it; yi¬k’i¬ it (fish) then: dahungwho’-dung’ then, at some time in the past tears through (net); k’iwhk’i¬ I’m tearing (bird, fish) • dahungwho’-de’ at some time in the future open (to clean it); ti¬k’i¬ tear it!; te:seh¬k’il I tore it • haya:¬ [= from hayah-¬ ‘there-with’] then, after that, tear apart: ji¬k’i¬ split it! tear it apart (with your and then (connective particle) hands)!; je:y¬k’il I tore it apart • hayah-mi¬ [=‘there-after’] then, after that, and then tear down house: na:’asxut’ he took it all apart, he (connective particle) tore (the house) down • hayahujit [= from hayah-hijit ‘there-and then’] (con- • xontah-me:w-na:na’k’isqot [=‘house-underneath nective particle) thereupon, and then it-he poked around again’] he tore down his house, • mine:jixomi¬ [= from mine:jit-xw-mi¬ ‘the middle of moved his residence (old idiom in stories) it-at-from, after’] (connective particle) afterwards, then tear up: ya:k’iwhk’i¬ I’m tearing it to pieces, ripping (after a while) it up; ya:k’iseh¬k’il I tore it to pieces there: hayah there (in that location); haya:ch’ing’ tears: whina:q’ito’ [= from whina:-q’it-to-’ ‘my eyes- [= from hayah-ch’ing’ ‘there-towards’] to that direc- on-water’] my tears tion, thither, that way; q’at-hayah right there tease: ch’iyo’ne [= from ch’iyo-ch’ine ‘ch’iyo-they • yo:w that, there (close by); yo:di there, that place say’] someone teases, there is teasing; xo¬-ch’iyo: there; yo:ch’ing’ [= from yo:w-ch’ing’ ‘there (close)- diwhne [= ‘with him-I am teasing’] I tease him!; towards’] to there (close by), thither xo¬-ch’iyo:de:n tease him!; whi¬-ch’iyo:ya’ne they • ye:w that, there (far off); ye:di over there, that place are teasing me; xo¬-ch’iyo:diwe:ne’ you teased him. over there; ye:ch’ing’ [= from ye:w-ch’ing’ ‘there (far See RIDICULE off)-towards’] to there (far off), thither
  • 115. THERE IT IS!/THROW A SPEAR 96 there it is!: yowi-na’ look! there it is! thresher: mi¬-k’i¬wul [=‘with it-one threshes’] thresher, they say: ch’in [= reduced form of ch’ine ‘they say’] used to thresh out wild oats into basket they say, it is said (quotative particle, used rarely) (e.g., throat: whiqa:qe’ my throat, tonsils; miqa:qe’ its dundi-ch’in [=‘who?-they say’] ‘who do they say it is?’) (animal’s) throat, gullet thick: dita:n it is thick; diwinta’n it got thick • whisowo¬ my throat, windpipe • nitsa:s it is big around, thick (like a stick) • whiwhday’ my throat (archaic) thief: k’itilkyo:t [=‘he steals things’] thief • whi-yehk’ilxit-q’eh [=‘my-where one swallows thigh: whiq’ay’ my hip, thigh, the inside of my leg in-along’] my esophagus, throat thimbleberry: wun’da’awh [=‘one lifts it off’] thimble- throb: yuk’iwidmil [=‘it is thrown up’] it throbs, berry (Rubus parviflorus) twitches thin: ’ist’ik’ it is thin, slender, narrow; ts’ist’ik’ he is through: ma’a:n penetrating through it, perforating thin, slender it (e.g., ma’a:n-ch’ite:ng’e’n ‘he looked through it’); • ch’o’da:y he is thin, poor; ch’o:ya’da:y they are thin, xwa’a:n through him; ky’a’a:n through something, poor; ch’onda’ get thin, poor!; ch’o’winda’ he got thinner a hole, cave • ts’it’a’nye it is thin (like a leaf or paper); through, go: wa:ninyahwh go through!; wa: ts’iwint’a’nye’ it got thin na:’undiyay he went back through think: ’ayniwhsin I think so; ’ayninsing you think so; ’a: • q’a:xis-xowa:ningxits’ [=‘arrow-flew through him’] ch’o:ne he thinks so; ’ayne:se’n I thought so; ’ayniwinse’n the arrow (shaft) went through him, passed through his you thought so; ’a:ch’ondehsne’ he thought so body • whikyun-na:way [=‘my mind-goes around’] I think, thousand: min¬un-dikin [=‘ten-hundred’]one consider; wung-whikyun-na:way [=‘concerning it, thousand to it-my mind-goes around’] I’m thinking about it; throw (armload, liquid): k’imi¬ throw them down! xokyun-na:nya’ he thought, considered sling them down!; no:na’unime:t¬’ he threw them back think of: minawhliwh I remember it, call it to mind, down; na:na:dme’t¬’ they have been thrown down, think of it; whinuliwh remember me! think of me!; lie scattered; xe’e:ya’wime:t¬’ they threw (scraps, mina’wiliwh he remembered it; xona:na’wiliwh he things) away thought of him again throw (cloth): nawh’ut I’m going to throw it (cloth-like thinking: whije:’ my state of mind, way of thinking object) down; no’ning’ut he threw (cloth) down thirsty: whisowo¬-ni¬tsa:y [=‘my throat-is dry’] I am throw (dirt): na:ninchwa throw (dirt, sand, loose stuff) thirsty at it!; na’ne:chway he threw dirt at it thirty: ta:q’idimin¬ung [= ta:q’iding-min¬ung ‘three throw (person, animal): k’e:xo¬tsahs throw him times-ten’] thirty down (to the ground)!; k’e’wi¬tsa:s he threw (animal) this: de here, this; de:di this here; hay-de:di (or hay- down; me:xwe:y¬tsa:s I slung him against it de) this one here throw (round object): xe’i¬q’ahs throw it (round • de:n’ch’ing’ [= from de:-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘here-side- object) away!; xe’e’wi¬q’a:s he threw it away; de: toward’] on this side (of the stream) diwhq’a:s I am throwing it (round object) into this one: de:dá:ng’ [= de:di-’á:ng’ ‘this here-it is’] this the fire one, this is the one, this is it throw (several objects or a rope): na:ni¬di¬ this way: de:-ch’ing’ [=‘here-towards’] in this direc- throw (several objects) across! sling (rope) across!; tion, hither, this way; de:di-q’eh [=‘this here-following na:ne:¬de:t¬’ I slung (rope) across; na’ni¬de:t¬’ he along’] this way, along here slung it across thorn: dime:n [=‘what is sharp’] thorn; midime:n’ its throw (stick): yu¬wu¬ throw it (stick) up in the air!; thorn; k’idime:nch thorn; sticker ya’wi¬wa:t¬’ he threw it up in the air thoroughly: xo’dzi-Koh [=‘really-big (diminutive)’] • yu¬qowh throw it (stick) up in the air (with force)! hurl carefully, thoroughly it up!; ya’wi¬qoch’ he hurled it up in the air; te’i¬qowh thread: mi¬-na’k’i¬xut’ [=‘with it-he sews something’] hurl it in the water!; tehweh¬qoch’-teh I’m going to thread hurl it (stick) in the water; k’iteh¬qoch’ he threw a three: ta:q’ three; ta:q’in three people; ta:q’i-ding stick, spear three times throw (rock, ball): k’iti¬tsi¬ throw, toss (a rock)! pitch thresh: k’iseh¬wa:t¬’ I chopped something, threshed the ball! (in baseball); k’ite:seh¬tse:t¬’ I threw (a rock), seeds I pitched (the ball); xe’e:yk’e:¬tse:t¬’ I threw (a rock) • ’iwhye:wh I’m rubbing it in my hand (crushing it), away; na:k’ineh¬tse:t¬’ I threw (a rock) across I’m threshing seeds; ’inyehwh rub it in your hand!; throw a spear: ky’o’ni¬kis he threw a spear at it we:ye:wh I rubbed it
  • 116. 97 THROWN, LIE/TITMOUSE thrown, lie: silq’a:s it (round object) lies there, having frequently’; dun¬undi-ding [=‘how many-at (time)’] been thrown or dropped ‘how many times?’) • silwa:t¬’ it (e.g., stick) lies there, having been thrown time for something, be: minyay it’s time for it, or dropped; ch’isilwa:t¬’ he lies there (like a log that the day to do it has come; me:na:wh it’s getting to be has been thrown down); he lies there drunk, uncon- time for it; me:nundiyay the time for it has returned, scious, dead; ch’iwehswa:t¬’ he came to lie there drunk it comes back to a (certain) time, a (period of) time thrush: See SWAMP ROBIN has passed (e.g., ta:q’iding-me:nundiyay [=‘three thumb: whila’-minikya:w’ [=‘my hand-its big one’] times-the time for it has returned’] ‘three (years) have my thumb passed’) thunder: k’ehniwh thunder; k’e:niwh it is thundering; • q’ut-dó:ng’-xut ‘it’s time!’ (exclamation) k’e:we:niwh it thundered. time, long: sa’a it is a long time; winsa’a’ it has been tic: na:qiwh it (arm, face, etc.) twitches, it has a tic; a long time (e.g., sa’a:-na’way ‘long time-he walks’; na’wingqiwh he twitched (with a tic) do:-sa’a:y-mi¬ [=‘not-long-with, after’] ‘it wasn’t long tick: See LOUSE until...’) tie (dress): k’inch’ahwh tie a knot to hold a buckskin time, short: do:-sa’a [=‘not-a long time’] (for) a dress (kya’) at the hip!; k’e:ch’a:wh I tied a buckskin short time dress at the hip; k’iwich’a:wh waistband knot for • tse’ehdzi-ding for a little while, for a short time; woman’s buckskin dress (¶ made by winding wild grass tse’ehdzi-mi¬ after a short time and maidenhair fern on the hip of the dress.) times, at: tie (hair): tsiq’ hair tie (¶ String of mink fur or otter • -tah [=‘among’ (used metaphorically)] too, as well, skin used by women for tying hair. See Goddard L&C among the others, at times, either...or... (e.g., whe:-tah p. 20, and Plate 5.) ‘me too’; dungwho’-tah ‘someone or another’; te:se: • na:na’loy’ [=‘she ties it around again’] she ties up ya:-te:-tah ‘I will probably go too’; nahdin-tah ta: her hair by winding a fur hair-tie (tsiq’) around it; q’idin-tah [=‘two times-or three times-or’] ‘either two na:na:’asloy’ she tied up her hair; na:na:wiloy’ times or three times’) (woman’s) tied-up hair (¶ See Goddard L&C, Plate 5.) times, in olden: ch’ixolchwe:-dung’ [=‘myths-when tie (in fight, game): See DRAW (in the past)’] ‘In olden times...’ (the traditional way of tie (knot): no¬ye’ts’ tie a knot!; no:’o¬ye:ts’ he’s ty- beginning a story about myth times) ing a knot; no:neh¬ye:ts’ I tied a knot; ch’e:na¬ye’ts’ tip: See POINT untie the knot!; ch’e:na:neh¬ye:ts’ I untied a knot; ¬e: tip (in some direction): diwhna:n I’m tipping it, k’iniwhye:ts’ I’m tying them together; ¬e’k’iniwi¬ye: sloping it, giving it a certain slope or pitch (e.g., boards ts’ he tied them together on a roof); di¬nung tip it!; ch’idiwi¬na’n he tipped it tie on: me’k’it¬’o:wh he ties something on to it; • ya:diwich it tipped over; ti¬wich tip it over!; whe’k’ist¬’o’n he tied something on to me; mehst¬’o: ch’iteh¬wich he tipped it over; which’ing’-no’ni¬wich n (someone) tied it on to it, it is tied on to it; xwe: he tipped it towards me na’k’ist¬’o:n he tied it back on to her • diwidimit it (e.g., canoe) has tipped over, capsized, tie up: ch’iloy’ he ties it up, ropes (an animal); ts’isloy’ gone belly-up; de:y¬mit I tipped it over, inverted it; he tied it up, roped it; se:loy’ I tied it up; ya:wiloy’ it yiwun-na:’asmit he turned it (e.g., basket) over was tied up; ¬e:wiloy’ they are tied together • k’ich’ing’ [=‘towards something’] tipped over, turned • miniwhloy’ I’m tying you to it; me:whiloy’ tie me to to one side, upside down it!; me:xose:loy’ I tied him to it; k’e’xosloy’ he tied tired: tiwhch’it I’m getting tired out, weak from him to something (e.g., a tree); me’k’isloy’ [=‘he tied exhaustion; ch’ite:ch’it he got tired out; te:se:ch’it- something to it’] he feathered an arrow ts’eh I feel tired tiger-lily: chwa:kin tiger-lily • ti¬ch’it you’re tiring it out; te:seh¬ch’it I tired it out timber: king tree, timber (general term), stick • sisil-whinyay [=‘sisil-moved against me’] I got weak, sisil sisil-moved • tin-tah [=‘trails-among’] in the woods, out in the exhausted; sisil-ninyay you got weak, exhausted bush • whije:’sil-tehsyay [=‘my je:sil-went along’] I got time, at that: hayah-de’ [=‘there-when’] at that time (in tired of it, disgusted with it; whije:’sil-ch’itehs’a:n the future); hayah-dung’ at that time (in the past) he got on my nerves, he began to bug me • hit at the time that..., while..., when... • mije:’-si¬t’a:ts’ [=‘its breast-he broke it’] he tired (e.g., ya’wehs’a’-hit ‘while he was sitting there’; (the horse), broke its wind de:-q’ung-hit [=‘here-recently-at that time’] ‘a short • ’ayeh I’m tired, weak (exclamation; said when sick, time ago, recently’) suffering from weakness) time (instance): -ding at that place, that time titmouse: See NUTHATCH (e.g., ¬un-ding [=‘many-at (time)’] ‘at many times,
  • 117. TO/TRACING DOCTOR 98 to: wung from, from it (leaving it behind), concerning it, q’idin-tah [=‘two times-or three times-or’] ‘either two to it; whiwung from me, to me; xowung from him, to times or three times’) him (e.g., wun-te:sa:yay ‘I went off without it, I went too (much): jahda too (much) (e.g., jahda:-dingq’och’ off from it’; xowung-dahna:da:’a:n ‘I took (round ’uliwh-ts’eh ‘it tastes too sour’; jahda:- ¬a:n ‘there’s object) from him’; whiwung-ch’iningyay ‘he came to too much’); jahda:-ding thoroughly, too much, to a (visit) me’; xowung-ning’awh ‘bring (round object) to great extent him!’). See TOWARD tooth: See TEETH toad: See FROG toothbrush: xowo’-mi¬-tehna:k’i¬diw [=‘his teeth- tobacco: minde’i¬chwe with it-he cleans’] toothbrush (modern) tobacco, cigarette top: na:mis-dima:s [= ‘around , in a circle-it spins’] a (toy) top • xo’ji-minde’i¬chwe [=‘true- • na:k’iwilda:wh [= ‘what has been spun around here tobacco’] wild native tobacco and there’] top (Nicotiana bigelowii) top, on: miq’it on it, on top of it, resting on it; whiq’it on • milide’-ni¬chwin [=‘its me, on my head, body; ’i¬q’it (piled) on top of each other smoke-stinks’] tobacco (rare) • milay’ its (tree’s, mountain’s) top, summit, peak minde’i¬chwe today: de:sxa:n [= from de:- • mitsida’ on the (roof-)top of something, covering yisxa:n ‘here-it has dawned’] today something (e.g., whe:da’ay-mitsida’ ‘on top of my • de:-je:nis today, this day head, on the crown of my head’) • de:di-ding [=‘this here-place, time’] nowadays, these • dah- on top (verb prefix): dah’iwh’a:wh I set it (e.g., days, today stone) on top; dahna’wing’a:n he put it back on top toe: whixe’-mimisGiye’ [=‘my foot-its little thing’] my toss: ya’wi¬q’a:s he tossed (a ball) up toe (other than the big toe) toss (with stick): nawhquch (or -qich) I’m tossing toenail: whixe’-ke’ts’ [=‘my foot-nail’] my toenail it around with a stick, pushing it here and there with a together: ¬e’ [=‘into each other’] (bunched up) together, stick (usually with reference to the stick game, shinny); (pulled) together (e.g., ¬e’-no:ne:lay ‘I laid (several na:se:quch I tossed it around; ch’ingquch toss it out objects) down close together, piled up’) (with stick)! make a goal in the stick game!; ch’e:ne: • ¬e:- [=‘towards, against each other’] together (verb quch I tossed it out; ya’k’itiquch they toss it along prefix): ¬e:ya’ninyay (a group) came together, assem- (with a stick), they are playing the stick game bled; ¬e’k’iwilaw he has gathered together, collected tossel: ya:dimil “tossel” used in stick game (¶ Two (e.g., firewood; ¬e:wiling they (streams) flow together) sticks tied with buckskin.) See SHINNY • hi¬ (living) together with (e.g., t¬’iwh-hi¬ deh¬ts’e touch: midiwhnaw I touch it; do:-midiynah don’t touch ‘snakes-with they (animals) live’; xochwo:-hi¬ ‘(he it!; mide’naw he touches it; mide:yna’n I touched it; lived there) together with his grandmother’) mide’we:na’n he touched it; mide:dna’n it’s been toilet: See BATHROOM touched; whide:naw [=‘it touches me’] I’m shot; Tolowa: yide’-dining’xine:wh [= ‘downstream-Hupa whide:we:na’n [=‘it touched me’] I’ve been shot Indians’] Tolowa Indians • nu¬xit’ feel it! touch it!; na:xo¬xit’ touch him!; • dilwa:sh [= diminutive form of dilwa:wh ‘they na:’asxit’ he touched it, felt it; na’whisxit’ he touched babble’] Tolowa Indians me; do:-na:’u¬xit’ don’t be touching anything! tomato: k’ina’ch’ixixe:l’-nehwa:n [= ‘(berry of) • dahk’iliwh [=‘move the (several objects) atop!’] put Solomon’s Seal-it resembles’] tomato your hand on something!; dahk’e:lay I put my hand tomorrow: yisxun-de’ [=‘it dawns-when (in the future)’] on something tomorrow; yisxung’ [= short form of yisxunde’] tomor- toward: which’ing’ toward me; xoch’ing’ towards him, row; yisxun-yisxa:n [=‘tomorrow’s-tomorrow’] the her; xontah-ch’ing’ towards the house day after tomorrow towel: mi¬-wun’dichwit [=‘with it-he wipes’] towel tongue: whisa:sta:n [= from whisah-sita:n ‘inside my towhee: chwun’-yo¬tul [=‘excrement-it kicks’] towhee mouth-it (stick-like object) lies’] my tongue; misa:sta: (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided towhee) n its (animal’s, wagon’s) tongue • na:xolts’a’ [=‘it soaks down into the ground’]towhee, tonsils: whiqa:qe’ my throat, tonsils a variety of small bird too (also): q’ina’ (also q’ing’) also, again, too tracing doctor: xo’-ch’itehs’e’n [=‘well-she is look- (e.g., whe:-q’ing’ ‘me too’; whichwiwe:-q’ina’ ‘my ing’] tracing doctor, clairvoyant, diagnosing doctor grandfather-also’) (¶ A tracing doctor traces lost things. Nothing can be • -tah [=‘among’, used metaphorically] too, as well, hidden from her. She can’t cure, and doesn’t do sucking among the others, at times, either...or... (e.g., whe:-tah doctoring, but can see secrets. She closes her eyes and ‘me too’; dungwho’-tah ‘someone or another’; te:se: sings and uses condor feathers and a pipe.) ya:-te:-tah ‘I will probably go too’; nahdin-tah ta:
  • 118. 99 TRACING DOCTOR/TROMBONE • xoq’it-ch’ite:ng’e’n [=‘on him-she takes a look’] she trash: ch’it, ch’ich scraps, trash is “tracing” on someone (acting as diagnosing doctor); • niwinchwin’-xolung it’s no good, it’s spoiled niq’it-ch’ite:ng’in’-te he will look you over, diagnose you travel: ch’iqa:l (person) is walking along, travelling; qa: • tintahch’ing’-wha:’a:ne [=‘out in the woods-it l it (sound, weather, etc.) comes, travels, is on the move speaks for him’] another term for tracing doctor (e.g., xo¬iqay-qa:l ‘whiteness of daybreak-arrives’; • k’iti¬xiw [=‘one who tracks’] tracer, tracker mahni-qa:l ‘a war party-is on the move’) track: ti¬xeh track it (animal)!; ch’iteh¬xiw he tracked it; • ti¬’awh (several animals) move off, set off walking; na’wi¬xe:l he is on the track, tracks it along; na:’asxe’ teh¬’a:ch’ they have moved off; yeh’i¬’ah they move he tracked it around; na:xoniwhdixe’-te I will track into (an enclosure); yehwi¬’a:ch’ they moved into it; him down nah¬’awh they move around, browse, roam; nahs’a: track, footprint: mixe’ its foot, footptint, track ch’ they have moved around • mi-mi¬-na:tul’ [=‘its-with it -it steps’] its (animal’s) treasure basket: je:lo’-ch [=‘storage basket- paw, track (diminutive)’] small-to-medium-sized storage basket tradition: mi¬-na:sa’a:n [=‘with it-it stays’] there in which valuables were kept is a tradition (e.g., dining’xine:wh-mi¬-na:sa’a:n treat: ’a:xowh’e:n I do it to him, treat him thus; [=‘Hupa people-with them-it stays’] ‘there is a Hupa ’a’whi¬’e:n he does it to me; ’a:xowhlaw I did it to tradition’) him; ’a:niwhleh let me do it to you!; ’a:whiwilaw what trail: tin trail, road is done to me, my way of being treated • tin-ne:s [=‘trail-long’] the trail leading from the • ’a:k’idiwhlaw I’m treated thus, things (unexpectedly) danceground at Hostler Ranch back to miq’ich’ing’,the happen to me; ’a’k’idilaw he is treated thus upper bench with tan oaks • ...-ch’il’e:n (people) treat it like... (e.g., ¬in-nich’il’e:n • tin-tah [=‘trails-among’] out on the woods, bush country ‘relative-(people) treat you like’; t¬’oh¬-ch’il’e:n ‘hazel train: tse:¬ch’e’-miq’it-nah¬’its [=‘iron-on it-it runs switches’ [= from ‘strap-people treat it like’]) around’] train tree: king tree, timber (general term), stick • ’a:da:-nah¬’its [=‘by itself-it runs around’] automo- • k’ikine’ dead tree (especially a standing conifer) bile, train • kiyiq’ hollow tree train (for luck, power): ky’a’a’diq’ay [=‘he rubs • k’it¬’a’-ch’e’n [=‘something’s bottom-part’] the bot- himself against it’] he is training for power (at a tim) tom part of a tree • xo¬-diniwi¬’a’ he is training (“mental training”), he • nista:n log, fallen tree learned it tree stands: na:da’ay [=‘it extends out, sticks out’] it • ’a’di¬chwe [=‘he makes himself’] he or she is training (tree, pole, etc.) stands there, sticks out (of the ground); (to be a doctor); ’a’dischwe’n he trained; xowhchwe na:diwh’ay I’m standing it up (pole, etc.), planting I’m training him a tree; na:di¬’a stand it up! plant it!; na’diwi¬’a’ he • k’idiwun-na:way she dances the doctor-training stood it up dance • k’isxa:n [=‘a specific filled container lies somewhere’] training place: tim any place you train for luck or a tree stands; k’iwingxa’a tree came to stand, still power stands; na:k’iwingxa’ a tree came to stand again • tse:-k’ite:lmuts’-ding [=‘rocks-made into a circle- tremble: ch’iwhi¬ts’is-xoliwh [=‘someone shakes me-I place’] a circle of rocks on top of a mountain, where In- feel’] I’m shaking dian doctors train (¶ Anyone who camps there becomes • ch’ixowa:t-xoliwh [=‘someone shakes him-he feels’] a doctor. These places are avoided by others.) he shakes, trembles • miq’a’a’di¬chwe [= miq’it-’a’di¬chwe ‘on it-he trick: See FOOL trains’] another name for a doctor-training rock-circle trigger: mich’ing’-nayni¬t’ik’ trigger (on a gun) tramp: t’e’-naywe [=‘blanket-he carries it around’] trigger net: See A-FRAME NET tramp, hobo Trinity River: hun’ river, specifically the Trinity transformation times: ch’ixolchwe:-dung’ river [=‘(world) being made-when (in the past)’] in mythi- • ta’na:n-na:niwe:sile’n [=‘water-you who have come cal times; at the time the world was being prepared to flow down through here’] Trinity River, as a power for human beings one should pray to translate: See INTERPRET trip: te:se:xits’ I fell, tripped trap: mi¬-yi¬kit [=‘with it-it catches it’[ (steel) trap tripe: k’imit’ [=‘stomach’] tripe. See INTESTINES • miq’it-k’ixut [=‘on it-it falls’] “figure-4” trap, deadfall. trombone: me’-k’i¬yo:l-na’yo:s [=‘into it-he blows- See SNARE (and) he pulls it’] slide trombone
  • 119. TROT/TYPEWRITER 100 trot: wiqowhil (animal) is running, trotting along • tiwhq’its’ I’m turning it, twisting it; te:se:q’its’ I • wilda:l (animal) is running along turned it, twisted it trouble, look for: ¬i:yun’tehsta:n [=‘they have carried turn around: na:nawhdinaw I turn around (and go something together’] they went to look for trouble, pick back); na:nundinah turn around!; na:na’dinaw he a fight; ¬intiwhtiwh I’m going to look for trouble; “I’ll turns around; na:na:ysdina’n I turned around (and see about that!” went back); na:na:’isdina’n he turned around trousers: xots’ing’-yehk’ixowilt’ow [=‘his legs-they • na:nu¬dinah turn it around!; na:na:’u¬dinaw he turns are pulled over’] trousers it around; na:na:’usdina’n he turned it around trout: ¬o’ya:wh [= reduced from ¬o:q’-ya:wh ‘fish-young, • na:na:sinyahwh turn around and go back! small’] creek trout (Salmo); any small fish turn away: me’eh turning away from it, turning back • ¬o’yahwh-qay [=‘trout-white’] salmon trout, ‘half- before reaching it; whe’eh turning away from me; ¬e’eh pounder’ [=‘turning away from each other’] unevenly, randomly, • miya:which [=‘its small one (diminutive)’] small in no direction salmon, ‘half pounder’ (old name) turn back: nint’a:na’widyay (or ’int’a:na’widyay) he true: xo’ch (or xo’ji-) true, well, real, really, thoroughly, turned back, started back home; ’int’a:na’winde:t¬’ in a correct way (e.g, xo’ji-kya’ [=‘true-dress’] ‘tradi- they turned back; ’int’a:nundawh turn back! tional Indian dress’; xo’ji-¬a:n ‘really-many’; xo’ji- turn over: xowun-nahsdimit it turned over (like a ch’itehs’e’n ‘well-she sees’) boat); yiwun-nahsdimit it has turned over (by itself); • q’ut-xut that’s the truth; that’s really the way it is yiwun-na:’usmit he turned it (e.g., basket, boat) over truly: dó:ng’ really, truly, honestly (¶ Usually spoken • yiduq-nung’awh turn (round object) over! turn it with high pitch. Adds emphasis, contrast; e.g., k’i¬ixun upright!; yiduq-na:sa:’a:n I turned it over (CLASSIFICA- dó:ng’ me:diwhdin ‘deer meat - really (as opposed to TORY VERB) some other kind of meat) - I want’.) • k’ich’ing’-nong’awh [=‘towards something-put trumpet: yehk’i¬yo:l [=‘he blows into it’] trumpet, it down!’] turn (round object) over!; k’ich’ing’- cornet no’ning’a:n he turned it over (CLASSIFICATORY VERB) trunk: k’it¬’a’-ch’ing’ [=‘bottom-towards’] the trunk, • See also TIP OVER lower part of tree turtle: ts’in-teh¬ [=‘bone-wide’] turtle try: xoh futilely, in vain; try (but fail) (e.g., xoh-’a’t’e: twenty: nahdimin¬ang [= nahding-min¬ung ‘twice- n [= ‘futilely-he did it’] ‘he couldn’t do it’; ’ina’diqe’- ten’] twenty xoh-wuna’way [=‘he gets up-in vain-he busied him- twice: nahding [= from nahx-ding ‘two-times’] twice self’] ‘he tried to get up but couldn’t’) twine: k’idits he’s twisting, twining (string, rope); tsnungxwe, Burnt Ranch Indians: tse:ning-xwe k’indits twine it!; k’iwindits he has twined it; k’iwidits [=‘Ironside-people’] Indians of Burnt Ranch and the Indian twine (made of iris), string, rope. See ROPE South Fork of the Trinity (¶ Ironside mountain, tse:- twist: tingqits’ twist it! ; te:se:qits’ I twisted, turned it; ning [=‘stone-mountainside’], is on the north side of nawhqits’ I’m twisting it back and forth; na:’usqits’ the Trinity River, opposite Burnt Ranch.) he twisted it back and forth (e.g., fumbling with screw); tule: t¬’ohtse’ cattail, tule, flat tule (Typha latifolia) xot¬’a’-na’qits’ [=‘his buttocks-he twists’] The Twist tumble: k’itiwhqowh I am tumbling; k’iteh¬qoch’ he (dance) tumbled • k’iq’e:n he is twisting a hazel withe (to make it flex- • na’widqot’ he tumbled down from above; ya’widqot’ ible); k’iwingq’in-te he will twist a hazel withe he tumbled, wiggled up twisted: te:diqits’ it is twisted (like a tree). See turkey: mining’-q’it-nuk’i¬at’ (or -nuk’i¬o:t’) [=‘its CROOKED face-on-there is (something) flapping around’] turkey; twitch: na:qiwh it is twitching (e.g., tic on arm, face); turkey’s wattles na’wingqiwh he twitched; whina:’-na:ngqiwh-ts’eh turn, be someone’s: xa’-ning [=‘okay-you’] it’s I felt my eye twitch. See THROB your turn! two: nahx two; nahnin two people; nahding [= from • nich’ing’-yehna:ldiqo¬ [=‘to you-it crawls back in’] nahx-ding ‘two times’] twice, two times it’s your turn! (¶ Said in challenge to the next singer two-headed monster: nahxi-k’iq’os-na:diwul at a Kick Dance. After a singer finishes he says this [=‘two-necks-swing around’] a mythical giant with two phrase to the next singer, meaning something like “I’ve heads, on necks that swing around done my best, now let’s see what you can do!”) typewriter: ’a:da:-k’i¬’e:n [=‘by itself-it writes’] turn, twist: yehnawhma:s I’m turning (bolt) on its threads typewriter; computer
  • 120. U udder: mits’o:’ its udder, teat underwear: ma:-yehk’ixowilt’ow [=‘before, first-what ugly: nichwe’n it is bad, bad-looking, ugly; ch’inchwe’n someone is slipped into’] underwear he or she is bad, ugly; ch’iniwinchwe’n he or she undo: da’a:nawh’ing I’m undoing it, untying it; da’a: became ugly na’ulaw he undid it, untied it, rubbed it off umbilical cord: whits’e:q’it [= from whits’e:q’-q’it undress: ch’a’a:na:di¬t’oh [=‘pull yourself out of it’] ‘on my navel’] my umbilical cord take it off! undress! umbrella: ’ade:q’it-na’qot [=‘above himself-he goes • xoky’a:na’uliwh she takes off the dress again around with it poked on a stick’] umbrella unenthusiastic: See LAZY unawares: ’a:dina:taw unawares, being unaware unexpectedly: ’ungya’ unexpectedly, surprisingly, of what he is doing, unconsciously; nina:taw being seeing something suddenly, lo and behold! (e.g., unaware of what you are doing (e.g., ’a:dina:taw- ’ungya’-xe’e’winya:-ye ‘suddenly (he saw)-he went ’a:’adyaw ‘he did it unawares’) past-there’, i.e., he suddenly saw him going past) uncertainty: xowh it seems, it must be, I guess (particle unfold: na:ti¬tah unfold it (e.g., paper, canvas)! uncoil indicating uncertainty, lack of definite knowledge) (a rope)!; na’te:si¬taw (or na’te¬taw) he unfolded it (e.g., dahungwho’dung’-xowh [=‘for quite a while-it unknown: do:-’o:lts’it it is not known, it is unknown seemed’] ‘it looked like it had been quite a while’; unlucky: See BAD diydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-it seems-for’] ‘what for, unmarried: keh¬tsa:n-’isdiya:n [=‘girl-old person’] I wonder?; da:ywho’-xo-xowh [=‘somewhere-at-it unmarried woman, old maid seems’] ‘somewhere or another’) • q’un-’isdiya:n [=‘young, new-old person’] unmarried uncle: whis’ my mother’s brother man, bachelor • whita:y my father’s brother • q’unch’iwilchwil-’isdiya:n [=‘adolescent boy-old uncooked: See RAW person’] a man who has never married uncover: wan’k’idiwi¬xut’ he uncovered something; • tintah-k’i¬chwe [=‘in the woods-she gives birth’] xowan’k’idiwi¬xut’ he uncovered him unmarried mother under: me:w under it, (right) underneath it (e.g., xon- unripe: miloy (berries) are unripe, green. See RAW tah-me:w ‘under the house’); whe:w under me; k’e:w untie: ch’e:na¬ye:ts’ take that knot apart!; ch’e:na: under something (i.e., hidden away, in secret) neh¬ye:ts’ I untied a knot • miyeh under it, at the foot of it; whiyeh under me, at • ch’i¬tsit’ untie it (by pulling out a knot)!; ch’e’ni¬tsit’ my feet; xoyeh under him, them. he untied it underground: yineh (also ’ineh, ninyeh) in the ground, up: je:nah up above, high up, upstairs; je:nah-ch’ing’ under the surface of the ground, underground [=‘above-toward’] in an upward direction, up in the underskirt: See SLIP air understand: k’ide:ts’eh-na’k’i¬chwe [=‘understanding- up along: me:-si- climbing up along it (verb prefix): he makes someone again’] he explains it, interprets it, me:siwha:wh I’m going up, climbing (a hill); me:se: makes someone understand; k’ide:ts’eh-ya’xo¬chwe yay I started up, climbed (a hill); k’e’sina:wh he’s [=‘understanding-he makes them’] he translates for climbing up along something, climbing a ladder, going them, explains it to them upstairs; k’e:’isyay he climbed something; k’e’sindil • xwe:xolya:n he has sense, understanding, is watching they climb something; mehs’ay road, trail goes up out for things (cf. do:-xwe:xolya:n ‘he has no sense, is up out of the ground: See OUT OF THE GROUND crazy’); whe:xolya:n I have sense; whe:na’xowilya’n up to it, be: do:-me:ne:who’n [=‘not-I have become he came back to his senses (after being unconscious, good for it’] I am not fit for it, up to it crazy); k’e:xo¬ya:n one who understands things uphill: yiduq up away from the stream, uphill • whi¬-dini¬’ay I know how to do it, I understand it; • yinuqi-yiduq upstream-uphill (i.e., moving in an xo¬-dini¬’ay he knows how to do it; whi¬-diniwi¬’a’ I upstream direction while going away from the stream). have learned how to do it See EAST underwater: te:w in the water, underwater • yidahch’ing coming down from uphill • yisinch’ingcoming up from downhill, coming up from the
  • 121. UPHILL/UTENSILS 102 stream, coming from the west; yisinch’in [= yisinch’ing- • yinahch’ing coming from upstream; yinach’in ni ‘from the west people’] Blue Lake Indians [= yinach’ing-ni ‘from upstream people’] Indians from • yiduqe:n’ch’ing’ [= from yiduq-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘uphill- upstream (Chimariko, Wintu) side-toward’] on the uphill side • yinuqe:n’ch’ing’ [= from yinuq-e:n’-ch’ing’ ‘up- • mit’a:w above it, on the uphill side of it; whit’a:w stream-side-toward’] on the upstream side up above me, on the upper side of me, uphill from me • yinuq-tiwhqeh [=‘upstream-I shove (a stick) along’] uphill to the top: xa:-si- uphill to the top (verb prefix): I go upstream in a boat; yinuq-ya’te:sqe:t they went xa:sing’awh [=‘move (round object) uphill to a certain upstream in boats point’] take it (e.g., stone) uphill to the top (e.g., from upward: ya:- upward, up from the ground, up in the the river to the house)!; xa’sa’awh he takes it up to the air (verb prefix): yawh’awh [=‘I move (round object) top; xa:’as’a:n he took it up to the top; xa:sinyahwh upward, up from the ground’] I pick it up (e.g., stone), go up to the top (of the hill, riverbank)!; xa:sina:wh it raise it up; yung’awh pick it up!; ya’wing’a:n he (e.g., sun) goes up to the top (i.e., rises above the hill); picked it up; ya:nang’awh pick it back up (after putting xa:se:yay I went up to the top; xa:’usyay he went up it down)!; ya:na’wing’a:n he picked it back up to the top; xahsyay (sun) rose; xahslin it (water) flows urinate: ’iwhlich I’m urinating; ch’ilich he’s urinating; uphill (i.e., eddying in a riffle) ch’iwilich he urinated; do:-widliji-heh no urinating!; uproot: xu¬wich uproot it!; xa:y¬wich I uprooted it; xa: de:k’idiwhlich I urinate into the fire dwich it (tree) uprooted itself urine: lich urine; whilije’ my urine upside down: ts’ehdiwitse’ upside down (e.g., used up: do:-xohsle’ [=‘not-it became plenty’] it’s all ts’ehdiwitse’-no:na’ning’a:n [=‘ts’ehdiwitse’-he put used up, there is no more (e.g., do:-xohsle’ ta:ysts’e: (round object) back down’] ‘he turned (e.g., stone) y ‘there is no more sweathouse wood’) upside down’) used to: ne’in used to (do, be), was ...-ing (past tense) • k’ich’ing’ [=‘towards something’] tipped over, turned (e.g., k’itawhtsid-ne’in ‘I used to soak (acorns), I had to one side, upside down been soaking them’; whima:lyo’-ne’in ‘my former • yiwi-dimit [=‘under-bellied’] (glass, etc.) inverted, friends’; whichwo:-ne’in ‘my late grandmother’) with its open end down, (animal, person) with its belly used to, be: no:whidi¬ta’n I am used to it, I’m down, (hand) with palm down familiar with it; nondini¬ta’n you’re used to it; no: upstream: yinuq upstream whidini¬tun’-te I’m going to be used to it • yinuqi-yiduq upstream-uphill (i.e., moving in an utensils: ch’ide:chwing household goods, cooking upstream direction while going away from the stream). utensils. See DISHES See EAST
  • 122. V vagina: whitso:l’ my vagina, genitals • k’inilt’a:ts’-k’ike’din [=‘dried venison-the tail base’] •whinist’e’-me:q’ [=‘my body-inside’] in my (wom- the tail part (fattest part) of dried venison an’s) private parts. See INSIDE very: ting very (e.g., ting-’u¬chwo:n ‘it’s very nice’; •See also GENITALS ting-’a:’u¬chwo:n ‘he or she is very pretty’) vain, in: xoh futilely, in vain (e.g., xoh-’a’t’e:n [=‘fu- • me:tsah-xosin a lot, really, very (e.g., me:tsahxosin- tilely-he did it’] ‘he couldn’t do it’; xoh-xa’nite [=‘in ni¬chwin ‘it really stinks’) vain-he was looking for’] ‘he looked for it in vain’; village: ¬e:na:wh neighbors, people living nearby; ’ina’diqe’-xoh-wuna’way [=‘he gets up-in vain-he bus- in a village ied himself with it’] ‘he tried to get up but couldn’t’) violin: mich’ing’-na’yo:s [=‘toward it-he pulls back valley: de:di-me:q’ [=‘here-inside’] valley, specifically and forth’) violin Hoopa Valley virgin: k’eh¬tsa:n unmarried adolescent girl, female valuable: mi¬-ch’idilye [=‘with it-a religious dance teenager, virgin (is danced)’] regalia and other valuables used in visible, be: xol’e’n it is visible, in view; xo:wehs’e’n it is ceremonial dances becoming visible, coming into view (e.g., the landscape value: mi¬iye’ it is worth it; niwin¬iye’ you have become at dawn). See INVISIBLE valuable visit: whiwun-ch’ina:wh [=‘to me-he goes’] he is visiting vanish: See DISAPPEAR me; xowan-ch’ininyay he came to see him velevt (on antlers): k’ide’-k’ich’iwh [‘antlers-it peels • niwhtsis-te I’ll be coming to see you (at a certain it from them’] velvet on deer antlers; yik’isch’iwh it time) (deer) peeled the velvet from its antlers vomit: xoy vomit venison: k’i¬ixun (or k’i¬uxun) [=‘what tastes good’] • na:na¬xoy vomit!; na:na:’usxoy’ he vomited deer, venison vulture: misah-ni¬chwin [= ‘its mouth stinks’] turkey • k’inilt’a:ts’ cut up and dried venison, jerky vulture, buzzard (Cathartes aura)
  • 123. W wade: ta:wha:wh I’m wading in the water, wading they danced the War Dance, started war-dancing; across (creek); tunyahwh wade!; ta’winyay he na’k’iwintse they danced the War Dance again waded; tahdi¬ wade (you all); ta:ya’winde:t¬’ they • k’itse:-whing’ War Dance songs (¶ Sung in chorus. A all waded; ta’nasya he waded around in the water, man who has killed a person starts the song, and others he went wading join in. They stamp the ground for beating time. Most waist: whit¬’eh-kin’ [=‘my crotch-base’] my waist of these songs are medicine songs.) • whine:jit around my waist, around my middle • k’inahsni passing in front of someone (¶ Refers to waistband: See TIE warriors in the War Dance boastfully dancing in front wait: dongq’a’-tsit [=‘before-first’] wait a minute! hold of the line of enemy dancers; e.g., k’inahsni-na’qot ‘in on! first let’s... front of someone-they move around with poles, poke • whina wait up! wait for me!; xona:-sinda [=‘waiting poles around’, i.e., they dance opposite the enemy with for him-you stay!’] wait for him!; whina:-ch’iwinda’ trophies on sticks.) [=‘waiting for me-he stayed (for a while)’] he waited for me war jacket: k’iwidwol [=‘scraped (hide)’] shield of wake up: ch’iwhsit I’m waking up; ch’insit wake elk-skin; war-jacket, armor made of arrowwood strips up!; ch’e:whsit I woke up; ch’e:nsit you woke up; (kint¬’its’) woven together ch’e:’ensit he woke up war party: mahn party of warriors; mahni-qa:l [=‘war • ch’e:xowhsit I’m waking him up; ch’e:whi¬sit wake party-travels’] a group of warriors is on the warpath; me up!; ch’e’whi¬sit he’s waking me up; ch’e:xoneh¬sit mahn-tehsyay [=‘war party-went off’] they went off I woke him up; ch’e’whini¬sit he woke me up in a war party walk: ch’iqa:l he’s walking along; wiwha:l I’m walking warm: xonse:l it (weather) is warm, hot, sunny, there along; winya:l you’re walking along is heat; xowinse:l it got warm; xowinseh¬-ts’eh I feel • ya’widil they are walking along; we:dil we are walk- it getting warm ing along; wohdil you (all) are walking along • nawhtse:l I’m warming it up, heating it; na¬tseh¬ • See also TRAVEL warm it up!; na:y¬tse:l (or na:seh¬tse:l) I warmed it up wall: k’idiwilq’a’n [=‘what has been leaned up’] inner • tosi¬ (sometimes reduced to tos) warm water, luke- wall of a living house warm water • yo’n-yinuq [=‘place of honor behind the fire-up- warrior: See WAR PARTY stream’] the inner wall of a living house (furthest from wart: ye’ts’ wart; whiye:ts’e’ my wart the door) wash: ’a:dinin’-na:k’i¬deh wash your (own) face!; ’a: wane: na:te:ch’it [=‘it has gotten tired again’] the dila’-na’k’iwi¬diw he washed his (own) hands; tehna: waning moon (when its going from full to new) na’k’iwi¬diw he has washed, cleaned it (with water), want: me:diwhdin I want it, crave it, want to have or washed clothes (modern); me’-tehna:na’k’i¬diw [=‘in do it (e.g., me:diwhdin-na:tiwhda:wh ‘I want to go it-he washes’] washroom, bathroom home’); me:dindin-’ung do you want it?; me’de:din wasp: mits’in’-na:ng’e:t¬’ [=‘its legs-hang down’] wasp he wants it; me’de:nde’n he got to want it watch: na:xodiwh’e’n I watch him, take notice of • me:diwhchwing I’m hungry for it, want it (e.g., ¬o: him, keep my eyes on him; na:whidil’ing’ watch me!; q’i-me:diwhchwing ‘I want fish’); me’diwinchwe’n na’whidil’e’n he watches me; nandiwe:s’e’n I watched he got hungry for it you; na’xodiwehs’e’n he watched her • me:sowhsin I want to do it, I’m really interested in do- • miwhliwh I’m watching it, keeping an eye on it; ing it; me:sonsin you want to do it; me’so:sin he wants miliwh watch it! keep an eye on it!; me’liwh he’s to do it; me:so:yse’n I wanted to do it; me’so:nse’n watching it; miyliwh it (animal) watches it; yayliwh he wanted to do it; k’e’so:sin he wants to do things (in they (animals) watch it; xwe:wiliwh-te you will look general), he’s ambitious, he’s a willing worker; xwe’so: after him, watch him sin he’s willing to wait on him, wants to work for him • xowut-xowhya:n I’m carefully watching him, looking war: See FIGHT after him; wut-ch’ixolya:n he is watching it; niwut- war dance: k’itse War Dance, they are war-danc- xowiwhya’n I have watched you; wut-ch’ixowilya’n ing; k’iwhtse I’m dancing the War Dance; k’iwintse he kept watch on it
  • 124. 105 WATCH OUT/WEAR watch out: nikyung-xoling [=‘your attention-(let it) be water snake: me:ne:q’-t¬’ohte:l [=‘its spine-bear- plenty’] watch out! take care! See INSIDES grass’] water snake; striped salamander (Eutoenia) water: ta’na:n [= from ta’dina:n ‘what one drinks’] watercress: See GREENS water (to drink) waterfall: noleh(-ding) [=‘(fish) swims to that point and • to body of water, ocean stops(-place)’] waterfall, dam, obstruction in a stream • jung muddy water watermelon: k’imit’-nehwa:n [=‘a belly-it resembles’] • te:w in the water, underwater (e.g., te:w-ch’itehsliw watermelon ‘he swam (deep) in the water, underwater’); teh-ch’ing’ wave: na:t’uh it floats about in the air, waves (like a into the water (e.g., tehch’ing’-tehch’iwiliw ‘he dived flag), wafts about; nahst’uw it floated around into the water’) • nawh’ut I’m waving, flapping (blanket, cloth) around; • to:-nikya:w [‘water-it is large’] high water nung’ut wave it around!; na’ut he is waving it around; • mito’ the water, juice of something na:’us’ut he waved it around • tosi¬ (sometimes reduced to tos) warm water, luke- way: whe:-q’eh [=‘me-following after’] in my way, warm water after my fashion; yima:n’dil-miq’eh in the white- • tosq’uts’ [= from to:-siq’uts’ ‘water-(which is) cold’] man’s way spring (of cold water), cold water way, in such a: -xw in such a way, in such a manner, water, into the: teh- (verb prefix): teh’ing’awh put being so, while doing so (adverb-forming suffix) (e.g., it (e.g., stone) into the water!; tehch’iwing’a:n he hayi-xw ‘in that way’; niwhong-xw ‘in a good way, put it into the water; teh’inyahwh go into the water!; well’; ye’i¬xa’-k’iwa’ah¬xw [=‘day breaks-while he is tehwe:yay I went into the water; tehch’iwinyay he singing’] ‘he sings until dawn’) went into the water • -q’ in such a way, like... (adverb-forming suffix) water, out of the: tah- out of the water, out of the fire (e.g., xwe:di-q’ ‘in what way?’; de:-q’ ‘in this way’; (verb prefix); tah’ing’awh take it (e.g., stone) out of the hayi-q’ ‘in that way’; k’ida:y-q’ ni¬chwin ‘it smells water! take it out of the fire!; tahts’is’a:n he took it out like flowers’; ’aht’ing-q’i-’unt’e [=‘all-in such way-it of the water; tahna:’us’a:n he took it back out of the is’] ‘all kinds of...’) water (something that had been put into the water) way of doing: ’a:winiw the doing of it, how is done water flows: nilin (water) flows; niwehsle’n it started (e.g. do:niwho:n-’a:winiw ‘not good-doing it; unlucky to flow way of doing things’; k’iwinya’nya:n-ma’a:winiw’ water moves: winto’ (water) has moved somewhere, ‘people, Indians-their doing it; the Indian way of doing has reached to somewhere (e.g., mis-mitis winto’ things, acting’). See HABITS ‘bank-over it reached; the water overflowed the bank’); we: nehe we, us (emphatic pronoun); nehe:-’e:n for our no:nto’ (water) reached its farthest extent, (flood part, as for us water) crested; minahsto (water) surrounds it, forms weak: ts’ohsda’ general bodily weakness. an island • na:dawhsa’n I’m getting weak; na:dunsang’ get • k’ite:yo:wh (water) surged, ran along stormily; weak!; na:da’winsa’n he got weak (¶ Old-fashioned yehk’inyo:wh (water) pours in (e.g., through a hole); word, used mostly in medicine formulas.) na:k’iyo:wh (water) washes back and forth, surges • wiwhch’i¬ I’m weak; ch’iwich’il he got weak. about; ch’e:k’iyohwh (water) is running out; ch’e: • do:wile [= from do:-wile ‘not-it is enough’] (he) is k’ininyo:wh (water) ran out poor, weak; do:k’iwile [=‘someone is poor, weak’] water dog: See SALAMANDER old woman; do:we:se:le’ I came not to have enough water monster: tehk’ixolxit [=‘it swallows him into (money), went bankrupt; do:wehsle’ he went bankrupt; the water’] mythical water monster, alligator me:do:we:se:le’ [=‘I became weak towards it’] I came Water Ouzel: tse:-q’e:t’ [=‘rock-copulating (with)’] a to feel tired, unable (to complete the job); chwing-me: small black bird, the size of a robin (apparently Cinclus do:whle [=‘chwing-I am weak for it’] I am hungry; mexicanus, Water Ouzel or Dipper) (¶ It sits on a rock chwing-me’do:wile he is hungry; chwing-me’do: and makes copulating movements.) wehsle’ he got hungry water panther: xo¬tsay-taw [=‘dry places-the one that wealthy: See RICH is around, among’] water panther, mythical monster weapon: ts’i¬ting’ rifle, bow, weapon. See BOW animal (¶ Said to resemble a lion and to live in holes wear: nunch’iwh wear it (coat, dress)!; na:se:ch’iwh close to the water of lakes and pools, but never in riv- I wore it ers or on land. Its head and shoulders were heavy and • miwhkya’ I’m wearing a dress; me’wi¬kya’ she wore covered with long shaggy hair, but the hind parts were a dress nearly naked.) • ch’i¬ch’ah he’s wearing a hat, cap; weh¬ch’a:t I wore water skipper: to:-miq’i-na:k’ixo’an [=‘water-on it- a hat they move around (like a herd of animals)’] water skipper
  • 125. WEASEL/WHISKEY 106 weasel: t¬’iwh-mixung’ [=‘rattlesnake-its husband’] concerning it’] I wonder what for? weasel (Mustela) (¶ The name is probably suggested wheel barrow: whilba wheel barrow (from English) by the weasel’s snake-like form and movements.) when?: dahun’di-dung’ when (in the past)? how long weave: k’it¬’oy she is weaving (a basket); k’int¬’o ago?; dahun’di-de’ when (in the future)? (interroga- weave it!; k’ise:t¬’o’n I wove it; k’ist¬’o’n she wove it; tive temporal locative) k’iwit¬’o:n what has been woven, weaving when: -dung’ when (in the past) (e.g., simiwhGiy’- • k’itiwht¬’owh I’m starting to weave a basket; dung’ ‘when I was small’; hayah-dung’ ‘at that time k’itint¬’ohwh start weaving!; k’ite:se:t¬’o:n I started (in the past)’) weaving; k’ite:t¬’o:n she started weaving • -de’ if, when (in the future) (e.g., miq’it- • nayk’it¬’oy it (spider) weaves a web; nayk’ist¬’o’n dahna’wila:-de’ ‘when he will have put them back on, it wove a web if he puts them back on’; hayah-de’ ‘at that time (in the weaving: k’iwit¬’o:n what has been woven, weaving. future)’ See BASKET • -mi¬ [=‘with’ (after a phrase)] when..., after... wedge: no’k’itiwh wedge (e.g., nahding-yisxa:ni-mi¬ [=‘two times-it dawned- • no’k’itiwh-tse:’ [= ‘wedge-rocks’] rocks for wedging when’] ‘after two days had passed’; minyay-mi¬ ‘when • See MAUL the time for it came’) weed: t¬’ohdun’te a type of weed • -hit at the time that..., while..., when..., during... • k’iwahday’ch a type of weed (e.g., ya’wehs’a’-hit ‘while he was sitting there’; de:- weeping: chweh crying, weeping q’ung-hit [=‘here-recently-at that time’] ‘a short time weir: See FISH DAM afterwards, later on’; xay-hit ‘during the winter, in well: niwhong-xw well, healthy, in a good way (e.g., winter’) niwho:ngxw-’a:wht’e ‘I am well’) • -ding at that place, at that time (locative) (e.g., xoda: • xo’ch (or xo’ji-) true, well, real, really, thoroughly, in a nya:-ding [=‘(sun) went down-at’] ‘when the sun has correct way (e.g, xo’ji-kya’ [=‘true-dress’] ‘traditional In- gone down, after the sun has set’); dun¬undi-ding dian dress’; xo’ji-¬a:n; xo’ji-ch’itehs’e’n ‘well-she sees’) [=‘how many-at’] ‘how many times?’ ) • q’ut-xut that’s the truth; that’s really the way it is. where?: da:ydi where? (interrogative locative) well, as: -tah [=‘among’, used metaphorically] too, while: -hit at the time that..., while..., when..., during... as well, among the others, at times, either...or... (e.g., ya’wehs’a’-hit ‘while he was sitting there’; (e.g., whe:-tah ‘me too’; dungwho’-tah ‘someone or de:-q’ung-hit [= ‘here-recently-at that time’] ‘a short another’; te:se:ya:-te:-tah ‘I will probably go too’; time afterwards, later on’; xay-hit ‘during the winter, nahdin-tah ta:q’idin-tah [=‘two times-or three times- in winter’) or’] ‘either two times or three times’) • -ne:jit [=‘in the middle of’] while..., in the midst of well, get: na:whixinay’ [=‘again I am safe, alive’] I got ...ing (e.g., nawhton’-ne:jit ‘while I was dancing’) well again, recovered from an illness; ninaxinay’ get • -xw in such a way, in such a manner, being so, well again!; ninaxo:nay’ may you get well again!; na: while doing so (adverb formant, gerundive particle) xoxinay’ he got well again (e.g., hayi-xw ‘in that way’; niwhong-xw ‘in a good west: xoda:nawh-ding [=‘it (i.e., the sun) goes down- way, well’; ye’i¬xa’-k’iwa’ah¬xw [=‘day breaks-while hill-place’] west he is singing’] ‘he sings until dawn’) • yitse’n downhill, towards the stream, to the west; while ago: da’n a while ago, already (e.g., hay-da’ni- yisinch’ing’ on the side towards the stream, in the west; no:ne:xa:n [=‘the (one which)-a while ago-I put yisinch’ing coming from the stream, from the west; (container) down’, i.e., the (basket filled with some- yisinch’in [= yisinch’ing-ni ‘from the west people’] thing) that I put down a while ago] Indians to the west, Blue Lake Indians whip: ya:xo¬tsahs whip him (with a whip, stick)!; wet: ni¬chwi¬ it (thing) is wet; ch’iwi¬chwil he got wet; ya’xostsa:s he whipped him; mi¬-na’ntsa:s (or mi¬- xo¬chwi¬ it (ground) is wet, damp, swampy ya:’ltsa:s) [=‘with it-one whips’] a whip • ni¬ta:n it is soft, damp; xo¬ta:n it (ground) is damp, whirlwind: na:widits [=‘it twists around’] whirlwind (¶ soggy Ta:n makes it; it’s a warrior wind. If one has trained whale: tehla:n [= possibly from teh-(’is)la:n ‘into the to be a warrior at a whirlwind place and something water-born’] whale happens to him, whirlwind comes to his people to what?: daydi (or diydi) what? what thing? (interrogative notify them.) inanimate pronoun) whiskers: whida:w’ [= from whida:-wa’ ‘my mouth- what for: daydi-wung (or diydi-wung) [=‘what fur’] my whiskers, beard (thing)?-concerning it’] what for? why? for what whiskey: xon’-ta’na:n [=‘fire-water’] whiskey, any reason?; daydi-xowh-wung [=‘what?-I wonder?- distilled spirits
  • 126. 107 WHISPER/WINE whisper: xwe:ch’-mi¬-ch’ixine:wh [=‘his breath-with • daydi-mich’ing’ [=‘what?-towards it’] why? because it-he speaks’] he whispers of what? • whijiw’-xiniwinye:wh [=‘(in) my ear-he talked’] he wide: nite:l it is wide, broad, spread flat; niwhte:l I am whispered broad (across the chest, hips); we:teh¬ I became broad; whistle: ky’o:diwhye:wh I’m whistling (at someone, xonte:l it (place) is wide, flat; there is a flat, prairie something); ky’o’diwi¬ye:wh he whistled widow: k’isdiya:n-chwing [=‘old person-sort’] widow • me’-ky’o’di¬ye:wh [=‘into it-he whistles’] (or me’- • je:ng’k’ilay [=‘she parts her hair’] a widow who has yehk’i¬yo:l [=‘into it-he blows in’]) a whistle (modern) let her hair grow out half-way, in a “dutch-cut” (¶ This • xosa:ng’ay [=‘it extends into one’s mouth’] a short signifies that she is in love with a new man and intends whistle made from the leg bone of a crane (xahslintaw- to get married again.) mits’ine’), used only by the obsidian bearers in the • me:da’ay-me’ [=‘her head (hair)-in it’] widow who White Deerskin Dance has not yet cut her hair white: ¬iqay it is white; widqay’ it turned white widower: do:lyaw widower • xo¬iqay (or xolqay) the whiteness in the sky before day- wife: wha’ut my wife; wha’ut-te [=‘my wife-(future break; xwe:diqay’ the sky is turning white with daybreak tense)’] my wife-to-be; wha’ut-ne’in [=‘my wife-(past • dilqay whitish, greyish tense)’] my deceased wife, my ex-wife White Deerskin Dance: xonsi¬-ch’idilye [=‘sum- wife-beating: k’isa’n he beats his wife up, abuses his mer-religious dance’] White Deerskin Dance wife, he’s a wife-beater; k’iwinsa’n he beat up his wife • hun’-q’eh-ch’idilye [=‘river-along-religious dance’] wiggle: wits’e:l it (snake, worm) slides, wiggles along; White Deerskin Dance, specifically the Boat Dance na:ts’eh it (baby, snake, eel) wiggles around, squirms; • xonsi¬ ch’idilye:-whing’ [=‘White Deerskin Dance’s- na:’usts’iw he wiggled around song’] White Deerskin Dance song (¶ These are sung wild: xoya:n it (e.g., horse, bull) is wild, shy, suspicious by a trio of singers, ta:q’in-ya’k’ita:’a’aw [=‘three of people; xowinya’n it has gone wild; xowe:ya’n I’ve men-(who) sing’], consisting of a center man who kicks gone wild (like an animal). See SUSPICIOUS the ground and two helpers, k’ich’o:ya’ne’ [=‘they wildcat: See BOBCAT help’], one at each side. Others accompany with he’he’ will: -te will... (future tense) (e.g., te:se:ya:-te ‘I will go off’; and yells of qeh qe:w! Time is kept by stamping. The na’wa:-te‘he will be going around, living’;hay-xwe:diq’i- songs have no words.) te ‘the way it will be done’; wha’ut-te ‘my wife-to-be’) • ma:-ch’iqa:l [=‘ahead-he walks along’] White Deer- • See BEQUEATH skin Dance leader, the person who leads the movement willow: q’ayliwh willow (Salix of the dance by carrying the fire from one danceground sp.) to another • qut the long tubular root of • xoje:wung-na’dil [=‘xoje:wung-they go around’] the the willow, used in basketry obsidian bearers in White Deerskin Dance • to:xo-tawe [=‘at the river-those • ¬e:na:wilay [=‘fires that are built’] the camps or that are around there’] willow q’ayliwh “fires” where food is served and people stay overnight bushes growing along the river during the White Deerskin Dance win (gambling): na:niliwh • See also WORLD RENEWAL CEREMONY [=‘carry (several things) across!’] win!; na:ne:lay I white person: yima:n’dil [= from yima:n-na’dil won (in gambling) ‘across-they go around’] white man, white people win (a race): nunteh win the race! run fastest!; • K’iwa’-mi¬ [=‘fur-with’, i.e., having a thick beard, na’tiw he wins, he runs fastest; na:’ustiw he won mustache; K’ is diminutive] white man the race; whiwun-na:’ustiw [=‘from me-he ran fast- • tse:¬ch’e’-mi¬ [=‘knife-with’] white person (archaic) est’] he beat me in the race, he ran faster than I did whittle: ’iwhwa:s I’m whittling, scraping something; wind: tehsch’e [=‘it blows along’] there is a wind blow- ch’iwinga:s [= from ch’iwingwa:s] he scraped it; ing; yinahch’in-tehsch’e [=‘from upstream-it blows’] nangwahs shave me!; xoda:w’-na:ywa:s I shaved his south wind, a bad, powerful winter wind; te:nch’e’ beard; kin-no:dwa:s whittled sticks [=‘it starts to blow’] there is a wind (coming up); na: who: dundi who? (interrogative pronoun); dundi-ne: k’iwinch’e it is windy; dahk’idiwinch’e’ it blows sing’ who is it?; dundá:ng’ who is it? lightly, a breeze blows whoop: xosa:sta:n-ts’iswa:l [=‘(with) his tongue-he window: ma’a:n-ch’itehs’e’n [=‘through it-someone beats time with a stick (as in the Flower Dance)’] he looks’] window makes a war-whoop windpipe: whisowo¬ my throat, windpipe why: daydi-wung (or diydi-wung) [=‘what (thing)?- wine: daht¬’o:l’-mito’ [=‘grape-its juice’] grape juice, wine concerning it’] what for? why? for what reason?; hayi- • de:nohq’it-xotse:lin’ [=‘Heaven, God-his blood’] wung [=‘that-concerning it’] for that reason, that is why (Christian) sacramental wine
  • 127. WINK/WORRY 108 wink: nina:’-’i¬qoch’ [=‘your eye-make it hollow, gaping’] leatus) (¶ The scalps of pileated woodpeckers (k’iya: wink your eye!; whina:’-seh¬qoch’ I winked my eye wh-me:da’ay [=‘bird-its heads’]) are highly valued and winter: xay winter; year; xay-ch’ing’ towards winter; used in ceremonial regalia.) xay-hit in the winter, wintertime; xay-me:q’ in the • ’isking-mina:k’iwilda:l [=‘fir tree-it keeps running winter, during the winter around it’] hairy woodpecker (Dendrocopos villosus) • ’a:dina:k’i¬chwe [=‘he makes something for himself’] • kila:gyah small woodpecker, California woodpecker he puts something away for the winter; xaych’ing’- (Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn woodpecker) mina:k’iwilchwe:n [=‘towards winter-what has been • yida:ch’in-k’itidmut’ [=‘from downstream-it flaps made for it’] things stored away for the winter along’] Lewis woodpecker (Asyndesmus lewis) wipe: ’a:diwundinchwit wipe yourself off (with towel)!; • king-k’idi¬tsay’ [=‘tree-it dries it up’] sapsucker, whiwundinchwit wipe me off!; ’a:diwun’diwinchwit smallest woodpecker (Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bel- he wiped himself off; xoning’-mi¬-wun’dichwit [=‘his lied sapsucker) face-with-he wipes off’] handkerchief woodrat: mixontaw’-xole:n [=‘its houses-there are wish: ’isdo’ (or ’usdo’) I wish...! (e.g., ’isdo’-na:te: plenty’] woodrat (Neotoma) sdiya ‘I wish-I (could) go home’; ’isdo’-whilink’e’ ‘I woods: tin-tah [=‘trails-among’] out in the woods, in wish-(that was) my dog!’) the forest, back country witch: See INDIAN DEVIL woodworm: king-qo:-ya:n [=‘tree-worm-eater’] witchcraft: See POISON woodworm with: mi¬ with it, accompanying it, by means of it; whi¬ work: nawhte’ I’m working; nulte’ work!; na:ste’ I with me; ni¬ with you; xo¬ with him, her; ¬i¬ with each worked, I have a job to do; na:’uste’ he worked; na: other; ’a:di¬ (or ’a:¬) with oneself; xoxe’-mi¬ [=‘his lte’ work, a job feet-with, by means of’] (going) on foot • yi¬chwe work, what one does (old fashioned word) • hi¬ (living) together with (e.g., t¬’iwh-hi¬-deh¬ts’e (e.g., whiyi¬chwe’ ‘my work, what I do’) ‘snakes-with-they (animals) live’; xochwo:-hi¬ ‘(he • k’in’til’its [=‘he pulls at something (with all his lived there) together with his grandmother’) strength)’] he works, helps get a job done; k’intil’its withe: k’iwidq’e:n a twisted, softened hazel withe work!; kinte:s’its I worked without: ’e:din without..., lacking... (e.g., whe:-’e: • wun-na’way [=‘for that purpose-he goes around’] he din ‘without me’; k’ich’indi-’e:din ‘without disease, is busy with it, works on it, is occupied with it; wun- healthy’; kya’-’e:din ‘without a dress, nude’) na:’asya’he was busy with it; wun-na’dil they are busy Wiyot: ta:ke’ [= probably ta:-ke’ ‘in the water-tail’] with it, are occupied with it Wiyot group at the mouth of Mad River; also the vil- world: ninis’a:n the world, surface of the earth, country, lage there mountain; ninis’a:n-me:q’ [=‘the world-inside’] all wolf: k’i¬-na:dil [=‘with some- over the world; ninis’a:n-mine:jit (or ninis’a:n-ne:jit) thing-they go around’] wolf [=‘the world-(its) middle’] in the center of the world, (Canis lupus) the center of the universe (in prayers); ninis’a:n-no: woman: tsumehst¬’o:n wom- k’i¬-na:dil ng’a:-ding [=‘the world-as far as it extends-place’] the an [= from tsung-mehst¬’o:n whole world, the farthest extent of the world; ninis’a: ‘apron-tied on to her’] n-na:ng’a’ [=‘the world-came to be lying there again, • tsumehst¬’on (a group of) women [= from tsumehst¬’o: resumed lying there’] the world assumed its present n-ni ‘woman-people’] position, shape (¶ There was once a flood and the world • do:k’iwile [=‘someone who is poor, weak’] old woman floated back into place as we have it now.) • xung’-t’e:n [=‘husband-having’] married woman World Renewal ceremony: ch’idilye religious • na:sdongxwe (or na:sdongxe) menstruating woman dance, World Renewal ceremony (general term). See • ’awhxich’e’ wealthy woman (archaic term) RELIGIOUS DANCE; WHITE DEERSKIN DANCE; JUMP DANCE womb: which’at’ my afterbirth, placenta worm: qo worm, maggot wonder: gya’awh I wonder (speculative particle) • qo:-ne:s [=‘worm-long’] Acorn worm (e.g., dundi-gya’awh-’úng’ [=‘who?-I wonder-it is’] • qo:-qot’ [=‘worm-bent’] inchworm ‘I wonder who it is?’) • qo:-dziwol-ts [=‘worm-round-(diminutive)’] a small • whung [=‘only’, used metaphorically] I wonder white worm that is found in acorns (e.g., xwe:di-whung ‘how, I wonder?’) wormwood: ni¬chwin-dilma:y [=‘it stinks-grey’] wood: chwich wood, firewood wormwood • k’i¬gide’ rotten wood worry: whije:y’-na:nt’un [=‘my mind-it flinched again’] • chwich-ni¬tsa:y dry wood I am worried; xoje:y’-na:nt’un he is worried; do:-nije: woodpecker: k’i¬dik’-kyoh [=‘it pecks-big’] large y’-na:wit’a’ni-heh don’t worry! Red-headed (pileated) woodpecker (Dryocopus pi-
  • 128. 109 WORTH/WRITE worth: mi¬iye’ it’s worth it; miwin¬iye’ it got to be to a character in the myth associated with the village of worth it ch’e:’indiqot’-ding.) wound: ch’iyah he’s hurt, wounded; ts’isya:t he got wrinkle: ni¬dits it is wrinkled, a wrinkle; niwhdits I’m hurt; se:ya:t I got hurt; xo¬yah I’m wounding him wrinkled; ch’iwi¬dits he got wrinkled (with a stick, knife, etc.); xoseh¬ya:t I wounded him; wrist: whila’-kin’ [=‘my hand-base’] my wrist ch’ixosyah he wounded someone write: ’a:k’iwh’e:n [=‘I’m doing something, making • na:xay it (animal) is wounded something’] I’m marking it with a design (paint, tat- wren: t’e’-diydi¬kyo:s (or de’diydi¬kyo:s) [=‘it puts a too, etc.), writing; ’a’k’i¬’e:n he is marking it, writing; blanket into the fire’] wren ’a:k’iwhlaw I marked it, wrote; ’a’k’ilaw he marked wriggle: nandiqot’ wriggle! flop around!; na:’usdiqot’ it, wrote; ’a:k’ileh mark it! write!; ’a:k’iwilaw it is he wriggled, flopped around; ch’indiqot’ it (e.g., worm) marked, written; a book. See PICTURE wriggles out; ch’e:’indiqot’ he wriggled out (¶ Refers
  • 129. X,Y,Z yard: See MEASUREMENT even if’] not yet (e.g., donq’e’eh-xahsya:ye:y ‘not yawn: ’iwhsa:l I’m yawning, gabbling; ’insah¬ yawn!; yet-it rises there’) we:sa:l I yawned yew: qawh yew (Taxus) year: xay winter; year you: ning you (singular); ning-’e:n’ you for your part, • ¬a’-me:nundiya:-dung’ [=‘one-it comes back-when as for you it is past’] the year before you (all): nohn you (plural), you all; nohn-’e:n you all yearling: chwe:y yearling of elk, spotted hide of yearling for your part, as for you all elk (archaic term) young: ch’iwhxiy young person (especially young yellow: da’kya:w-nehwa:n [=‘canary, oriole-it resem- man), child bles’] yellow (¶ This is a recent term. In traditional times • miwhxiy’ its (animal’s) young; misxiy’ (diminutive) the color yellow was not distinguished from brown or red.) • k’its’e:y the youngest child in a family; ts’its’e:y • dahmine’-nehwa:n [=‘moss, lichen-it resembles’] (diminutive) another word for yellow • miya:wh its (animal’s) young yellowhammer: minchwiwh-mil [=‘its nose, beak-mil’] your: ni- (possessive prefix) your (singular) (e.g., ni- yellowhammer, flicker (Colaptes auratus, common flicker) xontaw’ ‘your house’) yes: diye yes (exclamation) • noh- (possessive prefix) our, your (plural) (e.g., noh- • q’ut-xut that’s the truth, that’s really the way it is xontaw’ ‘our house; your (plural) house’) (exclamation) Yurok: k’ina’ Yurok; k’ina’-tahxw amongst the Yurok, • xa’ all right! okay! (exclamation) in Yurok country • he:yung yes (exclamation; old-fashioned) • yida:ch’in-ninyay [=‘from downriver-he comes’] yesterday: wi¬dung’ yesterday Yurok (¶ Less common term than k’ina’.) • wi¬dung’-na:yima:n-ding [=‘yesterday-over on the zigzag design: na:k’ixolq’its’ other side of’] day before yesterday [=‘cracked in zigzags, meander- • na:sda’undeh a few days ago ing’] basket design equivalent to yet, not: dongq’e’eh [= dongq’a’-heh ‘before-despite, the Yurok crooked or zigzag design • See also BASKET DESIGNS na:k’ixolq’its’