Session 6 ic2011 dykstra
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Session 6 ic2011 dykstra

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Session 6 ic2011 dykstra Session 6 ic2011 dykstra Presentation Transcript

  • Quality of Douglas-fir Lumber from ThinningsDesigned to Improve Habitat for Endangered Species Dennis P. Dykstra Research Forest Products Technologist (Retired) PNW Research Station, USFSUSDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Presentation Outline Siuslaw National Forest  Even-aged management issues  Focus on improving habitat for endangered species STUDS research project  Wood-quality research questions  Data collection  Simulated sawing of logs  Analysis of lumber quality and value  Management implications of results from the research USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon  Mid- to late-20th Century: emphasis on clearcutting and planting Douglas-fir  Little diversity in age, species, structure; increase in pests  Current emphasis: habitat for spotted owl, marbled murrelet; increase diversity  Aim is uneven-aged stands with multiple species, larger trees with large limbs, variable understory USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon  Mid- to late-20th Century: emphasis on clearcutting and planting Douglas-fir  Little diversity in age, species, structure; increase in pests  Current emphasis: habitat for spotted owl, marbled Hollingsworth, US F&WS murrelet; increase diversity  Aim is uneven-aged stands with multiple species, larger trees with large limbs, variable understory USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon  Mid- to late-20th Century: emphasis on clearcutting and planting Douglas-fir  Little diversity in age, species, structure; increase in pests  Current emphasis: habitat for spotted owl, marbled murrelet; increase diversity  Aim is uneven-aged stands with multiple species, larger trees with large limbs, variable understory USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon  Mid- to late-20th Century: emphasis on clearcutting and planting Douglas-fir  Little diversity in age, species, structure; increase in pests  Current emphasis: habitat for spotted owl, marbled murrelet; increase diversity  Aim is uneven-aged stands with multiple species, larger trees with large limbs, variable understory USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project Siuslaw Thinning and Understory Planting for Diversity Study Cooperative study (Siuslaw NF, Oregon State University, PNW Research Station) Three research sites, each involving:  Untreated control plot (1 ac)  Heavy thinning plots (2 x 1 ac)  Moderate thinning plots (2 x 1 ac)  Light thinning plots (2 x 1 ac) Thinning treatments were both with and without underplanting USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project Siuslaw Thinning and Understory Planting for Diversity Study Cooperative study (Siuslaw NF, Oregon State University, PNW Research Station) Three research sites, each involving:  Untreated control plot (1 ac)  Heavy thinning plots (2 x 1 ac)  Moderate thinning plots (2 x 1 ac)  Light thinning plots (2 x 1 ac) Thinning treatments were both with and without underplanting USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project  Stands clearcut early 1960s, treated with prescribed fire and herbicides, then planted  Precommercially thinned in the mid-1970s  STUDS Phase I commercial thinnings 1992- 1993: stocking reduced from 223-277 trees/ac to 30, 60, 100 trees/ac  Residual trees in plots given ID numbers, measured at years 0, 4, 8 and spring 2008  Phase II thinnings 2008-2009: further reduced the plots with 60 and 100 trees/ac to densities of about 30 and 50 trees/ac respectively USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project  Stands clearcut early 1960s, treated with prescribed fire and herbicides, then planted  Precommercially thinned in the mid-1970s  STUDS Phase I commercial thinnings 1992- 1993: stocking reduced from 223-277 trees/ac to 30, 60, 100 trees/ac  Residual trees in plots given ID numbers, measured at years 0, 4, 8 and spring 2008  Phase II thinnings 2008-2009: further reduced the plots with 60 and 100 trees/ac to densities of about 30 and 50 trees/ac respectively USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project—Wood Quality Study Is wood quality significantly reduced by thinnings designed to enhance habitat for endangered species? Are there differences due to thinning intensity? Are there differences between sites? Is there an effect due to the slope aspect on which the trees are grown? Are knots (i.e., branches) uniformly distributed around the stems of trees in the target area? USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS 2008-09 (Phase II) Thinning 2028 trees removed from the three sites Yachats Site Sample for wood- quality study: 3% of thinned trees + 5 = 66 trees (Yachats: 27) Random sample stratified by 4” Dbh class All sample trees yarded with cable systems USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project—Log TrackingPre-HarvestY2 = YachatsTreatment 2White ribbonTree ID = 1611Label with Y2-1611Paint atbreast heightMetal tree tag(1611) andchecked ribbon USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project—Log TrackingPre-Harvest FellingY2 = YachatsTreatment 2White ribbonTree ID = 1611Label with Y2-1611Paint atbreast heightMetal tree tag(1611) andchecked ribbon USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project—Log TrackingPre-Harvest Felling BuckingY2 = YachatsTreatment 2White ribbonTree ID = 1611Label with Y2-1611Paint atbreast heightMetal tree tag(1611) andchecked ribbon USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • STUDS Project—Log TrackingPre-Harvest Felling BuckingY2 = YachatsTreatment 2White ribbonTree ID = 1611Label with Y2-1611Paint atbreast heightMetal tree tag(1611) andchecked ribbon USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Effectiveness of Log Tracking  66 sample trees felled  184 sample logs bucked from the sample trees  179 sample logs tracked successfully to the landing  5 lost sample logs were all top logs with SED < 4 inches  1 sample log arrived at the landing with unreadable tags but was identified using data recorded during bucking USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Log Profiles & Surface Defects Spray paint, hatchet, clipboard Sweep offset at pointMeasuring tape of maximum sweep Offset to knot Chalk line running between log ends Log ID label (one on each end of log) Measured knots Pith painted white Orientation line for top and bottomLog longitudinal axes Peavy forlabel rolling logs USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Log and knot summary Butt 2nd 3rdAttribute All logs logs logs logsLogs 179 66 66 47Log LED, in 13.0 18.2 12.6 9.9Log SED, in 9.4 12.7 8.7 5.9Log length, ft 31.08 36.59 32.52 21.32Knots 10,970 3,904 4,627 2,439Knots/ft 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.4 USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Simulated Sawing with AUTOSAW  AUTOSAW—published by the New Zealand Forest Research Institute, 1994  Improvement on earlier FRI sawing simulators  Lumber recovery and grades estimated according to sweep, crook, wane; knot position, size, and frequency; other defects not considered  Adapted for WWPA Douglas-fir grades ~2000 (PNW Research Station and NZ-FRI)  Written for the MS-DOS operating system; runs in a DOS window in Windows XP but not in Vista or Windows 7 USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • AUTOSAW Data Requirements  Mill-length logs only (< 21 ft = 6400 mm)  Sawing data:  headrig & edger kerf  carriage dimensions  nominal and actual widths & thicknesses  trim lengths  3-dimensional data for each log:  Diameters at each profile point  Sweep and crook offsets  Location of each whorl along the log length  Branch data for each whorl (number of branches, location of each surface knot, radius of knot, rake angle of branch) USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • 3D Geometry—Bucking Logs USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • 3D Geometry—Bucking Logs USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • 3D Geometry—Bucking Logs USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • AUTOSAW Results WWPA Rule Autosaw Grade Joists & Planks A SelStr J&P Autosaw Lumber summary by piece size: Joists & Planks B No1 J&P Lumber Production Report Size Pieces Volume Pct 2-in Joists & Planks C No2 J&P 2x4 180 1354.67 98.4% Joists & Planks D No3 J&P Lumber produced from: 2x6 43 643.00 Joists & Planks E Econ J&P Short logs from Cataract 2 2x8 52 1137.33 LtFrame&Studs F Const LF 2 x 10 49 1368.33 LtFrame&Studs G Std LF Date of preparation of this report: 2 x 12 51 1804.00 Pct 1-in LtFrame&Studs H Util LF Friday, January 14, 2011 1x4 21 78.33 1.6% LtFrame&Studs I Econ LF 1x6 4 24.00 LtFrame&Studs J Stud LtFrame&Studs K Econ Stud 1x8 0 0.00 SpecDim L Scaffold1 1 x 10 0 0.00 SpecDim M Scaffold2 1 x 12 0 0.00 StrLtFraming N SelStr SLF Totals 400 6,409.67 StrLtFraming O No1 SLF StrLtFraming P No2 SLF Lumber Thickness, Autosaw StrLtFraming Q No3 SLF Log ID Piece ID in Width, in Len, ft Grade Board Feet WWPA Grade StrLtFraming R Econ SLF C2-1009-1-1 7A 2 4 18 N 12.00 SelStr SLF Common 1 Com1 C2-1009-1-1 6A 2 8 18 D 24.00 No3 J&P Common 2 Com2 C2-1009-1-1 5A 2 8 18 A 24.00 SelStr J&P Common 3 Com3 C2-1009-1-1 4A 2 4 8 N 5.33 SelStr SLF Common 4 Com4 C2-1009-1-2 8A 2 6 18 D 18.00 No3 J&P Common 5 Com5 C2-1009-1-2 7A 2 6 18 E 18.00 Econ J&P C2-1009-1-2 6A 2 4 9 Q 6.00 No3 SLF C2-1009-2-1 6A 2 4 14 N 9.33 SelStr SLF C2-1009-2-1 5A 2 6 14 B 14.00 No1 J&P C2-1009-2-1 4A 2 4 10 N 6.67 SelStr SLF C2-1009-2-2 7A 2 4 14 O 9.33 No1 SLF C2-1009-2-2 6A 2 4 9 P 6.00 No2 SLF C2-1009-2-3 4A 2 4 9 N 6.00 SelStr SLF C2-1013-1-1 11A 2 4 8 O 5.33 No1 SLF C2-1013-1-1 10A 2 10 16 C 26.67 No2 J&P USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Lumber Grade by Log Position USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Knot Density per Tree 4.0 Trees on South-Facing Slopes 3.5 Trees on North-Facing Slopes Cataract YachatsKnots per Foot of Merchantable Height 3.0 Wildcat 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Tree Diameter at Breast Height, inches USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Lumber Value Recovery by Tree 350 Lumber Value by Tree Cataract Observed Values 300 Wildcat Observed ValuesLumber Value, $/CCF Total Log Volume Yachats Observed Values 250 200 150 100 50 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Tree Diameter at Breast Height, inches USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station
  • Management Implications  Preliminary conclusions: analysis is incomplete  Apparently no statistical difference in quality of lumber from trees removed in the second treatment of light and moderate thinnings  Apparently no significant site effect  Possibly a slightly higher density of knots in logs from trees grown on south-facing slopes  Knots are not uniformly distributed around the tree bole; higher density toward the south  Thinnings do no major harm to wood quality USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station