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Expanding Vocabulary Handout

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*Handout - Teachers are constantly looking for new ways to introduce, review and assess vocabulary acquisition and retention. With Vygotzky’s theory of language acquisition as the framework, ...

*Handout - Teachers are constantly looking for new ways to introduce, review and assess vocabulary acquisition and retention. With Vygotzky’s theory of language acquisition as the framework, activities covering the noticing, recognition and production stages will be demonstrated. Participants will further develop activities, expanding the experienced teacher’s repertoire of practical classroom activities.

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Expanding Vocabulary Handout Expanding Vocabulary Handout Document Transcript

  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Vocabulary teaching and learning is a constant challenge for instructors and students alike. In this workshop we will demonstrate strategies that focus on introducing vocabulary and recycling these targeted words, both in the classroom, and through independent learning. Participants will be given an opportunity to expand on these strategies, leaving with an even greater variety of vocabulary activities to employ in their classrooms. Framework: Our framework combines Vygotzky’s three stages of acquisition with content-based and function-based teaching approaches. Within each approach we look at how to creatively include vocabulary (noticing) and meaningful ways to recycle (recognition and production). Each approach is further broken down into classroom and independent learning activities. We have provided tables with examples, specific to each acquisition stage and vocabulary teaching approach. Three Stages to Acquiring Language (Vygotzky, 1978): 1. from ‘not knowing at all’ to ‘noticing’ = noticing 2. ‘knowing if you remind and support them’ = recognition 3. ‘knowing on their own.’ = production Function vs. Content in language acquisition and now Counterbalance: • In the content-based approach, a theme or subject matter is presented and all vocabulary relates to this theme or subject matter. Vocabulary thus becomes meaningful as it relates to this context as opposed to random word lists. • The functional approach focuses more on the purpose of communication and how the word operates in the overall structure of the language. This includes knowledge about word forms (grammar functions of the word), word associations and collocations. • The counterbalance approach seeks to provide what’s lacking in the content and function-based approaches. Learners should be pushed in the opposite direction of their typical classroom and environment and learning orientation. This push helps build connections that improve the learner’s memory of the words. Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 1
  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Resources: Coxhead, A. (2006). Essentials of Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: a counterbalanced approach: Vol. 18. Language Learning & Language Teaching Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Morgan, J. and Rinvolucri M. (2004). Vocabulary. Oxford UP. Nation, P., Ed. (1994). New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Schmitt, D. and N. Schmitt. (2005). Focus on vocabulary: mastering the academic word list. White Plains: Pearson Longman. Seymour, D. and Popova, M. (2003). 700 Classroom activities. Oxford: Macmillan Education. Taylor, L. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Hertfordshire, UK: Prentice Hall International. Vygotzky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Watcyn-Jones, P. (2001). Vocabulary 2 games and activities. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited in assoc. with Penguin Books Ltd. Zimmerman, C. B. (2009). Word Knowledge.: a vocabulary teacher’s handbook. New York: Oxford UP. Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 2
  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Classroom Content 1. Students read passage while listening and circle three words they do not know. 2. Skimming and scanning for content-related vocabulary (words related to topic). 3. Students look up unknown words from reading in the dictionary and match to reading meaning 4. Students look up words in the dictionary and use the word to write sentences about themselves (Morgan & Rinvolucri) 5. Give students a list of idioms and show pictures, having them match idiom to picture. Noticing (Creative ways to include Vocabulary) 6. Guess meaning based on understanding of stem/root, prefix, suffix 7. Arrange students by vocabulary words - those in groups all have same word. Discuss meaning and have group explain to class. (Nation, 1994) 8. In groups, give students a word and different definitions. Have groups decide on correct definition. 9. Have students circle unknown vocabulary from reading. After they read, have them guess meaning from context clues. 10. Give students flashcards and have them place words in the correct order when listening to a text. (Coxhead) 11. Students do running dictation with vocabulary in sentence. When finished, guess meaning from context. Independent Learning T 1. Students read passage for homework, identify words they do not know, create class list 2. Students keep a vocabulary journal based on readings, TV, daily life, etc. 3. Students build vocabulary lists of specific words useful for their own studies. (Coxhead) 4. Have students rank words in order of what they think will be the most important for them. Classroom Function 1. Skimming and scanning for word function – i.e. parts of speech, prefixes/suffixes, targeted grammar 2. Have students notice patterns in word form tables and apply to vocabulary. (Schmitt & Schmitt) 3. Listen to a teacher-written monologue and have students write any phrasal verbs they notice. (Seymour & Popova) 4. Have students find collocations for specific vocabulary. (Coxhead) Independent Learning 1. Students look at word list and rate words from 1-4: 1- don’t know; 2-have seen but not sure of the meaning; 3—understand when I see or hear it in a sentence but don’t know how to use in own speaking and writing and 4—know word and can use in own speaking and writing. (Schmitt & Schmitt) 2. Students look at list and identify word form. Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 3
  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Classroom Content 1. Crossword puzzles 2. Gap fills 3. Grab the word – students in groups listen to definitions and grab flashcards when they match definition. Winner gets the most cards. 4. Back to board – student sits in front of class facing class, teacher writes word on the board and classmates give clues 5. Partner up by matching words and definitions (half of class gets word and the other half gets definition). 6. Partner up by matching words and definitions. Once find partner write interesting sentences. (Nation, 1994) Recognition (Meaningful Ways to Recycle) 7. Teacher asks questions using vocabulary words at the start of the class. 8. Students have conversations using the vocabulary words 9. Students present words, teaching to the class (focus on classmates understanding). 10. Have students match pictures to words and then describe how and why they matched pictures to words. (Morgan & Rinvolucri) 11. Have students guess meaning from context by inserting nonsense words into gap fills. (Taylor) 12. Have students write sentences on strips of paper, choosing a word from an assigned section of reading. Leave word out but provide context clues. (Nation, 1994) 13. Take student sentences/stories, blank out vocabulary and create a gap fill. Have students complete each other’s sentences. 14. Write anagrams of targeted vocabulary and use in sentence. Students guess word from context. (Watcyn-Jones) 15. Give students a list of phrasal verbs and show pictures, having them match phrasal verbs to picture. 16. Match words with antonyms and synonyms. (Coxhead) 17. Use flashcards to review word meaning. (Coxhead). 18. Have target word with sentences providing extra info. On separate sheet have more sentences. Students need to match sentences that relate to the word. (Nation, 1994) 19. Have students create flashcards and then switch with partners and review with their cards. (Coxhead) 20. Keep student written sentences from various activities and use as a review. 21. Teacher has sentences cut into strips with target word blanked out but with context clues. Students do running dictation; afterwards, they fill in the blank. 22. Groups of students write story using vocabulary. Cut into sentences, groups switch sentences and do running dictation. When finished, arrange sentences in correct order of story. 23. Describe a person’s traits and have a partner guess the adjective that correctly describes the traits (Seymour & Popova). Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 4
  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Independent Learning 1. Students keep journal of how and when they come across a vocabulary word in context 2. Students create flashcards. (Coxhead) 3. Have students rank words for importance to their major. Classroom Function 1. Give students highlighters—in different colors have students highlight word forms on word list or from reading (Meaningful Ways to Recycle) 2. Write phrasal verbs on pieces of paper with the verb on one and preposition on another. Have students match phrasal verbs. (Seymour & Popova) 3. Use flashcards to review word families and collocations. (Coxhead) Recognition 4. Have students rank/group flashcard vocabulary according to synonyms, antonyms or collocations. (Coxhead) 5. Have students write quizzes focusing on part of speech, word forms and collocations. (Coxhead) Independent Learning 1. Student bring prefix, suffix words to class 2. Students keep vocabulary journal of affix words. (Coxhead) Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 5
  • Susanne Rizzo and Julie Hanks University of Macau, English Language Centre Expanding Vocabulary Activities: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application 44th TESOL Conference, Boston, MA, USA Classroom Content 1. Students write sentences/stories using both words learned previously and new words 2. Each student draws a word: The first student writes one sentence with vocabulary, and then the next student uses vocabulary to create the next sentence in the story. 3. Students create games for other students. 4. Students write sentences using word and adding context clues. 5. Students present words, teaching to the class (focus on student). Production (Meaningful Ways to Recycle) 6. Have students write definitions for words from the point of view of a different person. (Morgan & Rinvolucri) 7. Have students create dialogues based on flashcard words. 8. Students read, then tell audience what they have read, including vocabulary words. (Coxhead) Independent Learning 1. Students write stories and then create a cloze 2. Give points to students for using words in presentations/essays 3. Students keep journal and try to use one new vocabulary word, and then reflect on how it went. 4. Have students use flashcards to produce sentences using vocabulary. (Coxhead) 5. Have students develop semantic maps, linking words they know are related to target vocabulary. (Coxhead) Classroom Function 1. Students write multiple sentences using various word forms to quiz each other 2. Teacher says one word and then asks students for another form of the word 3. Have students create words with stem/root, prefix, suffix cards Independent Learning 1. Students keep vocabulary journal or flash cards with word and other word forms, collocations, and word maps. Rizzo and Hanks, 2010 6