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Utilization of Textile Waste as CoreMaterial in Sustainable CompositesDavid DeVallance,Jody Gray, andHolly Lentz          ...
GOALS & OBJECTIVESThe long-term goal of this research:• Combine post and pre-consumer textile waste with  wood residues to...
BACKGROUND• In 2008, 12.4 million tons of textiles were generated  (United States Environmental Protection Agency 2009).• ...
EXPERIMENTAL: Process FlowPre and Post Consumer Textile      Waste Collection                                    Stage 1  ...
EXPERIMENTAL• Cotton waste textiles were collected from Phoenix Textile  and Apparel in West Virginia• The textile materia...
EXPERIMENTAL   Blending   Forming               Patent Pending
EXPERIMENTAL   Pressing   Final Products                     Patent Pending
Property Testing   Internal Bond Strength   Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture, MOR) and    Modulus of Elasticity (MO...
TEST RESULTS: Internal Bond Strength     One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed      a statistically signifi...
TEST RESULTS: Flexural Strength (MOR)   ANOVA results showed a statistically significant    difference in between composi...
TEST RESULTS: Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)   ANOVA results showed a statistically significant    difference in between com...
TEST RESULTS: Nail Withdrawal Strength    ANOVA results showed a statistically significant     difference in between comp...
TEST RESULTS: Thickness Swell     Panels that included textile core material had a lower      average thickness swell com...
TEST RESULTS: Water Absorption    One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed a     statistically significant dif...
Major Conclusions1. Addition of 5% recycled textile material to structural   panels did not influence mechanical and physi...
Questions?Acknowledgments:Environmental Center at West Virginia University forproviding support from a grant from US Dept....
References: Chen, H.-L and L.D. Burns. 2006. Environmental analysis of textile products. Clothing and Textile Research Jou...
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Session 26 ic2011 de vallance 1

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Transcript of "Session 26 ic2011 de vallance 1"

  1. 1. Utilization of Textile Waste as CoreMaterial in Sustainable CompositesDavid DeVallance,Jody Gray, andHolly Lentz Patent Pending
  2. 2. GOALS & OBJECTIVESThe long-term goal of this research:• Combine post and pre-consumer textile waste with wood residues to manufacture energy efficient interior and exterior composite materialsThe objectives in this project:• Collect and process textile waste from local sources;• Manufacture composite panels using a mixture of wood and textile material;• Study the impact of varying recycled content and fiber type on the mechanical and physical properties of manufactured composite panels;• Analyze the bonding performance between recycled textile fibers and wood material Patent Pending
  3. 3. BACKGROUND• In 2008, 12.4 million tons of textiles were generated (United States Environmental Protection Agency 2009).• 73 to 85 percent of textile waste (preconsumer and postconsumer) ending up in landfills (Chen et al. 2006, Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association 2009)• There is potential to recycle textile material as a partial fiber substitute in many wood-based composite materials• Use of recycled fibers presents an opportunity to develop sustainable composites that could achieve points under various green building programs Patent Pending
  4. 4. EXPERIMENTAL: Process FlowPre and Post Consumer Textile Waste Collection Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Textile Refinement/Shredding Shredding Shredding Shredding Shredding Wood Strand/Textile Blending Panel Formation (orientation of wood surface and wood/textile core material) Panel Hot Pressing Specimen Property Panel Hot Stacking/Cooling Preparation Evaluation Patent Pending
  5. 5. EXPERIMENTAL• Cotton waste textiles were collected from Phoenix Textile and Apparel in West Virginia• The textile material was sent through an industrial shredder four passes• Nominal 7/16-inch thick, 27-inch by 27-inch Oriented Strand Board (OSB)/Textile Fiber composite panels (50% surface and 50% core layers) were fabricated• The textile material was blended with mixed hardwood strand core material in varying amounts• Textile Percent (Wood/Textile ratio): 0% (100/0), 5% (95/5), 15% (85/15), 25% (75/25), and 50% (50/50)• 10 panels per type were produced for a total of 50 panels Patent Pending
  6. 6. EXPERIMENTAL Blending Forming Patent Pending
  7. 7. EXPERIMENTAL Pressing Final Products Patent Pending
  8. 8. Property Testing Internal Bond Strength Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture, MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) in Primary and Secondary orientation Nail Withdrawal Strength Water Absorption Thickness Swell 100% Textile Core (50/50 panels) excluded from mechanical and physical testing Patent Pending
  9. 9. TEST RESULTS: Internal Bond Strength One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed a statistically significant difference between composite panel types (p<0.0001) Multiple range test analysis showed statistically significant differences between the internal bond strength of all panel types Internal Bond Strength (psi) Summary Statistic 100/0 95/5 85/15 75/25 Average 51 41 20 8 St. Dev. 22 9 8 4 COV % 42 23 42 51 Minimum 8 19 9 1 Maximum 90 63 51 19 Patent Pending
  10. 10. TEST RESULTS: Flexural Strength (MOR) ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in between composite panel types in both orientations (p<0.0001) Multiple range test analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in MOR (primary and secondary) between the control (100/0) and 95/5 panels Box-and-Whisker Plot Box-and-Whisker Plot (X 1000) (X 1000) MOR-Secondary (psi) 5 5 MOR-Primary (psi) 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Patent Pending
  11. 11. TEST RESULTS: Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in between composite panel types in both orientations (p<0.0001) Multiple range test analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in MOE (primary and secondary) between the control (100/0) and 95/5 panels Box-and-Whisker Plot Box-and-Whisker Plot (X 100000) (X 100000) 5 MOE-Secondary (psi) 8 MOE - Primary (psi) 4 6 3 4 2 2 1 0 0 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Patent Pending
  12. 12. TEST RESULTS: Nail Withdrawal Strength ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in between composite panel types in both orientations (p<0.0001) Multiple range test analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in nail withdrawal strength between the control (100/0) and 95/5 panels Nail Withdrawal Strength (lb/in) Nail Withdrawal Strength (lb/inch) Box-and-Whisker Plot Summary 100/0 95/5 85/15 75/25 240 Statistic 200 Average 91 84 53 60 160 St. Dev. 52 40 32 30 120 COV % 57.0 47.5 59.9 49.7 80 40 Minimum 16 28 8 20 0 Maximum 225 205 143 121 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Patent Pending
  13. 13. TEST RESULTS: Thickness Swell Panels that included textile core material had a lower average thickness swell compared to the controls However, ANOVA results did not show any statistically significant difference between composite panel types (p=0.0637) Box-and-Whisker Plot Thickness Swell (%) Thickness Swell (%) 72 Summary Statistic 100/0 95/5 85/15 75/25 62 Average 43.9 41.4 40.2 43.6 52 St. Dev. 7.5 3.5 4.2 3.5 COV % 17.1 8.6 10.5 8.0 42 Minimum 36.0 32.4 32.4 37.8 32 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 Maximum 67.1 46.7 47.0 49.4 Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Patent Pending
  14. 14. TEST RESULTS: Water Absorption One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed a statistically significant difference in between composite panel types in both orientations (p<0.0001) Multiple range test analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in water absorption between the control (100/0) and 95/5 panels Water Absorption (%) Box-and-Whisker Plot Water Absorption (%) Summary 121 Statistic 100/0 95/5 85/15 75/25 111 Average 85.4 89.3 92.8 100.2 101 St. Dev. 7.7 3.3 8.4 6.6 91 COV % 9.1 3.7 9.1 6.6 81 Minimum 76.8 83.3 71.2 84.9 71 100/0 75/25 85/15 95/5 Maximum 102.5 94.3 108.7 110.4 Panel Type: Wood to Textile Ratio Patent Pending
  15. 15. Major Conclusions1. Addition of 5% recycled textile material to structural panels did not influence mechanical and physical properties2. Addition of recycled textile reduced thickness swell (needs verified again through repeated testing)3. Addition of higher percentage of textiles resulted in panels likely more suitable for interior applicationsOn-going researchResearch is underway to evaluate:1. Further evaluate thickness swell and water absorption2. Increasing textile layer density3. Inclusion of textiles throughout4. Evaluation of acoustical and thermal properties5. Different types of textile fibers Patent Pending
  16. 16. Questions?Acknowledgments:Environmental Center at West Virginia University forproviding support from a grant from US Dept. ofCommerce.Special thanks to Andrew Grubler (WVU) who assisted inthe project. Further Information: david.devallance@mail.wvu.edu Patent Pending
  17. 17. References: Chen, H.-L and L.D. Burns. 2006. Environmental analysis of textile products. Clothing and Textile Research Journal, 24(3), 248-261. Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association. 2009. Textile Recycling Fact Sheet, Retrieved November 17, 2009, from < http://www.textilerecycle.org/facts.pdf>. United Stated Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Textiles. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from <http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/materials/textiles.htm>. Patent Pending
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