Session 2 ic2011 miller-riffel
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Session 2 ic2011 miller-riffel Session 2 ic2011 miller-riffel Presentation Transcript

  • PRESENTED BY SCOTT MILLER PHD CANDIDATEPRIMARY RESEARCHER JIM RIFFEL, MASTERS CANDIDATELAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY WOOD SCIENCE TESTING FACILITY
  • Goal The broad goal is to identify new market opportunities for the region’s under utilized wood species. The purpose of this study is to assess whether wood treated using the ThermoForest Products Eco Dryer system produces the same changes in wood characteristics exhibited in other high temperature kiln systems.
  • Radial Variance Axial Variance100%90% 1 2 3 480%70%60%50%40% Range of Fraxinus nigra Marsh.30%20%10%
  • Closed Loop SystemDurability Stability Control
  • High Temperature Kiln Experiment 60 boards Control Stability Durability 20 Boards 20 Boards 20 Boards MOE, MOR, MOE, MOR, MOE, MOR, Compression, Compression, Compression, Hardness. Hardness. Hardness.Relative Density, Relative Density, Relative Density, Colour. Colour. Colour.
  • • RANDOMLY SELECTED 20 BOARDS PER TREATMENT• PROCESSED SAMPLES TO PRODUCE TEST SPECIMENS AS PER ASTM STANDARDS• SPECIMENS WERE STRATIFIED TO REPRESENT INSIDE AND OUTSIDE POSITIONS OF EACH BOARD• COLOUR TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING HARDNESS SAMPLES BEFORE DESTRUCTIVE TESTING USING A KONICA MINOLTA CR-410 COLORIMETER• MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTING WAS COMPLETED USING TINIUS OLSEN UNIVERSAL TESTING EQUIPMENT• TEST RESULTS WERE ANALYSED USING PAWS STATISTICS 18 SOFTWARE MOE / MOR Outside Outside Colour / Colour / MOE / MOR Inside Inside Trim Hardness Hardness MOE / MOR Inside Inside Outside Inside MOE / MOR Outside Outside Drawing representing ½ of one test board ACTUAL DIMENTIONS: 2.5 cm x 12.5 cm x 2.44 m Compression
  • • Homogeneity and normality were tested.• Significantly different between treatments for selected properties.• No significant difference between position, boards or interactions.• Changes in wood properties between treatments were homogeneous.
  • Cross section of untreated black ash at three Cross section of low temperature treatment black ashmagnifications: 130x, 1300x, 5000x (Riffel 2010) at three magnifications: 130x, 6500x, 14000x (Riffel 2010) Figure 15. Cross section of high temperature treatment black ash at three magnifications: 130x, 500x, 4300x (Riffel 2010)
  • 110.00 103.13 MPa Std Dev 12.28 96.75 MPa 100.00 Std Dev 9.70 90.00 77.40 MPa 80.00 Std Dev 16.31 Post Hoc Test 70.00 Subset 1 60.00M Subset 2Pa 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 .00 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 11000.0000 10030 MPa 9904 MPa Std Dev 1476.07 Std Dev 1559.70 10000.0000 9162 MPa Std Dev 1188.69 9000.0000 8000.0000 Post Hoc Test 7000.0000 Subset 1M 6000.0000 Subset 2Pa 5000.0000 4000.0000 3000.0000 2000.0000 1000.0000 .0000 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 80.00 69.48 MPa Std Dev 7.39 67.40 MPa 70.00 Std Dev 8.64 62.98 MPa Std Dev 5.56 60.00 Post Hoc Test 50.00 Subset 1M Subset 2P 40.00a 30.00 20.00 10.00 .00 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 7000 6150 N Std Dev 1068.09 5748 N 6000 Std Dev 1154.44 5000 Post Hoc Test 4225 N Std Dev 729.42 Subset 1 4000 Subset 2N 3000 2000 1000 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 700 614 kg/m3 623 kg/m3 597 kg/m3 Std Dev .047 Std Dev .037 Std Dev .043 600 500 Post Hoc Test Subset 1 400 Subset 2kg/m3 300 200 100 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • • REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED A CORRELATION BETWEEN TREATMENTS FOR SELECTED TEST PROPERTIES• MOR (LINEAR) y = -9.675x + 111.78 (LOG) y = -14.73ln(x) + 101.22 R² = 0.5216 R² = 0.3729• MOE (LINEAR) y = 433.81x + 8831.1 (LOG) y = 819.91ln(x) + 9209 R² = 0.8563 R² = 0.9441 y = 2.2125x + 62.192 y = 4.6039ln(x) + 63.867• COMPRESSION (LOG) R² = 0.4441 R² = 0.5935 (LINEAR) y = -962.59x + 7299.7• HARDNESS (LOG) y = -1626ln(x) + 6345.7 R² = 0.8983 R² = 0.7912 (LINEAR)
  • Durability Stability Control
  • ControlStabilityDurability
  • 80.00 66.8170.00 Std Dev 2.05 65.01 Std Dev 2.7360.00 Post Hoc Test 49.6150.00 Std Dev 7.97 Subset 1 Subset 240.0030.0020.0010.00 .00 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 9.00 8.24 Std Dev .8658.007.00 6.31 6.16 Std Dev .528 Std Dev .434 Post Hoc Test6.00 Subset 15.00 Subset 24.003.002.001.00 .00 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 20.00 17.72 17.6818.00 16.9816.0014.00 Post Hoc Test12.00 Subset 1 Subset 210.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 .00 Control 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • 20.000018.000016.000014.0000 Post Hoc Test Subset 112.0000 Subset 210.0000 8.0000 6.0000 4.0000 2.0000 .0000 180 Degrees 200 Degrees
  • USE COLOUR AS A PREDICTOR OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.• MOR AND E• MOR AND L• MOR AND a• MOR AND bUSE RELATIVE DENSITY AS A PREDICTOR• CONTROL MOR AND RD• THERMALLY TREATED MOR AND RD
  • • STABILITY – THE RESULTS SHOW THAT THE THERMOFOREST PRODUCTS’ STABILITY TREATMENT PRODUCED STABILITY WITH NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE TO WOOD PROPERTIES. – THE STABILITY TREATMENT PRODUCED AN INCREASE IN MOST MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, A SLIGHT COLOUR CHANGE, AND SUPERIOR PROCESSING PROPERTIES.• DURABILITY – THE RESULTS SHOW THAT THE THERMOFOREST PRODUCTS’ DURABILITY TREATMENT PRODUCED STABLE AND DURABLE WOOD WITH A SLIGHT REDUCTION IN WOOD PROPERTIES. – THE DURABILITY TREATMENT PRODUCED AN INCREASE IN WOOD DENSITY, MOE AND COMPRESSION WITH A SLIGHT DECREASE FROM CONTROL IN HARDNESS AND MOR. – THE EFFECTS THE SYSTEM HAD ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THIS TREATMENT IS SUPERIOR TO OTHER HIGH TEMPERATURE DRYING SYSTEMS. – THE DURABILITY TREATMENT ALSO GREATLY ENHANCED THE NEUTRAL COLOUR OF THE BLACK ASH CREATING A WALNUT LIKE RING POROUS FINISH.
  • • THERMOFORERST PRODUCTS’ HIGH TEMPERATURE ECO DRYER PROVIDES NORTH WESTERN ONTARIO AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY WOOD TREATMENT, WHICH INCREASES THE STABILITY AND DURABILITY OF BLACK ASH; WITH MINIMAL LOSS TO WOOD PROPERTIES.• FURTHER TESTING WITH OTHER WOOD SPECIES IS REQUIRED TO VALIDATE THE POTENTIAL OF THIS VALUE-ADDED DRYING SYSTEM.• IT SEEMS EVIDENT THAT TARGET CHANGES TO MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, ESPECIALLY COLOUR, CAN BE PREDICTED USING SPECIFIC TREATMENT PARAMETERS; INCLUDING TEMPERATURE AND DURATION.
  • THIS RESEARCH WAS COMPLETED BY JIM RIFFEL WITH THE ANALYSIS COMPLETED JOINTLY.WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK• LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT DR. MATT LIETCH DR. CHANDER SHAHI DR. JIAN WANG• THERMOFOREST PRODUCTS ED ROSE• JULIE HOWE