Session 7 ic2011 toppinen


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Session 7 ic2011 toppinen

  1. 1. The use of wood in the green building concept: a study of expert perspectives from the UK Lei Wang Anne Toppinen Heikki Juslin 15.6.2011 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE Background Purpose TheoriesData and methods Results Conclusions 15.6.2011 2
  3. 3. BACKGROUND• Change from “the business of business is business” to more ethical, more responsible and more sustainable business• Criticism concerning impacts of UK construction sector • Using 400 million tonnes of materials and 6,500 hectares of land annually • Producing 90 million tonnes of construction, demolition and excavation (CD&E) waste (19% of total UK waste) • Accounting for approximately 50% of the UK CO2 emissions • Responsible for a third of all industry-related pollution incidents • Accounting 40% of the total UK energy consumption• Emerging of the GB concepts (green construction, sustainable building or sustainable construction 15.6.2011 3
  4. 4. PREVIOUS LITERATURE• There is growing number of technical and case studies focusing on the environmental performance of using wood in construction (for example, Gustavsson et al., (2010) conducted a life cycle assessment on primary energy and climatic impacts of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building).• According to Holton et al. (2008) in the UK construction products industry, strategy context, purpose, process and content are unique between brick, steel and forest products, and developing generic sector sustainability is not feasible.• Only few business oriented studies regarding wood construction and GB (Gold and Rubik, 2009 studied consumer attitudes towards the image of timber as a construction material, and of timber frame houses) in Germany• There is lack of marketing and behavioural studies in order to determine how and on what grounds are wooden construction products and services perceived by different stakeholders. i 15.6.2011 4
  5. 5. PURPOSE• Examine the perceptions and foresights of construction experts in the UK with regards to the use of wood in the contribution to GB: • What is the current situation of the sustainable construction in the UK? • What is the current situation of the use of wooden products in the construction industry in the UK? • What are the key drivers and main challenges affecting the use of wood in the construction sector in the UK? 15.6.2011 5
  6. 6. DATA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY• Primary data: • 23 respondents from 18 different organizations in UK, • in-depth interviews (semi structured interviewing)• Secondary data: • Statistics, UK government program papers, • European Union LMI for sustainable construction• Qualitative research method, recursive abstraction -> Basis for a follow-up study & application Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi / Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 6
  7. 7. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND — Green Building• The narrow GB concepts often limit to environmental issues and construction practices such as material, technology, process etc. • natural building • sustainable design and green architecture • Modern Methods of Construction • high performance building 15.6.2011 7
  8. 8. BACKGROUND: BREEAM AS A PART OF GB IN THE UK• BREEAM is the world’s first and most widely used environmental assessment method and GB rating system (200,000 buildings certified, and over a million buildings registered for assessment)• Measuring the environmental impacts of any building in the following aspects: • Management, operational energy, transport, health and well-being, water, materials, land use, site ecological value, pollution GB rating systems Origin Year BREEAM UK 1990 BEPAC Canada 1993 LEED US 2000 GHEM China 2001 DGNB Certification System Germany 2009 15.6.2011 8
  9. 9. BACKGROUND — Share of TF construction in total housing in the UK: Share of TF construction1998 8%2006 17 %2011 25 %2016 ? 75% currentlyIn single family housing Scotland 15.6.2011 9
  10. 10. BACKGROUND — Measuring environmental soundness of wood• Reducing energy use during the building service life• Minimizing external pollution and environmental damage• Reducing embodied energy and resource depletion• Minimizing internal pollution and damage to health• Use of existing LCA tools 15.6.2011 10
  11. 11. Broader concept of sustainability?• The broader GB concept governs three pillars of SD: environmental, social and economic responsibilities (from Zainul Abidin, 2010) 15.6.2011 11
  12. 12. RESULTS—Development of GB in the UK (1)• People have become more concerned, and the concern of SC will increase: eco friendly houses, growing environmental consciousness, and use of environmentally friendly materials: less concrete & steel, more gluelam and I-beams• The concept of SC is a cost sensitive issue, and it has to be bonded together with the concept of affordable housing in order to improve the competitiveness • Lack of WTP for eco friendly houses • Developers: do not want to invest in some areas (which are on government agenda) because there are enough customers for their current products and business • Cost is an important issue, eco-housing has to be price competitive—affordable Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi / Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 12
  13. 13. RESULTS—Development of GB (2)• Sustainability has important place in UK governments agenda and the government is pushing the development of GB through policy development such as accomplish of standards, legislations, guiding lines, and assessment systems • The government tries to boost sustainable housing through legislation, and standardization will happen in this sector• Implementing SC is the main task of the construction sector, and it will keep growing in the future • Affordable/environmental housing will increase in the following areas: sustainability, eco friendly, recyclability, transportation efficiency, energy consumption, offsite manufacturing Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi / Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 13
  14. 14. RESULTS (3) — A progressive time for using timber in constructionTF Other wood products“Timber frame housing has increased around “Engineered wood products in floor zones isfive years, acceleration has started especially the only improvement in 5 years”in England”“Use of timber has increased and it will “There are more value added and engineeredincrease, especially in timber frame housing” timber products in the market, e.g.floor joists, I-Beams, open frame joists, gluelam beams”“It has been a positive time for using timber in “Clear growth of engineered wood products”construction, and can see a clear growth oftimber frame housing”“There is a fast / major improvement in wood “Increase in the timber frame systems, suchconstruction” as roof, frame, and floors etc.” Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi / Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 14
  15. 15. RESULTS (4) — use of wood in GB• Wood is a favourable material for achieve GB • Wood is like default in affordable and environmental housing. Wood could satisfy the demand of sustainability • Environmental housing will increase and wood will be part of it, it includes recycling, life cycle etc. Big house builder are beginning to apply affordable and environmental methods and that will boost the use of wood as well• The drivers which support the use of wood as the optimal solution for GB in the UK construction are: 1. Legislation 2. Environmental issues 3. Attitudes and traditions 4. Markets and competition 5. Promotion and communication 6. Technology and knowhow 15.6.2011 15
  16. 16. Some perceptions on key drivers:Legislation “Legislation will drive the wood usage in construction” “Emphasis and attention on timber (government) has made more difficult for buyers, users, specifiers and designers to specify/procure the timber which meet the policy and they attempt to use substitutes”Environmental issues “ Environmental message on low carbon impact and flexibility of timber use make it a good material in sustainable housing.” “Timber industry does not need to compare its products to substitutes. It needs to address/highlight its own credentials like sustainability, which is really the major driver / character. Having message “We are good because" rather than "We are better than others“.Attitudes and traditions “Timber has flexibility and can be easily adapted to different lifestyle. Future lifestyle movements in cities and towns changed the tradition and there is desire for more high class houses (except Scotland) of wood. “ “Timber has not been traditional building material in UK (until recent times).Reputation of timber as building material was ruined in late 70s and 80early 80s, by bad design and TV programs telling about that”Markets and “Olympics will be huge job and chance for timber industry. Timber industry should engage the whole value chain tocompetition show what you can do with the timber” “It is not enough to have good product, you have to invest for the production and marketing as well. Bigger companies have the money and they can make profit”Promotion and “Generic marketing like wood for good have affected the market and public behaviour”communication “However, timber is not easy material because it has so many characteristics and designers may be a little bit scared of it . You need to have much more knowledge in designing with timber when compared to substitutes. Industry should show how you can build with wood .”Technology and “MMC is like made for timber products. The potentiality is huge.”knowhow “Availability of education on wood construction is still low” 15.6.2011 16
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS The development of SC in UK refers to affordable, environmentally friendly, and socially responsible housingOikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi /Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS• Significant growth of GB in the UK construction sector, where wood has been a functionally suitable and competitive material.• TF is the major area of growth, and current trend in wood construction is changing from low value and low tech wood products to high tech and high value added products.• Legislation, environmental issues, attitudes and traditions, market and competition, promotion and communication, and technology and knowhow drivers have pushed the increase of wood construction and the concept of GB in the UK. Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta / Henkilön nimi / Esityksen nimi 15.6.2011 18