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Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
Session 5 ic2011 brackley
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  • 1. The
Results
of
the
Alaska
In‐ Grade
Tes5ng
Program
 A
Presenta*on
Prepared
for
the

 Annual
Forest
Products
Society
Mee*ng,
Portland,
OR
 June
20,
2011
 By
 Allen
M.
Brackley,
Research
Forester
 U.S.
D.
A.
Forest
Service,
Pacific
Northwest
Research
Sta*on
 Valerie
Barber,
Director
 University
of
Alaska
Fairbanks
Forest
Products
Program
 School
of
Natural
Resources
and
Agricultural
Sciences
 Forestry
Specialist
Coopera*ve
Extension

  • 2. Acknowledgement
of
Funding
Funding
for
this
project
were
made
available
 from
the
following
sources:
1.  Direct
grants
to
the
Ketchikan
Forest
Products
 Laboratory
made
available
by
late
Senator
Ted
 Stevens
2.  Joint
Venture
Agreements
with
University
of
 Alaska,
Fairbanks,
USDA
CSREES
(now
NIFA)
 Wood
U*liza*on
Research
Program
3.  Joint
Venture
Agreements
with
the
U.S.
Forest
 Service,
Sitka
Wood
U*liza*on
Center

  • 3. Background
informa*on
 Alaska,
the
last
fron*er!
1.  Popula*on
2010
–
700,000
2.  Demand
for
Lumber
Products
–
100
mmbf
 annually

(68%
es*mated
as
dimension)
3.  97%
of
demand
for
dimension
lumber
is
 imported
(AMB
guess)
4.  Exis*ng
industry
–
many
small
mills
all
 over
Alaska,
with
few
medium
sized

  • 4. History
of
Lumber
Grading
in
Alaska

1.  During
period
1950
to
2003
most
of
lumber
produced
in
Alaska
 was
exported
to
Japan
–
Liele
interest
in
North
American
 Markets,
ALS,
or
US
Grading
Agencies
2.  Forest
Products
Technology
Center
(approx
1985)
was
formed
 at
the
University
of
Alaska
Fairbanks
(UAF‐FPTC)
 a.  UAF‐FPTC
advocated
grading
rules
for
Alaska
species
(White
 Spruce)
as
s*mulus
for
Industrial
Development

 b.  Alaska
Science
and
Technology
Founda*on
funded
a
 Grading
Project
(ASTM
D‐143,
STM
for
Small
Clear
 Specimens
of
Timber–
ASTM
D‐245,
Standard
Prac*ce
for
 Establishing
Structural
Grades
and
Related
Allowable
 Proper*es
for
Visually
Graded
Lumber
based)

  • 5. History
of
Lumber
Grading
in
Alaska
(cont’d)

3.  
UAF‐FPTC
project
made
reference
to
“Crea*ng
an
 Alaska
Grading
Rule”
4.  Chronologically,
UAF‐FPTC
project
took
place
ajer
start
of
 and
near
comple*on
of
the
ALS/In‐grade
Tes*ng
Program
5.  
Final
report
of
UAFFPTC
project
submieed
to
ASTF
in
 1995
and
reported
in
the
Forest
Products
Journal
Vol.
45
 No.
2
(78‐81)
(Syta
et
al.
1995)
 a.  Results
not
geographically
representa*ve
of
the
range
 b.  Suitable
only
for
a
local
geographically
representa*ve
 “grading
rule”
6.  Results
of
project
did
not
create
“Alaska
Grading
Rule”
or
 ASTM
D‐245
derived
strength
values
applicable
 throughout
the
range
of
Alaska
White
Spruce

  • 6. Alaska
In‐Grade
Tes*ng
Program
1.  1998‐1999
 a.  Ini*al
funding
 i.  Alaska
Science
and
Technology
 ii.  Special
Grants
(Stevens
Earmarks
–
Direct,
USFS,UAF)
 b.  Administra*on
‐
Alaska
Manufacturing
Associa*on
 (AMA)

 c.  Tes*ng
‐
Ketchikan
Wood
Technology
Center
 (KWTC)
 d.  Technical
Support
(Western
Wood
Products
Assoc.
 &
Forest
Products
Laboratory)

  • 7. AK
In‐Grade
Tes5ng
(Cont’d)
2.
1999
–
2001
 a.  Lab
provisioned
and
equipped
in
Ketchikan
 b.  Site
leased
at
abandoned
pulp
mill
–
supplied
by
 Ketchikan
Borough
 c.  Building
modifica*on
 d.  Equipment
purchased
installed
and
calibrated
 e.  Sampling
and
Tes*ng
Design
Accepted
 f.  Ini*al
samples
obtained

  • 8. Included
Alaska
Species
&
Ranges
1.  Sitka
Spruce
(Picea
s(chensis
(Bong.)
Carr.)
2.  White
Spruce
(Picea
glauca
(Moench)
Voss)
3.  Western
Hemlock
(Tsuga
heterophylla
(Raf.)
Sarg.)
4.  Mountain
Hemlock
(Tsuga
mertensiana
(Borg.)
 Carr.)
5.  Alaska
Yellow
Cedar
(Chamaecyparis
nootkatensis
 (D.
Don)
Spach)
Not
included:

Black
Spruce,
Western
Red
Cedar

  • 9. Sojwood
Species
that
are

 na*ve
to
Alaska
‐I
 White
Spruce
 Alaska
Yellow
Cedar
 Sitka
Spruce

  • 10. Sojwood
Species
that
are

 na*ve
to
Alaska
‐II
Western
Hemlock
 Mountain
Hemlock

  • 11. Sojwood
Species
that
are

 na*ve
to
Alaska
‐III
These
species
grow
in
the
State,
but
were
not
sampled
or
tested
 Western
Red
Cedar
Black
Spruce

  • 12. Sample
Matrix
for
Each
Species
to
be
Tested

  • 13. Late
2004‐2005
Work
Completed
Upon
approval
of
American
Lumber
Standard
Commieee
(ALSC),
results
published:
Western
Wood
Products
Associa*on
[WWPA].
2005a.
Species
marks
and
design
values
for
Alaska
species:
a
special
supplement
to
the
WWPA
rules
for
grading
sojwood
lumber.
Portland,
OR.
4
p.
Western
Wood
Products
Associa*on
[WWPA].
2005b.
Design
values
and
spans
for
Alaska
species
lumber.
WWPA
Tech
Notes
2005‐1,
Portland,
OR.
6p.

  • 14. Grade
Marks
and
Species
Groups
available
to
AK
mill
prior
to
the
Project
WWPA Grade Extreme Fiber Stress in Compression Bending "Fb" when used Tension Parallel Perpendicular to Grain Compression Parallel to Stamp Grade as Single Member to Grain "Ft" Horizontal Shear "Fv" "Fc┴" Grain "Fc//" Modulus of Elasticity "E" Design Value (psi) HEM FIR Select Structural 1,400 925 150 405 1,500 1,600,000 No. 1 & Btr. 1,100 725 150 405 1,350 1,500,000 No. 1 975 625 150 405 1,350 1,500,000 No. 2 850 525 150 405 1,300 1,300,000 No. 3 500 300 150 405 725 1,200,000 Construction 975 600 150 405 1,550 1,300,000 Standard 550 325 150 405 1,300 1,200,000 Utility 250 150 150 405 850 1,100,000 Stud 675 400 150 405 800 1,200,000 SPF??? Select Structural 1,300 575 135 335 1,200 1,300,000 No. 1 875 400 135 335 1,050 1,200,000 No. 2 775 350 135 335 1,000 1,100,000 No. 3 450 200 135 335 575 1,000,000 Construction 875 400 135 335 1,200 1,000,000 Standard 500 225 135 335 1,000 900,000 Utility 225 100 135 335 675 900,000 Stud 600 275 135 335 625 1,000,000 Western Select Structural 1,000 600 155 425 1,000 1,100,000 Cedars No. 1 725 425 155 425 825 1,000,000 No. 2 700 425 155 425 650 1,000,000 No. 3 400 250 155 425 375 900,000 Construction 800 475 155 425 850 900,000 Standard 450 275 155 425 650 800,000 Utility 225 125 155 425 425 800,000 Stud 550 325 155 425 400 900,000WEST WOODS Select Structural 900 400 135 335 1,050 1,200,000 & WW No. 1 675 300 135 335 950 1,100,000 No. 2 675 300 135 335 900 1,000,000 No. 3 375 175 135 335 525 900,000 Construction 775 350 135 335 1,100 1,000,000 Standard 425 200 135 335 925 900,000 Utility 225 100 135 335 600 800,000 Stud 550 225 135 335 575 900,000
  • 15. Species
Groups
and
Grade
Marks
now
Available
to
Alaska
 Mills!!!!!!
 Extreme Fiber Stress in Compression Bending "Fb" when Tension Parallel Perpendicular to Grain Compression Parallel to Modulus of Elasticity WWPA Grade Stamp Grade used as Single Member to Grain "Ft" Horizontal Shear "Fv" "Fc┴" Grain "Fc//" "E" Design Value (psi) ALASKAYELLOW CEDAR Select Structural 1,350 800 225 510 1,200 1,500,000 No. 1 900 525 225 510 1,050 1,400,000 No. 2 800 450 225 510 1,000 1,300,000 No. 3 475 250 225 510 575 1,200,000 Construction 925 500 225 510 1,250 1,300,000 Standard 500 275 225 510 1,050 1,100,000 Utility 250 125 225 510 675 1,100,000 Stud 625 350 225 510 625 1,200,000 HEMLOCK Select Structural 1,300 825 185 440 1,200 1,700,000 No. 1 900 550 185 440 1,100 1,600,000 No. 2 825 475 185 440 1,050 1,500,000 No. 3 475 275 185 440 600 1,400,000 Construction 950 550 185 440 1,250 1,400,000 Standard 525 300 185 440 1,050 1,300,000 Utility 250 150 185 440 700 1,200,000 Stud 650 375 185 440 650 1,400,000 SPRUCE Select Structural 1,400 900 160 330 1,200 1,600,000 No. 1 950 600 160 330 1,100 1,500,000 No. 2 875 500 160 330 1,050 1,400,000 No. 3 500 300 160 330 600 1,300,000 Construction 1,000 575 160 330 1,250 1,300,000 Standard 550 325 160 330 1,100 1,200,000 Utility 275 150 160 330 700 1,100,000 Stud 675 400 160 330 675 1,300,000
  • 16. Comparison of modulus of elasticity values “E” new Alaska species grades and previously existing WWPA grades. (Source: WWPA 2008; WWPA 2005b) WEST ALASKA WESTERN ALASKA ALASKA WOOD CEDARS YELLOW Grade HEM FIR HEMLOCK SPF SPRUCE & WW CEDAR Design Value (psi) Select Structural 1,600,000 1,700,000 1,300,000 1,600,000 1,200,000 1,100,000 1,500,000 No. 1 & Btr. 1,500,000 -- -- -- -- -- No. 1 1,500,000 1,600,000 1,200,000 1,500,000 1,100,000 1,000,000 1,400,000 No. 2 1,300,000 1,500,000 1,100,000 1,400,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,300,000 No. 3 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,000,000 1,300,000 900,000 900,000 1,200,000 Construction 1,300,000 1,400,000 1,000,000 1,300,000 1,000,000 900,000 1,300,000 Standard 1,200,000 1,300,000 900,000 1,200,000 900,000 800,000 1,100,000 Utility 1,100,000 1,200,000 900,000 1,100,000 800,000 800,000 1,100,000 Stud 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,000,000 1,300,000 900,000 900,000 1,200,000
  • 17. Comparison of extreme fiber stress in bending values “Fb” new Alaska speciesgrades and previously existing WWPA grades. (Source: WWPA 2008; WWPA 2005b) WESTERN WEST CEDARS HEM WOOD YELLOWGrade FIR HEMLOCK SPF SPRUCE & WW CEDAR Design Value (psi)SelectStructural 1400 1300 1300 1400 900 1,000 1350No. 1 & Btr. 1100 -- -- -- -- -- --No. 1 975 900 875 950 675 725 900No. 2 850 825 775 875 675 700 800No. 3 500 475 450 500 375 400 475Construction 975 950 875 1000 775 800 925Standard 550 525 500 550 425 450 500Utility 250 250 225 275 225 225 250Stud 675 650 600 675 550 550 625
  • 18. In
summary,

With
respect
to
all
material
except
hemlock
and
the
compression
perpendicular
to
the
grain
values
for
“Alaska
spruce”,
the
design
values
resul5ng
from
Alaska
in‐grade
tes5ng
were
higher
than
any
previously
reported
values
that
might
have
been
used
to
grade‐stamp
lumber
produced
in
Alaska.

  • 19. Literature
Cited
ASTM
Interna*onal
[ASTM].
2007.

Standard
prac*ces
for
establishing
allowable
proper*es
for
visually
–graded
dimension
lumber
from
in‐grade
test
of
full‐size
specimens.

Standard
D‐1990‐00.

Annual
Book
of
ASTM
Standards,
Vol.
04.01,
Wood,
West
Conshohoken,
PA.

Bannister,
J.;
Cur*s,
K.;
Barber
V.
2008a.
A
mechanical
evalua*on
of
Alaska‐grown
Sitka
spruce.
Forest
Products
Journal,
Vol.
58,
No.
9:
49‐52.
Bannister,
J.;
Cur*s,
K.;
Barber
V.
2008b.
A
mechanical
evalua*on
of
Alaska‐grown
hemlock.
Forest
Products
Journal,
Vol.
58,
No.
9:
45‐48.
Bannister,
J.;
Cur*s,
K.;
Barber
V.;
T.
Miller
2007.
A
mechanical
evalua*on
of
Alaska
yellow‐cedar.
Forest
Products
Journal,
Vol.
57,
No.
6:
19‐22.
Bannister,
J.;
Cheung,
K.
C.
K.;
Cur*s,
K.
2005

Determina*on
of
NGR
grade
lumber
design
values
for
Alaska
spruce
(Picea
glauca
and
Picea
sitchensis)
by
in‐grade
tes*ng
of
full‐size
lumber
specimens.

Prepared
for
considera*on
by
the
Board
of
Review
of
the
American
Lumber
Standard
Commieee.
Final
Revised
Version
February
7,
2005.
Ketchikan
Wood
Technology
Center,
Wards
Cove,
AK
29
p.
Unpublished
report.
On
file
with:
USDA
Forest
Service,
Pacific
Northwest
Research
Sta*on,
Alaska
Wood
U*liza*on
and
Research
Sta*on,
204
Siginaka
Way,
Sitka,
AK
99835.
Bannister,
J.;
Cheung,
K.
C.
K.;
Cur*s,
K.
2003.
Determina*on
of
NGR
grade
lumber
design
values
for
Alaska
yellow
cedar
(Chamaecyparis
nootkatensis)
by
in‐grade
tes*ng
of
full‐size
lumber
specimans.

Prepared
for
considera*on
by
the
Board
of
Review
of
the
American
Lumber
Standard
Commieee.

Final
Revised
Version
October
16,
2003.
Ketchikan
Wood
Technology
Center,
Wards
Cover,
AK.
29
p.
Unpublished
report.
On
file
with:
USDA
Forest
Service,
Pacific
Northwest
Research
Sta*on,
Alaska
Wood
U*liza*on
and
Research
Sta*on,
204
Siginaka
Way,
Sitka,
AK
99835.
Bannister,
J.;
Cur*s,
K.
2003.

Determina*on
of
the
NGR
grade
lumber
design
values
for
Alaska
hemlock
(Tsuga
species)
by
in‐grade
tes*ng
of
full‐size
lumber
specimens
–
prepared
for
considera*on
by
the
Board
of
Review
of
the
American
Lumber
Standard
Commieee.
December
8,
2003.
Ketchikan
Wood
Technology
Center,
Wards
Cover,
AK.
31
p.
Unpublished
report.
On
file
with:
USDA
Forest
Service,
Pacific
Northwest
Research
Sta*on,
Alaska
Wood
U*liza*on
and
Research
Sta*on,
204
Siginaka
Way,
Sitka,
AK
99835.
Brackley,
A.
M.;
Hale,
R.
A.
1970.

Working
stresses
for
Eastern
Spruce
structural
lumber
as
predicted
by
an
electro‐mechanical
stress
ra*ng
system
–
a
pilot
study.

Life
Science
and
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Sta*on,
Bulle*n
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University
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  • 20. Evans,
J.
W.;
Green,
D.
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Mechanical
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Evans,
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1988a.

Mechanical
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1988b.

Mechanical
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visually
graded
dimension
lumber:
Vol
6.

Eastern
Hemlock,
Eastern
Spruces,
Eastern
White
Pine,
Engelmann
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Idaho
White
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Jack
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