Session 12 ic2011 faller-unger

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Session 12 ic2011 faller-unger

  1. 1. LifeCycle TowerTimber high-rise research projectGeorge Faller and Martin Unger
  2. 2. LifeCycle Tower  Why timber ?  Why not timber ?  Unlocking the potential for structural timber  The LCT project – aims and characteristics  Technical developments  Fire safety design  Why timber2
  3. 3. LifeCycle Tower Why timber ?3
  4. 4. LifeCycle Tower - Introduction Timber as a structural material Difficult to find a more traditional structural material than timber 5-10% share of construction market Decline in 20th century, replaced by concrete and steel Sustainable solutions for buildings Timber 100% renewable Zero carbon emissions (carbon sink) Low embodied energy Sustainable in all phases of life cycle4
  5. 5. LifeCycle Tower – the life cycle manufacturing process Cut raw material and processing, also for generating energy procurement Transport and construction use lifetime use, maintenance and repair demolition Recyling and disposal source : institute for energy efficiency – lecture 11. timber construction forum5
  6. 6. LifeCycle Tower – construction comparison Example: Grimme-School in Brakel GWP (100) [Source: TU Dresden – lecture 11. timber construction forum – Prof. Haller] Reinforced concrete Timber crude oil [t] 2.040 t 470 t GWP (100) 54.000 kg - 41.500 kg negative emission - means that CO2 is saved and not released.6
  7. 7. LifeCycle Tower Why not timber ?7
  8. 8. LifeCycle Tower – negative perceptions FIRE Why not build more in timber? Infestation Tradition Cost Risk Discussion, Strength arguments,… Durability8
  9. 9. LifeCycle Tower – consequences Perceptions of timber Historical perceptions persist  Great Fire of London 1666, Chicago in 1871, ..... Limitations – 2nd rate structural material  Code limitations on max height of timber buildings  Timber associated with low rise  Little knowledge of timber for more demanding structures9
  10. 10. LifeCycle Tower – Performance Based Design “The building should be designed and constructed so that, in the event of fire, its stability will be maintained for a reasonable time,.... ...., as well as to allow fire fighters to operate.” removed code imposed height limits for timber construction10
  11. 11. LifeCycle Tower – the ConsortiumThe objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of acommercial timber high-rise construction of 20 storeys in adensely populated urban context at detail design level. project sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Traffic, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) within the ‘house of the future’ program11
  12. 12. LifeCycle Tower – sceptics Oxygen stream to the discussion timber after the glazing has broken Defining of the objective of protection Who takes responsibility for the Timber carries on approval on behalf ofWhat happens to the holes and burning after 90min the Authorities?openings, when the next tenant moves in? Will the fire safety How could the timber buildings measures still be effective? develop outside of the big cities? discussion: fire protection Vorarlberg Bregenz and ETH Zürich Prof. Fontana12
  13. 13. LifeCycle Tower – Fundamental research issue equivalent level of safety – timber compared with concrete or steel objectives Maximise the amount of off-site prefabrication Maximum flexibility of internal space Promote sustainable design, minimise the carbon footprint no compromise on performance13
  14. 14. LifeCycle Tower – building characteristics The LCT building design 20-storey high building Bottom 2 floors conventional construction Footprint of 27m wide x 43m long Building height 70m, 3.5m floor-to-floor Use as offices, apartments or hotel Structural concept Nucleus of solid load bearing CLT panels Solid timber perimeter columns on 2.7m grid Composite concrete-timber slab construction Span 11.3m; nucleus to perimeter columns14
  15. 15. LifeCycle Tower – modular construction Prefabrication cores, ceiling and facades will be delivered prefabricated Source : Renderings from creebyrhomberg15
  16. 16. LifeCycle Tower – the LCT-design dynamic examinations of the bracing system - according to ISO 6897 Internal solid timber core - according to NBCC consist of vertically installed - significant: sense of comfort gluelam beams in the hotel and living use as overall stiffening system Vertical load transfer from Horizontal loads (wind) are slab elements via timber transferred by continuous façade columns and concrete layer of the composite timber core slabs into timber core16
  17. 17. LifeCycle Tower – the LCT-design concrete ceiling (140mm) gluelam beam (80 and 160mm) Construction steps: 1. Erection of gluelam core elements (height approx. 30m) 2. Installation of façade (twin) columns for one level 3. Build in timber-concrete composite slab elements timber column between core and columns (240 x 500mm) 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3…17
  18. 18. LifeCycle Tower – the LCT-design structural shell of the building18
  19. 19. LifeCycle Tower – the LCT-design interior design of the building Source : Renderings from creebyrhomberg19
  20. 20. LifeCycle Tower – the LCT-design mass burning rate separation exposed normally 0,6-0,8mm/min at first protected (according to type of degree depends on timber and point of casing type action) after the plasterboard burned away, the mass burning rate is almost twice the normal rate, until the charcoal layer is about 20mm20
  21. 21. LifeCycle Tower – core concept concept – ground area step – core fire lift and 2 protected safety stair cases each with pressurization and lobby, no combustible surfaces21
  22. 22. LifeCycle Tower – concept (isolation) European K2 90 is not regulated in the EN 14135 fire protection casing In the Swiss fire protection regulations VKF casing with fire resistance capability is called EI 30 (nbb) up to EI 90 GL24h wooden (nbb) plywood wall size 12 – 30 cm Source : Lignum-documentation fire protection 9.1 fire break wall construction REI 90, SIA Lignum22
  23. 23. LifeCycle Tower – concept concept – ground area step – protected corridor peripheral protected corridor, separated into 2 smoke compartments, non-combustible surfaces23
  24. 24. LifeCycle Tower – concept The timber beams for the composite slabs are interrupted in the area of the necessary corridors, to create an installation zone with non- combustible exterior walls.24
  25. 25. LifeCycle Tower – concept concept – ground area step – use Area of use and use units, wooden parts of the load-bearing construction in timber visible and not isolated.25
  26. 26. LifeCycle Tower – beam-development oxygen stream caused by destroyed facadeQuelle :26
  27. 27. LifeCycle Tower – building and use Vertrieb- und sale and use Verwendung transport and building Transport und Bauwerkserstellung Nutzung use Betrieb, in use, maintenance Instandhaltung und and repair Instandsetzung Source : Institut für Energieeffizienz – Vortrag 11. Holzbauforum27
  28. 28. LifeCycle Tower – quality management example – quality management The Swiss regulate the QM over the Lignum code. Standard: Building with wood – quality safety and fire protection. For the research project a quality management analog to the quality control at step 4 in the Lignum documentation fire protection is intended. The quality management spans the design, prefabrication, montage and building phases as well as the organizational fire protection regulations in later use. The quality characteristics are determined by the project design, production conditions and conditions at site. Source : Lignum-documentation fire protection, - building with wood – quality safety and fire protection28
  29. 29. LifeCycle Tower – building site fire protection danger • higher risk for fire • storage of combustible materials • visible timber framework risk highest risk for fire in the first step of the construction measures • module-system, prefabrication • reduced individual work of tradesman • minimized storage • short building time • avoiding the visible timber framework29
  30. 30. LifeCycle Tower – Recyling ceiling fire experiment according to EN 1365-2 Banana effect – peeling of the single layers of the gluelam beams did not occur during fire test30
  31. 31. LifeCycle Tower – final words Why? Because…  we wanted to be economical with resources  timber is CO2 neutral  the modular building system is much faster  a high quality of elements could be guaranteed through significant prefabrication ………..31
  32. 32. LifeCycle Tower Thanks for your attention George Faller Leader Arup Fire Europe george.faller@arup.com Martin Unger Leader Arup Fire Germany martin.unger@arup.com32
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